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Women

Rural Women in Sri Lanka's Post-Conflict Rural Economy

Citation:

Wanasundera, Leelangi. 2006. Rural Women in Sri Lanka’s Post-Conflict Rural Economy. Bangkok: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Author: Leelangi Wanasundera

Annotation:

Summary
"The major objective of this review was to assess rural women’s situation in reconstruction and rehabilitation of agriculture and the rural economy in areas emerging from armed conflict. The purpose is to ensure that gender issues are incorporated and that reconstruction and rehabilitation processes do not bypass women. The review focuses on the Northern and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka and certain areas of North Central districts and Uva provinces that border the North and East. The primary focus is on the North East province that bore the brunt of the armed conflict for almost two decades" (Wanasundera 2006, 33).
 
Table of Contents:
1. Livelihood and poverty conditions in the conflict region
 
2. Rural women and livelihood activities
 
3. Social realities of rural women in the conflict region
 
4. Rehabilitation of agriculture and the rural sector in the North East
 
5. Implementation and performance for gender responsive rehabilitation 
 
6. Rural women's access to resources and assets in the conflict region
 
7. Conclusion and Recommendations
 

Topics: Agriculture, Civil Wars, Economies, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, International Organizations, Livelihoods, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Sri Lanka

Year: 2006

Women, Travel and the Idea of 'Sustainable Transport'

Citation:

Root, Amanda, Laurie Schintler, and Kenneth Button. 2000. "Women, Travel and the Idea of 'Sustainable Transport.'" Transport Reviews 20 (3): 369-83.

Authors: Amanda Root, Laurie Schintler, Kenneth Button

Abstract:

Women form an increasingly large proportion of both the populations of the US and of European countries. This, together with the changing role of women in modern society, has important potential implications for transport policy. Looked at from the micro level, women have different travel patterns from men, reflecting factors such as lower labour force participation, lower income levels, their traditional role in the family, the decision-making structure within households, the current age distribution and physical vulnerability. The situation is changing and this will have implications on transport demands. The female population is also, on average, getting older. Traditional travel modelling spends much time on modal attributes, such as speed and cost, but for many women this may not be the central issue. Security is often important. Standard traffic models only implicitly allow for gender (e.g. travel time is valued different from work and non-work trips). With the increased complexity of life styles and the growth in multi-purpose trips by women, the conventional approach to travel time valuation may need to be rethought. This paper looks at some of the emerging issues regarding women and travel and puts them in the context of the emerging ideas concerning sustainable transport.

Topics: Age, Environment, Gender, Women, Households, Infrastructure, Transportation

Year: 2000

A Gendered Perspective of the Shelter–Transport–Livelihood Link: The Case of Poor Women in Delhi

Citation:

Anand, Anvita, and Geetam Tiwari. 2006. “A Gendered Perspective of the Shelter–Transport–Livelihood Link: The Case of Poor Women in Delhi.” Transport Reviews 26 (1): 63–80.

Authors: Anvita Anand, Geetam Tiwari

Abstract:

Women form an important part of the workforce originating from the slums in the city of Delhi, India. The paper illustrates that women spend more time travelling on slower modes of transport to access work; the faster modes are more expensive. Their time–poverty demands they look for work at shorter distances from home. The basic argument presented is that their ability to contribute to the alleviation of their standard of living and their status in society is severely curtailed by their limited mobility and the constrained accessibility to the transport system of the city. This transport deprivation becomes further exacerbated by the process of forced eviction and relocation of low‐income households to the periphery of the city, causing the women to lose livelihood opportunities.

Topics: Class, Displacement & Migration, Urban Displacement, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Transportation, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2006

Cities through a “Gender Lens”: A Golden “Urban Age” for Women In the Global South?

Citation:

Chant, Sylvia. 2013. “Cities through a ‘Gender Lens’: A Golden ‘Urban Age’ for Women in the Global South?” Environment and Urbanization 25 (1): 9–29.

Author: Sylvia Chant

Abstract:

Although urban women generally enjoy some advantages over their rural counterparts, a range of gender inequalities and injustices persist in urban areas that constrain their engagement in the labour market and in informal enterprises and inhibit the development of capabilities among younger women. These include unequal access to decent work, human capital acquisition, financial and physical assets, intra-urban mobility, personal safety and security, and representation in formal structures of urban governance. But the nature of these varies for different groups of women, not only on account of poverty status and where they live in the city, but also according to age, household characteristics, degree of engagement in income-generating activities and so on. This paper reviews what we have learnt from the literature on gender and urban development. It discusses disparities in access to education and vocational training and to land and housing ownership through a “gender lens”. It considers service deficiencies and associated time burdens, which limit income generation among women. Violence and gender, and gender divisions in access to different spaces within the city and in engagement in urban politics, are also covered. These factors cast doubt on whether women’s contributions to the prosperity often associated with urbanization are matched by commensurate returns and benefits.

Keywords: cities, gender, inequality, poverty, property, slums, space

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods

Year: 2013

Women’s Representation in the UN Climate Change Negotiations: A Quantitative Analysis of State Delegations, 1995–2011

Citation:

Kruse, Johannes. 2014. “Women’s Representation in the UN Climate Change Negotiations: A Quantitative Analysis of State Delegations, 1995–2011.” International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 14 (4): 349–70. 

Author: Johannes Kruse

Abstract:

This paper examines which factors influence women’s descriptive representation in state delegations to the international climate change negotiations. Due to the gendered nature of climate change as an issue, it is important to study the representation of women in the negotiations and to examine its normative and functional implications. Theoretically, I propose to look at institutional, socioeconomic, and cultural factors as potential explanations for the variation in the proportion of women in state delegations across countries. I examine this variation by drawing on a dataset containing all member state delegations to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiations from 1995 to 2011. The theoretical arguments are then tested on these data using a fractional probit model. This is the first comparative study of women’s descriptive representation in international environmental negotiations. It contributes to our under- standing of the variation in women’s representation both over time and across countries. In particular, I find that women’s representation is higher in countries that enjoy a higher level of development and a higher degree of political gender equality. The effects of other institutional and socioeconomic factors such as the level of democracy or gender-equal development remain statistically insignificant. Cultural factors measured by regional proxies show that Eastern Europe and Latin America are positively and the Middle East negatively linked with women’s descriptive representation in delegations.

Keywords: UNFCCC, climate change, women, gender, representation, negotiations, state delegations

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, International Organizations, Political Participation

Year: 2014

Women’s Human Rights in a Changing Climate: Highlighting the Distributive Effects of Climate Policies

Citation:

Bendlin, Lena. 2014. “Women’s Human Rights in a Changing Climate: Highlighting the Distributive Effects of Climate Policies.” Cambridge Review of International Affairs 27 (4): 680–98. 

Author: Lena Bendlin

Abstract:

A women’s rights perspective can inform and structure research on climate policy impacts on women. To date, climate policy analysis has mostly considered women as agents of climate protection, that is, objects of mitigation policies, rather than subjects in their own right. However, climate change mitigation involves direct and indirect distributive effects depending on which sectors are involved, which instruments are chosen and how funds are obtained and allocated. Since gender roles impact on individual livelihoods and activities, distributive effects are likely to be gendered. This paper suggests that women’s human rights can be used as a framework for research aiming to fill this gap. They provide a well-developed, tested range of criteria for gender justice. Such assessments would allow for a more systematic and comprehensive understanding of the gendered distributive effects of climate policies, notably with regard to the particularly understudied situation in the industrialized world.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Justice, Livelihoods, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 2014

What about Gender in Climate Change? Twelve Feminist Lessons from Development

Citation:

Jerneck, Anne. 2018. “What about Gender in Climate Change? Twelve Feminist Lessons from Development.” Sustainability 10 (3).

Author: Anne Jerneck

Abstract:

Adaptation and mitigation are two key responses to climate change. In the global South they prompt many questions: what is the direction and degree of change needed? How can new climate change policies be aligned with existing development initiatives? How are core social relations such as gender understood and prioritized in relation to technical and other solutions? In search of synergies between adaptation, development and mitigation, this article asks a pertinent question for sub-Saharan small-scale agriculture in particular: what can adaptation and mitigation learn from development debates on social goal setting, institutional change and gender equality? From the perspective of sustainability science and feminist literature, three main findings emerge. First, as regards social goal setting, adaptation and mitigation should, like development, support the escape out of poverty, ill-health and food-insecurity. Second, as regards institutions, adaptation and mitigation should address how gender regulates access to, use of and control over resources in terms of labor, land and strategic decision-making power. Third, as regards gender equality, adaptation and mitigation should learn from how development in theory and practice has addressed gender, women, nature and the environment. At its core, the analysis contributes twelve salient themes that can significantly inform adaptation and mitigation in research, policy and practice, thus serving as inspiration for a critical debate on much needed synergetic trajectories.

Keywords: adaptation, climate change, development, environment, gender, sustainability science

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Security, Food Security

Year: 2018

Climate Change and Gender: Economic Empowerment of Women through Climate Mitigation and Adaptation?

Citation:

Bäthge, Sandra. 2010. “Climate Change and Gender: Economic Empowerment of Women through Climate Mitigation and Adaptation?” Working Paper, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), Eschborn. 

Author: Sandra Bäthge

Annotation:

Summary: 
“This discussion paper attempts to describe the potential that lies in climate mitigation and adaptation for the economic empowerment of women. It intends to discuss the aspects to be considered in order to enhance economic empowerment with the help of mitigation and adaptation measures and to contribute to the genuine advancement of gender equality as against merely cementing existing roles” (Bäthge 2010, 5).

Topics: Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year:

Gender-Aware Disaster Care: Issues and Interventions in Supplies, Services, Triage and Treatment

Citation:

Richter, Roxane, and Thomas Flowers. 2010. “Gender-Aware Disaster Care: Issues and Interventions in Supplies, Services, Triage and Treatment.” International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 28 (2): 207–25.

Authors: Roxane Richter , Thomas Flowers

Abstract:

Many non-medical policy makers, planners and response teams have in the past assumed the mass post-disaster population to be homogenous, and have staged disaster shelters and services that overlooked the specific needs of women. This has led to unnecessary suffering, discomfort and slower recoveries for female disaster victims. This research seeks to not only identify gender disparities in disasters, but also socially constructed and biological differences in health and behavior, and to emphasize interventions that could significantly reduce long-term care costs and recoveries. It is the authors’ contention that proactive “Gender-Aware Disaster Care”—coupled with supplies, services, triage and treatment—would facilitate more efficient interventions in mitigation, needs assessment, care and recovery for women and their families. Thus this work can make significant contributions to gender-aware disaster care and policies, especially among first responders, emergency managers, EMS crews and volunteer organizations that stage and provide shelter and services to evacuees.

Keywords: gender, disaster, women

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Health

Year: 2010

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