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Rice Cookers, Social Media, and Unruly Women: Disentangling Electricity’s Gendered Implications in Rural Nepal


Matinga, Margaret N., Bigsna Gill, and Tanja Winther. 2019. “Rice Cookers, Social Media, and Unruly Women: Disentangling Electricity’s Gendered Implications in Rural Nepal.” Frontiers in Energy Research 6 (January).


Authors: Margaret N. Matinga, Bigsna Gill, Tanja Winther


Rice cookers, social media, and television sets are commonly used in rural Nepal. In this paper we explore how gender norms condition the uptake of these artifacts, and the gendered implications of their uses. We draw on material from a household survey, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and key informant interviews, collected in 2017 in Dhading and Tanahun districts in rural Nepal. The results show that each of the three artifacts initiate distinct, gendered dynamics in terms of uptake, uses, and effects. Women’s use of electric rice cookers aligns with their gendered identity as cooks, helping them improve their gendered work and do not trigger resistance from men. In contrast, the use of mobile phones, social media, and television, prompt complex gender outcomes, resistances, and negotiations. Young people use social media to initiate self-negotiated marriages, shunning arranged marriages thus increasing their agency. It was reported that these self-negotiated marriages tend to be earlier (ages 12–14) than before, as young girls drop out of school to marry their chosen partners, thus threatening their empowerment. Access to television and internet has increased awareness about family planning methods, but persistent gender hierarchies hinder women from freely deciding on and accessing these methods. Women and youth pursuing new opportunities that challenge gender norms are sometimes labeled as unfaithful and unruly by others in the villages. The paper highlights the need to understand subversive responses to social and cultural changes mediated by electricity so that policy and practice can support the desired social transformations.

Keywords: gender relations, energy poverty, electric potential, women's empowerment, energy justice

Topics: Age, Youth, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Media, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2019

Women and Children Living in Areas of Armed Conflict in Africa: A Geospatial Analysis of Mortality and Orphanhood


Wagner, Zachary, Sam Heft-Neal, Paul H. Wise, Robert E. Black, Marshall Burke, Ties Boerma, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, and Eran Bendavid. 2019. "Women and Children Living in Areas of Armed Conflict in Africa: A Geospatial Analysis of Mortality and Orphanhood." The Lancet Global Health 7 (12): 1622-31.

Authors: Zachary Wagner, Sam Heft-Neal, Paul H. Wise, Robert E. Black, Marshall Burke, Ties Boerma, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Eran Bendavid


Background: The population effects of armed conflict on non-combatant vulnerable populations are incompletely understood. We aimed to study the effects of conflict on mortality among women of childbearing age (15–49 years) and on orphanhood among children younger than 15 years in Africa. 
Methods: We tested the extent to which mortality among women aged 15–49 years, and orphanhood among children younger than 15 years, increased in response to nearby armed conflict in Africa. Data on location, timing, and intensity of armed conflicts were obtained from the Uppsala Conflict Data Program, and data on the location, timing, and outcomes of women and children from Demographic and Health Surveys done in 35 African countries from 1990 to 2016. Mortality among women was obtained from sibling survival data. We used cluster-area fixed-effects regression models to compare survival of women during periods of nearby conflict (within 50 km) to survival of women in the same area during times without conflict. We used similar methods to examine the extent to which children living near armed conflicts are at increased risk of becoming orphans. We examined the effects of varying conflict intensity using number of direct battle deaths and duration of consecutive conflict exposure. 
Findings: We analysed data on 1 629 352 women (19286387 person-years), of which 103011 (6·3%) died (534·1 deaths per 100000 women-years), and 2 354 041 children younger than 15 years, of which 204276 (8·7%) had lost a parent. On average, conflict within 50 km increased women’s mortality by 112 deaths per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 97–128; a 21% increase above baseline), and the probability that a child has lost at least one parent by 6·0% (95% CI 3–8). This effect was driven by high-intensity conflicts: exposure to the highest (tenth) decile conflict in terms of conflict-related deaths increased the probability of female mortality by 202% (187–218) and increased the likelihood of orphanhood by 42% compared with a conflict-free period. Among the conflict-attributed deaths, 10% were due to maternal mortality. 
Interpretation: African women of childbearing age are at a substantially increased risk of death from nearby high intensity armed conflicts. Children exposed to conflict are analogously at increased risk of becoming orphans. This work fills gaps in literature on the harmful effects of armed conflict on non-combatants and highlights the need for humanitarian interventions to protect vulnerable populations.

Topics: Age, Youth, Armed Conflict, Gender, Women Regions: Africa

Year: 2019

Gender and Generation in Southeast Asian Agro-Commodity Booms


Park, Clara Mi Young, and Ben White. 2017. “Gender and Generation in Southeast Asian Agro-Commodity Booms.” The Journal of Peasant Studies 44 (6): 1103–10.

Authors: Clara Mi Young Park, Ben White


This article introduces the Special Issue on ‘Gender and generation in agrarian and environmental transformation in Southeast Asia’. The contributions to this collection focus on the intersecting dynamics of gender, generation and class in Southeast Asian rural communities engaging with expanding capitalist relations, whether in the form of large-scale corporate land acquisition or other forms of penetration of commodity economy. Gender and especially generation are relatively neglected dimensions in the literature on agrarian and environmental transformations in Southeast Asia. Drawing on key concepts in gender studies, youth studies and agrarian studies, the papers mark a significant step towards a gendered and ‘generationed’ analysis of capitalist expansion in rural Southeast Asia, in particular from a political ecology perspective. In this article we introduce the papers and highlight the importance of bringing gender and generation, in their interaction with class dynamics, more squarely into agrarian and environmental transformation studies. This is key to understanding the implications of capitalist expansion for social relations of power and justice, and the potential of these relations to shape the outcomes for different women and men, younger and older, in rural society.

Keywords: gender, generation, agrarian transformation, land grab, capitalist expansion, Southeast Asia

Topics: Age, Youth, Class, Agriculture, Economies, Environment, Gender, Land grabbing Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia

Year: 2017

Women in Post-Conflict Niger-Delta of Nigeria: Amnesty versus Restorative Justice


Abimbola, Foluke Oluyemisi. 2019. "Women in Post-Conflict Niger-Delta of Nigeria: Amnesty versus Restorative Justice." Journal of Law and Criminal Justice 7 (1): 23-34.

Author: Foluke Oluyemisi Abimbola


The Niger-Delta of Nigeria is known for violence and conflicts as a result of opposition of militant groups to oil exploration activities concentrated in this area of Nigeria. The militant groups are still agitating for a share of the oil revenue and for the development of their region. Women in the Niger-Delta of Nigeria have experienced different levels of violence and torture during these conflict situations. Some of the crimes perpetrated against women during these conflicts are rape, forced labour, sex slavery, and brutal murder of their family members. In addition, during conflict situations and even thereafter, the women experience a deeper level of poverty as a result of their inability to continue with their economic activities such as farming or fishing due to displacements caused by the conflict as most of the women living in the Niger-Delta rural communities are subsistence farmers. Following years of insurgency by angry militants against the Nigerian government, the amnesty strategy was eventually mapped out by the government of the day in order to give the militant youth economic opportunities to stem the tide of conflicts. However, the vast majority of women and girls who were and are still victims of these conflicts were not included. This paper shall highlight the need for restorative justice especially for women who are victims of the insurgency. Whereas amnesty seeks to give a better future to the militants, the women are unable to recover effectively with little or no means of indemnifying their losses. This paper proposes restitution or compensation for victims while creating constructive roles for victims in the criminal justice process.

Keywords: women, Niger Delta, post-conflict mechanisms, amnesty, restorative justice

Topics: Age, Youth, Agriculture, Displacement & Migration, Economies, Poverty, Conflict, Resource Conflict, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Governance, Justice, Torture, Sexual Violence, Rape, Sexual Slavery, SV against women, Violence Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2019

Gender Differences and the Correlates of Violent Behaviors among High School Students in a Post-Conflict Area in Indonesia


Fausiah, Fitri, Sherly Saragih Turnip, and Edvard Hauff. 2020. "Gender Differences and the Correlates of Violent Behaviors among High School Students in a Post-Conflict Area in Indonesia." Asia-Pacific Psychiatry. doi:10.1111/appy.12383.

Authors: Fitri Fausiah, Sherly Saragih Turnip, Edvard Hauff


Introduction: Adolescent violence is a public health problem worldwide. Studies show that challenging environments, such as poverty and war, increase the risk of adolescent violence. This paper aims to assess gender differences in violent behaviors among adolescents in a post‐conflict area in Indonesia. The other aim of this study is to investigate the correlates of adolescents' violent behaviors using the socio‐ecological framework.

Methods: This is a school‐based study involving 511 students from six randomly selected high schools in Kotamadya Ambon. Active and verbal violent behaviors and the potential correlates were measured and assessed using backward linear regression analyses.
Results: Boys were involved in more violent behaviors than girls. However, some of the boys and girls reported being involved in all types of violent behaviors. The most significant correlates of violent behaviors across genders were community violence exposure and some types of behavioral problems.
Discussion: This study highlighted the interconnectedness between community violence exposure and violent behaviors among adolescents living in a post‐conflict area. The study also emphasizes the association between problem behaviors and violent behaviors. The results demonstrate the importance of both reducing community violence exposure and identifying adolescents with behavioral problems in the prevention of violent behaviors.

Keywords: adolescent, gender, Indonesia, post-conflict, violence

Topics: Age, Youth, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Post-Conflict, Violence Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2020

Delivering Trauma and Rehabilitation Interventions to Women and Children in Conflict Settings: A Systematic Review


Jain, Reena P., Sarah Meteke, Michelle F. Gaffey, Mahdis Kamali, Mariella Munyuzangabo, Daina Als, Shailja Shah, Fahad J. Siddiqui, Amruta Radhakrishnan, Anushka Ataullahjan, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta. 2020. "Delivering Trauma and Rehabilitation Interventions to Women and Children in Conflict Settings: A Systematic Review." BMJ Global Health 5 (1).

Authors: Reena P. Jain, Sarah Meteke, Michelle F. Gaffey, Mahdis Kamali, Mariella Munyuzangabo, Daina Als, Shailja Shah, Fahad J. Siddiqui, Amruta Radhakrishnan, Anushka Ataullahjan, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta


Background: In recent years, more than 120million people each year have needed urgent humanitarian assistance and protection. Armed conflict has profoundly negative consequences in communities. Destruction of civilian infrastructure impacts access to basic health services and complicates widespread emergency responses. The number of conflicts occurring is increasing, lasting longer and affecting more people today than a decade ago. The number of children living in conflict zones has been steadily increasing since the year 2000, increasing the need for health services and resources. This review systematically synthesised the indexed and grey literature reporting on the delivery of trauma and rehabilitation interventions for conflict-affected populations. 
Methods: A systematic search of literature published from 1 January 1990 to 31 March 2018 was conducted across several databases. Eligible publications reported on women and children in low and middle-income countries. Included publications provided information on the delivery of interventions for trauma, sustained injuries or rehabilitation in conflict-affected populations. 
Results: A total of 81 publications met the inclusion criteria, and were included in our review. Nearly all of the included publications were observational in nature, employing retrospective chart reviews of surgical procedures delivered in a hospital setting to conflict affected individuals. The majority of publications reported injuries due to explosive devices and remnants of war. Injuries requiring orthopaedic/reconstructive surgeries were the most commonly reported interventions. Barriers to health services centred on the distance and availability from the site of injury to health facilities. 
Conclusions: Traumatic injuries require an array of medical and surgical interventions, and their effective treatment largely depends on prompt and timely management and referral, with appropriate rehabilitation services and post-treatment follow-up. Further work to evaluate intervention delivery in this domain is needed, particularly among children given their specialised needs, and in different population displacement contexts.

Topics: Age, Youth, Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Health, Trauma, Infrastructure, Humanitarian Assistance

Year: 2020

Health Services for Women, Children and Adolescents in Conflict Affected Settings: Experience from North and South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo


Altare, Chiara, Espoir Bwenge Malembaka, Maphie Tosha, Christopher Hook, Hamady Ba, Stéphane Muzindusi Bikoro, Thea Scognamiglio, Hannah Tappis, Jerome Pfaffmann, Ghislain Bisimwa Balaluka, Ties Boerma, and Paul Spiegel. 2020. "Health Services for Women, Children and Adolescents in Conflict Affected Settings: Experience from North and South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo." Conflict and Health 14.

Authors: Chiara Altare, Espoir Bwenge Malembaka, Maphie Tosha, Christopher Hook, Hamady Ba, Stéphane Muzindusi Bikoro, Thea Scognamiglio, Hannah Tappis, Jerome Pfaffmann, Ghislain Bisimwa Balaluka, Ties Boerma, Paul Spiegel


Background: Insecurity has characterized the Eastern regions of the Democratic Republic of Congo for decades. Providing health services to sustain women’s and children’s health during protracted conflict is challenging. This mixed-methods case study aimed to describe how reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, adolescent health and nutrition (RMNCAH+N) services have been offered in North and South Kivu since 2000 and how successful they were. 
Methods: We conducted a case study using a desk review of publicly available literature, secondary analysis of survey and health information system data, and primary qualitative interviews. The qualitative component provides insights on factors shaping RMNCAH+N design and implementation. We conducted 49 interviews with government officials, humanitarian agency staff and facility-based healthcare providers, and focus group discussions with community health workers in four health zones (Minova, Walungu, Ruanguba, Mweso). We applied framework analysis to investigate key themes across informants. The quantitative component used secondary data from nationwide surveys and the national health facility information system to estimate coverage of RMNCAH+N interventions at provincial and sub-provincial level. The association between insecurity on service provision was examined with random effects generalized least square models using health facility data from South Kivu. 
Results: Coverage of selected preventive RMNCAH+N interventions seems high in North and South Kivu, often higher than the national level. Health facility data show a small negative association of insecurity and preventive service coverage within provinces. However, health outcomes are poorer in conflict-affected territories than in stable ones. The main challenges to service provisions identified by study respondents are the availability and retention of skilled personnel, the lack of basic materials and equipment as well as the insufficient financial resources to ensure health workers’ regular payment, medicaments’ availability and facilities’ running costs. Insecurity exacerbates pre-existing challenges, but do not seem to represent the main barrier to service provision in North and South Kivu. 
Conclusions: Provision of preventive schedulable RMNCAH+N services has continued during intermittent conflict in North and South Kivu. The prolonged effort by non-governmental organizations and UN agencies to respond to humanitarian needs was likely key in maintaining intervention coverage despite conflict. Health actors and communities appear to have adapted to changing levels and nature of insecurity and developed strategies to ensure preventive services are provided and accessed. However, emergency non-schedulable RMNCAH+N interventions do not appear to be readily accessible. Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals will require increased access to life-saving interventions, especially for newborn and pregnant women.

Keywords: health services, health system, conflict, population displacement, North Kivu, South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo, maternal, newborn, child, reproductive health

Topics: Age, Youth, Conflict, Gender, Women, Girls, Boys, Health, Reproductive Health, International Organizations, NGOs, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo

Year: 2020

Gender Differences in Children Mental Health Disorders after Earthquakes in Iran: A Systematic Review


Seddighi, Hamed, and Ibrahim Salmani. 2019. "Gender Differences in Children Mental Health Disorders after Earthquakes in Iran: A Systematic Review." Journal of Community Health Research 8 (1): 54-64.

Authors: Hamed Seddighi, Ibrahim Salmani


Introduction: Earthquake occurs in the world every year and Iran is one of the most earthquake-prone countries in the world with the ranking of 15 between 120 countries. Children are the most vulnerable group in disasters and they have a number of negative symptoms after a disaster. 
Methods: This study used the systematic review method and followed systematic review principles. Mental health, earthquake, psychosocial, PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder, and stress were the keywords used to search in the Iranian scientific information database (SID), Noor Specialized Magazines (Noormags) and Google Scholar. The language of the search was Farsi and just Farsi articles were included in the review. 
Results: The result were presented in five sections (Psychosocial interventions, Signs of disorder, Gender, Age, Geographical area). It showed psychosocial interventions of those studied in reviewed papers were effective and there were gender differences in children mental health disorders after earthquakes in Iran. In addition, PTSD group, girls reported all the symptoms of PTSD more than the boys except anger symptoms, but the prevalence of PTSD symptoms in males was higher than in girls. 
Conclusion: Iranian studies just focused on male and female gender and found that disorders are higher in girls of different ages in childhood. In the age group of 13 to 18 years, the frequency of each disorder was less than that of the seven to twelve-year old group.

Keywords: children, mental health, earthquake, natural disaster, PTSD, gender

Topics: Age, Youth, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Health, Mental Health, PTSD Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Iran

Year: 2019

Gender, Social Capital and Adaptive Capacity to Climate Variability: A Case of Pastoralists in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions in Kenya


Omolo, Nancy, and Paramu L. Mafongoya. 2019. "Gender, Social Capital and Adaptive Capacity to Climate Variability: A Case of Pastoralists in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions in Kenya." International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management 11 (5): 744-58.

Authors: Nancy Omolo, Paramu L. Mafongoya


Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between gender and social capital in adapting to climate variability in the arid and semi-arid regions in Turkana in Kenya. 
Design/methodology/approach: This paper undertook literature review of secondary data sources, conducted focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIIs). The statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze data for the quantitative part of the paper. 
Findings: Vulnerability is influenced by age, gender, education and disability. Elderly women are considered to be the most vulnerable to climate variability and change because they are the poorest in the community, followed by elderly men, the disabled, female-headed households, married women, men and, finally, the youth. Less than 30 per cent of women and men in both Katilu and Loima are able to read and write. The cross-tabulation results show that there is a statistical significant relationship between gender, age and education level and climate change vulnerability. This implies that gender, age and education level have a significant effect on climate change vulnerability. 
Research limitations/implications: The research coverage was limited to only two regions in Turkana because of time and economic constraints. 
Practical implications: The lack of attention to gender in the climate change literature has time and again resulted in an oversimplification of women’s and men's experience of climate risks. Improved development assistance, investments and enhanced targeting of the truly vulnerable within pastoral societies demand an acceptance of underdevelopment in arid and semi-arid regions in Kenya because of historical imbalances in investment; the recognition that vulnerability of pastoralists is neither uniform nor universal and the need to consider differences like age, gender and education. Policy-makers should understand that pastoralists in the past have used indigenous knowledge to cope with and adapt to climate change. The current-recurrent and intensity droughts require investment in modern technology, equipping pastoralists with relevant information and skills to make them resilient to climate change and implementing existing and relevant policies for northern Kenya. 
Social implications: This paper draws from several other efforts to show the critical relationships between gender, social capital and climate change. They are tracking adaptation and measuring development framework; ending drought emergencies common programme framework; and feminist evaluation approach. 
Originality/value: This paper is important in identifying the link between gender, social capital and adaptation to climate change.


Keywords: gender, adaptation, climate variability, pastoralists, Turkana

Topics: Age, Youth, Agriculture, Development, Economies, Poverty, Education, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Feminisms, Gender, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Households Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2019

Girlhood, Violence, and Humanitarian Assistance


Namuggala, Victoria Flavia. 2018. "Girlhood, Violence, and Humanitarian Assistance." In Childhood, Youth Identity, and Violence in Formerly Displaced Communities in Uganda, 107-37. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

Author: Victoria Flavia Namuggala


This chapter concentrates on humanitarian assistance as a major component of survival during situations of displacement. Despite its contribution in saving lives, humanitarian assistance has its own controversies especially from the perspective of the beneficiaries. My discussion centers on such complexities concentrating on young women in northern Uganda. To bring this out clearly, I examine the nature of aid provided and how recipients conceptualize it, the gendered experiences involved and the sociocultural dynamics that inform the implementation of humanitarian assistance. I conclude that humanitarian assistance at times facilitates violence against young women characterized by starvation, sexual violence, survival sex, early and forced marriages, and increased spread of HIV/AIDS. This is due to operation through cultural patriarchal structures that sustain power hierarchies in favor of men.

Topics: Age, Youth, Displacement & Migration, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Health, HIV/AIDS, Humanitarian Assistance, Sexual Violence, Violence Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2018


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