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The Role of Women in Conflict Resolution: A Case Study of the Niger-Delta Crisis


Osisioma, Ugochukwu Samuel. 2020. "The Role of Women in Conflict Resolution: A Case Study of the Niger-Delta Crisis." American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Research 4 (3): 317-24.

Author: Ugochukwu Samuel Osisioma


The peaceful and orderliness of any society cannot be divorced from the crucial role being played by women in their capacity as wives and mothers. In every society, women are not just being known as being peaceful, but in extension, they are also known as crusaders of peaceful means of settling any conflict. In this paper, efforts would be geared towards taking a critical examination of the role of women in pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial Africa. Special focus would be geared towards the role of women in the conflict resolution of the Niger Delta crisis. Taking into consideration the pervasive influence of menfolk in decision making processes in any society, the Niger Delta women have demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt through peaceful protests and other means to bring the Niger Delta crisis to a logical conclusion. The research paper seeks to bring to writing the impact of concerned female activists and environmentalist who helped in galvanizing support for the ending of armed hostility in the Niger Delta. This and many other issues relating to women‟s role in the peaceful resolution of the Niger Delta conflict would be the crux of discussion in this paper. In the main, adequate recommendation would be proffered to forestall future occurrence.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Conflict, Gender, Women, Peace Processes Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2020

Prevalence of Anxiety and Depression among Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Living in War versus Non-war Zone Countries: A Randomized Controlled Trial Assessing a Pharmacist Intervention


Alkoudsi, Kinda T., and Iman A. Basheti. 2020. "Prevalence of Anxiety and Depression among Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Living in War versus Non-war Zone Countries: A Randomized Controlled Trial Assessing a Pharmacist Intervention.Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 16 (5): 689-98.

Authors: Kinda T. Alkoudsi, Iman A. Basheti


Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a serious health problem. In women experiencing PCOS, there are myriad physical and mental health consequences; anxiety/depression are commonly associated with this condition. Community pharmacists are in a pivotal position to identify and help women diagnosed with PCOS. Objectives: To investigate the prevalence/severity of anxiety/depression among females diagnosed with PCOS living in Syria (a war-zone country) and Jordan (a non-war zone country). Secondly, to evaluate the impact of a pharmaceutical care service delivered by a clinical pharmacist on participants’ anxiety/depression severity. 
Methods: Females, diagnosed with PCOS above the age of 16, were recruited into the study and randomly allocated into either the active or the control group. The active group participants received a PCOS pharmaceutical care service. This service involved the provision of verbal and written educational materials, with a special focus on diet and exercise. The control group participants received only standard counseling. Both groups were followed up for four months. All participants completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory at baseline and follow-up. 
Results: Data from study participants (n = 118) from both Syria (n = 60) and Jordan (n = 58) highlighted a high prevalence of anxiety (Syria = 95% vs. Jordan = 98%) and depression (Syria = 83% vs. Jordan = 65%). At follow-up, active group participants, from both countries, showed significant improvements in anxiety and depression mean scores (anxiety: Syria = 34.97 ± 14.8 vs. 30.47 ± 14.3, p < 0.001; Jordan = 26.93 ± 13.7 vs. 23.37 ± 15.2, p < 0.001; depression: Syria = 26.53 ± 12.6 vs. 22.93 ± 12.2, p < 0.001; Jordan = 17.70 ± 11.0 vs. 15.76 ± 11.1, p = 0.049). No significant improvements were evident for control group participants from either countries. 
Conclusion: Prevalence of anxiety/depression for females with PCOS living in Syria and in Jordan is high and calls for special attention by healthcare specialists and policymakers in both countries. Females, who received the PCOS pharmaceutical care service, showed significant improvements in anxiety/depression scores. Improvements were similar in both countries.

Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome, war, anxiety, depression

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, Reproductive Health Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Jordan, Syria

Year: 2020

A Qualitative Study of Women’s Lived Experiences of Conflict and Domestic Violence in Afghanistan


Mannell, Jenevieve, Gulraj Grewal, Lida Ahmad, and Ayesha Ahmad. 2020. "A Qualitative Study of Women’s Lived Experiences of Conflict and Domestic Violence in Afghanistan." Violence Against Women. doi:10.1177/1077801220935191.

Authors: Jenevieve Mannell, Gulraj Grewal, Lida Ahmad, Ayesha Ahmad


This article empirically explores women’s lived experiences of domestic violence and conflict in Afghanistan. A thematic analysis of 20 semistructured interviews with women living in safe houses produced three main themes about the relationship between conflict and domestic violence: (a) violence from loss of patriarchal support, (b) violence from the drug trade as an economic driver, and (c) violence from conflict-related poverty. We discuss the bidirectional nature of this relationship: Not only does conflict contribute to domestic violence, but domestic violence contributes to conflict through justifying armed intervention, separating women from economic and public life, and perpetuating patriarchy.

Keywords: domestic violence, Afghanistan, lived experience, patriarchy, armed conflict

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Conflict, Domestic Violence, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan

Year: 2020

Colombian People's Willingness to Forgive Offenses against Women Perpetrated during the Armed Conflict


Pineda-Marín, Claudia, María Teresa Muñoz-Sastre, Diana Gutiérrez Villamarín, Carolina Espitia M., and Etienne Mullet. 2019. "Colombian People's Willingness to Forgive Offenses against Women Perpetrated during the Armed Conflict." Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología 51 (3): 226-35.

Authors: Claudia Pineda-Marín, María Teresa Munoz Sastre, Diana Gutiérrez Villamarín, Carolina Espitia M, Etienne Mullet


We examined the Colombian people’s positions on forgiving perpetrators of offenses against women during the armed conflict, and the relationship between willingness to forgive and attitudes towards the peace process. The majority of participants (61%) were quite unwilling to forgive. Among participants who were not completely hostile, three positions were found. For 18%, forgiving mainly depended on the type of crime, for 8%, it depended on the subsequent apologetic behaviour, and for 8%, forgiving was unconditional. Participants who did not reject the possibility of forgiveness expressed significantly more positive views regarding the current peace process than participants who expressed rejection.
Este estudio examinó la disposición a perdonar de personas comunes colombianas frente a los crímenes en contra de las mujeres, durante el contexto del conflicto armado colombiano. También estudió las relaciones entre la disposición a perdonar y las actitudes frente al proceso de paz. Se observó que la mayoría de los participantes (61%) tienen muy baja disposición a perdonar. Entre los participantes que no fueron completamente hostiles, se observaron tres posiciones: un 18% estaba dispuesto a perdonar en función del tipo de crimen, para el 8% su disposición a perdonar dependía de la conducta de disculpas por parte del ofensor, y para el 8% el perdón fue incondicional. Los participantes que no rechazaban la posibilidad de perdonar, expresaron de manera significativa perspectivas más positivas frente al actual proceso de paz que los aquellos quienes expresaron rechazo.

Keywords: Colombia, armed conflict, FARC, Violence against women, forgiveness, Conflicto Armado, perdón, violencia contra las mujeres

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Peace Processes Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2019

"Now We Have Equality": A Feminist Political Ecology Analysis of Carbon Markets in Oaxaca, Mexico


Gay-Antaki, Miriam. 2016. “‘Now We Have Equality’: A Feminist Political Ecology Analysis of Carbon Markets in Oaxaca, Mexico.” Journal of Latin American Geography 15 (3): 49-66.

Author: Miriam Gay-Antaki



Carbon projects follow a neoliberal logic that stresses that nature is best conserved via market mechanisms. Studies and experiences of the impacts of development projects on communities and feminist political ecologies suggest that women, the elderly, the young, the poor, and the indigenous often perceive projects differently, benefit and lose in different ways, or shape the projects on the ground to fit their needs. Carbon projects have differentiated impacts within a community especially on the poor, women, and ecology; however, these differences do not tend to be the main focus of scholarship. The research presented here focuses on the effects of a wind project and a small scale reforestation project and the convergence of environment, gender and development as these are introduced into communities in Oaxaca, Mexico. This paper expands on carbon offset literature in Mexico by looking at the differential impacts of technologies on geographies and people with specific attention to gender. I find that there are important gendered differences between the wind and the forest projects, and suggest that a Feminist Political Ecology perspective is a necessary, though infrequently employed, lens through which to understand the impacts of carbon markets.


Los proyectos de carbono siguen una lógica neoliberal que mantiene que la mejor manera de conservar a la naturaleza es a través de mecanismos de mercado. Estudios y experiencias de los impactos de proyectos de desarrollo en las comunidades y ecologías políticas feministas sugieren que las mujeres, los ancianos, los jóvenes, los pobres y los indígenas a menudo perciben los proyectos de manera diferente, ganan ó pierden de manera diferente, o adaptan los proyectos para satisfacer a sus necesidades. Se ha documentado que los proyectos de carbono tienen impactos diferenciados dentro de comunidades, especialmente sobre los pobres, las mujeres, y la ecología; Sin embargo, estas diferencias no tienden a ser el foco principal. La investigación que se presenta aquí se centra en un mega proyecto eólico y dos proyectos de reforestación de pequeña escala y se enfoca en la convergencia del medio ambiente, de género y desarrollo, al ser introducidos en las comunidades de Oaxaca, México. Este trabajo busca expandir la literatura sobre los mercados de carbono en México con un enfoque en los impactos diferenciales de las tecnologías, la geografía y en las personas con atención especial al género. Encuentro que hay diferencias de género importantes entre: los proyectos forestales y el de viento y, si están bajo un esquema de Mecanismo de Desarrollo Limpio o un mecanismo voluntario, la escala del proyecto y el grado en el que está involucrada la comunidad.

Keywords: carbon projects, feminist political ecology, Oaxaca

Topics: Age, Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Women, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2016

Hawks and Doves in Sudan's Armed Conflict: Al-Hakkamat Baggara Women of Darfur


Musa, Suad M. E. 2018. Hawks and Doves in Sudan's Armed Conflict: Al-Hakkamat Baggara Women of Darfur. Boydell & Brewer.

Author: Suad M. E. Musa

Keywords: Eastern Africa series, African studies, politics & economics, women's & gender studies


Al-Hakkamat Baggara women hold an instrumental position in rural Sudan, wielding agency, social and political power. This book uncovers their significant, but widely overlooked, role during the war in Darfur from the 1970s to today's continuing conflict. The author examines the influence they exercised through composing and reciting poems and songs, informal speech and other symbolic acts, and analyses their impact in the social and political domains. Challenging the pervasive portrayal of women as natural peacebuilders and their roles as passive and submissive, the author highlights how Sudan's state government co-opted al-Hakkamat Baggara women to lobby on its behalf, to rally for war and to advocate for peace. Understanding how they can contribute to the resolution and resettlement processes is vital to sustainable reconciliation and post-conflict transformation of the unstable state. (Summary from Boydell & Brewer)
Table of Contents:
Preface: Conflict in Darfur and the role of Darfuri Rural Women
Ethnicity and Administration in Darfur
Conflict in Darfur: Causes and Implications
Al-Hakkamat Women
Local Inter-Ethnic Conflicts
Government and Racial Assimilation of Ethnic Groups
Liaising with Government
New Duties and Obligations
Roles in Peace and Reconciliation
Urban Identity and Social Change
Appendix: Chronology of Darfur 1445-2017

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Governance, Post-Conflict, Peacebuilding Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Sudan

Year: 2018

Violence against Displaced Syrian Women in Lebanon


Usta, Jinan, Amelia Reese Masterson, and JoAnn M. Farver. 2019. "Violence against Displaced Syrian Women in Lebanon." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 34 (18): 3767-79.

Authors: Jinan Usta, Amelia Reese Masterson, JoAnn M. Farver


This study used focus group discussions to explore 29 Syrian women’s experiences of being displaced refugees in Lebanon. Women reported intimate partner violence (IPV), harassment, and community violence. They experienced difficult living conditions characterized by crowding and lack of privacy, adult unemployment, and overall feelings of helplessness. Most frequently, they used negative coping strategies, including justification and acceptance of IPV and often physically harmed their own children due to heightened stress. Some sought support from other Syrian refugee women. Although the study did not address the root causes of IPV, the results shed light on women’s experiences and indicate that training them in positive coping strategies and establishing support groups would help them face IPV that occurs in refugee settings.

Keywords: refugee, crowding, Intimate partner violence, Syria, Lebanon

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Domestic Violence, Gender, Women, Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Lebanon, Syria

Year: 2019

The Political Economy of Conflict and Violence against Women: Towards Feminist Framings from the South


Samuel, Kumudini, Claire Slatter, and Vagisha Gunasekara, eds. 2019. The Political Economy of Conflict and Violence against Women: Towards Feminist Framings from the South. Zed Books.

Authors: Kumudini Samuel, Claire Slatter, Vagisha Gunasekara


The Political Economy of Conflict and Violence against Women shows how political, economic, social and ideological processes intersect to shape conflict related gender-based violence against women. Through feminist interrogations of the politics of economies, struggles for political power and the gender order, this collection reveals how sexual orders and regimes are linked to spaces of production. Crucially it argues that these spaces are themselves firmly anchored in overlapping patriarchies which are sustained and reproduced during and after war through violence that is physical as well as structural.
Through an analysis of legal regimes and structures of social arrangements, this book frames militarization as a political economic dynamic, developing a radical critique of liberal peace building and peace making that does not challenge patriarchy, or modes of production and accumulation. 
This book brings together the work of a group of feminists from the global South. The authors are diverse in their backgrounds, experience, and academic and disciplinary orientations. They work in different political, economic, social and cultural contexts and some have approached writing about the political economies of violence against women in their own countries as much (or more) from lived experience and experiential insights as from formal or scholarly research, which we consider entirely valid and in keeping with feminist epistemology. (Summary from DAWN)
Table of Contents:
Introduction: Framing a South Feminist Analysis of War, Conflict and Violence against Women: The Value of a Political Economy Lens by Kumudini Samuel and Vagisha Gunasekara
The Construction of the ‘Responsible Woman’: Structural Violence in Sri Lanka’s Post-war Development Strategy by Vagisha Gunasekara and Vijay K. Nagaraj
Ending Violence against Women in Papua New Guinea’s Highlands Region: The Role of the State, Local Civil Society and Extractive Industries by Elizabeth
Box 6.1 Lessons from the Bougainville Experience by Michelle Kopi
Rural Women in Colombia: From Victims to Actors by Cecilia López Montaño and MaríA-Claudia Holstine
Contesting Territoriality: Patriarchy, Accumulation and Dispossession. “Entrenched Peripherality”: Women, Political Economy and the Myth of Peacebuilding in North East India by Roshmi Goswami
Re-Imagining Subversion: Agency and Women’s Peace Activism in Northern Uganda by Yaliwe Clarke and Constance O’Brien
The Prism of Marginalisation: Political Economy of Violence against Women in Sudan and South Sudan by Fahima Hashim

Topics: Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Political Economies, Peacebuilding, Violence

Year: 2019

Women and Children Living in Areas of Armed Conflict in Africa: A Geospatial Analysis of Mortality and Orphanhood


Wagner, Zachary, Sam Heft-Neal, Paul H. Wise, Robert E. Black, Marshall Burke, Ties Boerma, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, and Eran Bendavid. 2019. "Women and Children Living in Areas of Armed Conflict in Africa: A Geospatial Analysis of Mortality and Orphanhood." The Lancet Global Health 7 (12): 1622-31.

Authors: Zachary Wagner, Sam Heft-Neal, Paul H. Wise, Robert E. Black, Marshall Burke, Ties Boerma, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Eran Bendavid


Background: The population effects of armed conflict on non-combatant vulnerable populations are incompletely understood. We aimed to study the effects of conflict on mortality among women of childbearing age (15–49 years) and on orphanhood among children younger than 15 years in Africa. 
Methods: We tested the extent to which mortality among women aged 15–49 years, and orphanhood among children younger than 15 years, increased in response to nearby armed conflict in Africa. Data on location, timing, and intensity of armed conflicts were obtained from the Uppsala Conflict Data Program, and data on the location, timing, and outcomes of women and children from Demographic and Health Surveys done in 35 African countries from 1990 to 2016. Mortality among women was obtained from sibling survival data. We used cluster-area fixed-effects regression models to compare survival of women during periods of nearby conflict (within 50 km) to survival of women in the same area during times without conflict. We used similar methods to examine the extent to which children living near armed conflicts are at increased risk of becoming orphans. We examined the effects of varying conflict intensity using number of direct battle deaths and duration of consecutive conflict exposure. 
Findings: We analysed data on 1 629 352 women (19286387 person-years), of which 103011 (6·3%) died (534·1 deaths per 100000 women-years), and 2 354 041 children younger than 15 years, of which 204276 (8·7%) had lost a parent. On average, conflict within 50 km increased women’s mortality by 112 deaths per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 97–128; a 21% increase above baseline), and the probability that a child has lost at least one parent by 6·0% (95% CI 3–8). This effect was driven by high-intensity conflicts: exposure to the highest (tenth) decile conflict in terms of conflict-related deaths increased the probability of female mortality by 202% (187–218) and increased the likelihood of orphanhood by 42% compared with a conflict-free period. Among the conflict-attributed deaths, 10% were due to maternal mortality. 
Interpretation: African women of childbearing age are at a substantially increased risk of death from nearby high intensity armed conflicts. Children exposed to conflict are analogously at increased risk of becoming orphans. This work fills gaps in literature on the harmful effects of armed conflict on non-combatants and highlights the need for humanitarian interventions to protect vulnerable populations.

Topics: Age, Youth, Armed Conflict, Gender, Women Regions: Africa

Year: 2019

The Success of Women's Participation In Resolving Conflicts In Liberia


Masitoh, Dewi. 2020. "The Success of Women's Participation In Resolving Conflicts In Liberia." Journal of Governance 5 (1): 71-90.

Author: Dewi Masitoh


The Civil War that occurred in Liberia has been going on for a long time, where there are two rebel groups, they are: Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD) and Movement for Democracy in Liberia (MODEL). Both of these rebel groups have caused gender inequality in Liberia continuously, especially women who have been victims of this war. However, with the efforts and participation of women from Liberian society, the war was successfully reconciled without creating violence. This research is aimed at realizing that women are not only victims of gender inequality, but can also be 'agents of change' in creating peace and better change for the future of a country. This research will use qualitative research methods, that emphasize the observation and understanding of a social phenomenon, where data is collected through secondary data and literature review. This research will analyze the case using three concepts: Feminism, Gender Equality, and Peace. The research concluded that there have been several efforts that have been made by women to resolve conflicts in Liberia by creating and building peace sustainably so that peace can be stable for a long time. The efforts that have been made by Liberian women are by creating several organizations and affiliations, they are: Woman in the Peacebuilding Network (WIPNET), Mano River Women's Peace Network (MARWOPNET), Association of Female Lawyers of Liberia (AFELL). This long-term peace can improve gender equality in several sectors of Liberian society, such as the economy and political sectors that are getting better and more effective from year to year.

Keywords: women's participation, conflicts, democracy, Liberia, Movement

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Civil Society, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Peacebuilding Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Liberia

Year: 2020


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