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Water & Sanitation

Lightening the Load: Labour Saving Technologies and Practices for Rural Women

Citation:

Carr, Marilyn, and Maria Hartl. 2010. Lightening the Load: Labour-Saving Technologies and Practices for Rural Women. Warwickshire, UK: International Fund for Agricultural Development.

Authors: Marilyn Carr, Maria Hartl

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Environment, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Humanitarian Assistance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, International Organizations, Privatization, Rights

Year: 2010

Linking Women To The Main Canal: Gender and Irrigation Management

Citation:

Zwarteveen, Margreet. 1995. Linking Women To The Main Canal: Gender and Irrigation Management. 54. London: International Institute for Environment and Development.

Author: Margreet Zwarteveen

Topics: Environment, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 1995

Debates and Dilemmas: Water

Citation:

Everett, Jana Matson, and Sue Ellen M. Charlton. 2014. “Debates and Dilemmas: Water.” In Women Navigating Globalization: Feminist Approaches to Development, 95–117. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Authors: Jana Matson Everett, Sue Ellen M. Charlton

Topics: Gender, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Privatization, Rights, Human Rights Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, South America Countries: Peru, South Africa

Year: 2014

Through the Debris and Dryness in Liberia

Citation:

Enie, Rosemary Olive Mbone. 2009. “Through the Debris and Dryness in Liberia.” Women in Action (2): 16-20. 

Author: Rosemary Olive Mbone Enie

Abstract:

The article discusses the difficulties faced by women in Liberia brought about by climate change while still recovering from the civil wars. In Liberia, women are responsible for food production, water collection for drinking, sanitation and other household chores. Schools and water services were also affected by the civil wars, making it hard for children and women to resettle. The Society for Women Empowerment Education and Training (SWEET) Africa Foundation helps Liberian communities to ensure access to clean and safe water and adequate sanitation. (Abstract from EBSCOhost).This article utilizes the story of Mama Jenneh Sambola, a farmer from the rural Than Mafa Village of the Matamo Community in Grand Cape Mount County, Liberia to examine the present challenges facing the community regarding climate change. The Liberian civil wars destroyed basic infrastructure and common diseases are still prevalent. The Society for Women Empowerment Education and Training (SWEET) Africa Foundation works closely with Mama Jenneh and her community to ensure access to clean and safe water and adequate sanitation. They later developed a community-based development agency with the goal of providing a platform for people-centered development, allowing for the community to take ownership of sustainable development initiatives with a strong emphasis on water projects. 

Annotation:

This article utilizes the story of Mama Jenneh Sambola, a farmer from the rural Than Mafa Village of the Matamo Community in Grand Cape Mount County, Liberia to examine the present challenges facing the community regarding climate change. The Liberian civil wars destroyed basic infrastructure and common diseases are still prevalent. The Society for Women Empowerment Education and Training (SWEET) Africa Foundation works closely with Mama Jenneh and her community to ensure access to clean and safe water and adequate sanitation. They later developed a community-based development agency with the goal of providing a platform for people-centered development, allowing for the community to take ownership of sustainable development initiatives with a strong emphasis on water projects.

 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Development, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, NGOs, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Liberia

Year: 2009

Negotiating Livelihoods: Women, Mining and Water Resources in Peru

Citation:

Li, Fabiana. 2008. “Negotiating Livelihoods: Women, Mining and Water Resources in Peru.” Canadian Woman Studies 27 (1): 97–102.

Author: Fabiana Li

Annotation:

“In this article I want to critically examine the relationship between mining, water use, and women’s role. However, instead of starting from the assumption that women have a more direct affinity with Nature and a privileged role in the protection of water resources, I want to provide a nuanced account of women’s experiences with mining and the ways in which they are affected by and respond to mining activity. While recognizing that women play an important role in defending their resources and ways of life, I want to show that their response to mining activity is sometimes marked by ambivalence and contradiction. As they struggle to negotiate their means of livelihood, people’s relationships with the mining company oscillate between antagonism and cooperation” (Li, 2008, p. 96- 97).

Topics: Development, Economies, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Households, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Peru

Year: 2008

The Politics of Water: Urban Protest, Gender, and Power in Monterrey, Mexico

Citation:

Bennett, Vivienne. 2009. The Politics of Water: Urban Protest, Gender, and Power in Monterrey, Mexico. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Author: Vivienne Bennett

Annotation:

"Vivienne Bennett has crafted an insightful study of the politics of water system management and development that offers insights into urban popular movements and protest, especially by women, and the politics of public policymaking in Mexico. Students of urban politics will appreciate this work's contribution to the literature on community power. Others will find Bennett's unraveling of the respective roles of the federal, state, and municipal governments in Mexico to be a significant addition to our understanding of the changing Mexican political regime. Yet others will find this book a solid, empirically-based analysis of the emergence and development of urban popular movements and the ways in which such movements can have consequences for public policy."

(WorldCat)

Topics: Civil Society, Class, Economies, Gender, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, NGOs, Political Participation, Privatization, Rights, Human Rights Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2009

Advances and Setbacks in Women’s Participation in Water Management in Brazil

Citation:

Ferreira Jacques de Moraes, Andrea. 2015. “Advances and Setbacks in Women’s Participation in Water Management in Brazil.” In A Political Ecology of Women, Water and Global Environmental Change, edited by Stephanie Buechler and Anne-Marie S. Hanson, 77–96. New York: Routledge.

Author: Andrea Ferreira Jacques de Moraes

Annotation:

The author analyzes the paradox of the importance of women in water management and their lack of resources and power to manage water, and the political and developmental projects that reinforce such gendered dimensions. Women’s participation in water management in the Brazilian semi-arid region is analyzed in this chapter. The One Million Cisterns program is cited, along with women’s participation in the National Council of Water Resources and Watershed Committees. A feminist political ecology approach identifies the paradox listed above, while providing insight on possible solutions to the gendered limitations to water resource management. 

Topics: Development, Economies, Environment, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2015

Lording It over the Goddess: Water, Gender, and Human-Environmental Relations

Citation:

Strang, Veronica. 2015. “Lording It over the Goddess: Water, Gender, and Human-Environmental Relations.” Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion 30 (1): 85–109.

Author: Veronica Strang

Abstract:

Focusing on human engagements with water, this article steps back from specifically cultural or historical contexts in order to trace the larger patterns of social, religious, and technological change that have transformed most societies’ relationships with their environments. It examines transitions from totemic “nature religions” to male-dominated and hierarchical belief systems, and considers how these intersected with shifts to settlement and agriculture, differentiated gender roles, and stratified socio- political arrangements. With developments in farming, enlarging societies moved from egalitarian partnerships with other species and ecosystems to more directive interactions. Irrigation channeled water into human interests. Initially seen as embodying female principles, it became the gift of male religious beings. From being a common good, it became subject to male property rights. Long understood as the substance of social and spiritual regeneration, it was reframed as an economic “asset.” Observing these transformations, the article also considers long-term contraflows: indigenous struggles; subaltern religions; and environmentalist and feminist challenges to sociopolitical inequalities. 

Annotation:

The article begins by tracing the transformation of societies from nature religions, which embodied more egalitarian principles, to an increasingly male-dominated and hierarchical belief system. By studying the history of water one is able to see such a transition as water, considered the embodiment of female principles, came to be under male ownership, a signal of shifting gender roles. The author examines the history of water and its representation in ancient cultures and religions, specifically the feminization of the source. A shift in human-environmental relations took place that focused on meeting human needs and divine purposes, thus personal privatized ownership of water and water resources developed. Parallels between the exploitation of nature, specifically water resources, and the subordination of women were argued. The author concludes by mentioning that, although counter movements have emerged in recent years, patterns of exploitation and subordination need to be considered in order for gender roles in water resource management to improve. 

Topics: Development, Environment, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Religion, Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 2015

Gender Disparities in Water Resource Management Projects in Njoro Sub-County, Kenya

Citation:

Wambu, Charles K., and Moses Kindiki. 2015. “Gender Disparities in Water Resource Management Projects in Njoro Sub-County, Kenya.” International Journal of Social Science Studies 3 (2): 123–29. doi: 10.11114/ijsss.v3i2.703.

Authors: Charles K. Wambu, Moses Kindiki

Abstract:

Gender disparities are of major concern, in water resources management because men and women play different roles and have different rights on water usage and it is important to take in account the interest of both genders into account. Njoro Sub-county is currently facing a serious problem of water scarcity as a result of several factors such as poor management, loss of forest cover, climatic variability, population increase, and limited endowment of the resource. Water being an economic good and a cost attached to its development, distribution, operation and maintenance there has been gender disparity in its management. Women are responsible for multiple uses of water resources and principal decision-makers regarding domestic uses and sharing responsibility with men for productive uses. However men often control this resource and make major decisions related to location and type of facilities available hence the need to investigate why women despite their vital stake in water affairs, they are frequently overlooked and under-represented in water policy decisions and in water projects committees. The argument in this paper is that gender disparities may have resulted in overexploitation and mismanagement of water resources. 

Keywords: gender disparities, water resource management, gender, equity

Annotation:

This paper analyzes the gendered factors to the planning and implementation of water resource projects and analyzed gender contribution in co-ordination and operation of water resource projects. The study paid specific attention to water management at the household level in the Njoro-Sub county of Kenya. While the women in the community played the largest role in household water collection and usage, men had the most say over water rights and distribution. The study found that most women in the community were barred from the water management and planning process due to cultural customs and traditional gender roles. Sustainable water management projects were not attained, leading to household water shortages that place greater burdens on women. The study concludes with recommendations on including women in water projects due to their extensive knowledge of water resources, along with incorporating women’s rights initiatives that respect the traditional expectations of the community. 

Topics: Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2015

Gender Issues in Water and Sanitation Programmes : Lessons from India

Citation:

Cronin, Aidan A., Pradeep K. Mehta, and Anjal Prakash, eds. 2015. Gender Issues in Water and Sanitation Programmes : Lessons from India. New Delhi, IND: Sage Publications Pvt. Ltd. 

Authors: Aidan A. Cronin, Pradeep K. Mehta, Anjal Prakash

Annotation:

This book fills the gaps in conceptual knowledge related to gender outcomes in water and sanitation issues. It illustrates how to get the desired gender outcomes in WASH programs by providing real-life case studies from different regions of India. The first section focuses on the Gender and WASH problem, forming a background for the case studies in India. Ways of incorporating gender dimensions in water management and in water and sanitation agendas in India are heavily explored here. The second section provides a contextual understanding of gender and WASH in India through basic facts, statistics, and anecdotes. The final section discusses women’s participation in the sanitation sector with a focus on developing innovative ways in which women’s role and participation can be up scaled. Through the case studies, the authors argue that the identification of vulnerable households can help in devising systems to reduce the hardships faced by women. Water governance was found to be limiting for women when the existing social dynamics of the region were not addressed. Current training programs of the Government of India were found to lack in having an approach to gender and equity in WASH. The book concludes by offering further thoughts on the “gender how?” question, while providing suggestions for further policy initiatives on gender in WASH. Such suggestions are highly centered on further research in the gender and hygiene field. 

Topics: Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Health, Households, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: India

Year: 2015

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