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Water & Sanitation

Transport, (Im)mobility, and Spatial Poverty Traps: Issues for Rural Women and Girl Children in Sub-Saharan Africa

Citation:

Porter, Gina. 2007. "Transport, (Im)mobility, and Spatial Poverty Traps: Issues for Rural Women and Girl Children in Sub-Saharan Africa." Paper presented at Understanding and Addressing Spatial Poverty Traps: An International Workshop, Durham University, UK, March 29.

Author: Gina Porter

Abstract:

This paper reflects on the experiences of women and girl children residents in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa with poor physical accessibility (to services and markets) because of poor roads and inadequate transport (in terms of regularity, reliability and cost). Examples from field research conducted in diverse agro-ecological and cultural contexts in western and southern Africa are used to explore the impacts of relative immobility and poor access to services on women and girls. Three themes are examined in some detail: access to education, access to health services and access to markets. (Abstract from original source)

Topics: Gender, Women, Girls, Infrastructure, Transportation, Water & Sanitation Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa

Year: 2007

The Socio-Cultural, Institutional, and Gender Aspects of the Water Transfer-Agribusiness Model for Food and Water Security: Lessons Learned from Peru

Citation:

Delgado, Juana Vera. 2015. “The Socio-Cultural, Institutional, and Gender Aspects of the Water Transfer-Agribusiness Model for Food and Water Security: Lessons Learned from Peru.” Food Security 7 (6): 1187–97.

Author: Juana Vera Delgado

Abstract:

This paper critically analyses the potentials and frontiers of an agribusiness model developed along the arid coastal area of Peru. To make this model work, water from Andean rivers and lakes have been dammed and transferred to the coastal area through sophisticated and highly expensive hydraulic infrastructures. Although this ‘water transfer-agribusiness’ (WATA) model has attained its objectives to let the desert bloom and increase agro-exports from Peru, it does so at the cost of local environmental degradation, social unrest and gender disparities. These unintended consequences arose, in part, because the WATA model is anchored in ideologies of domination of nature and colonization of empty territories. The construction of water infrastructure, namely ‘Large Scale Irrigation’ (LSI) left aside the sociocultural, gender, and environmental aspects that these kinds of interventions should include. Based on studies of water transfer from the Colca River to the ‘Pampas de Majes’ in the Arequipa region in the south-west of Peru, this paper analyses, from an interdisciplinary perspective, the consequences of such interventions on the food/water security and environmental health of the affected population (Abstract from original source​).

Keywords: water transfer, agribusiness, large-scale irrigation, gender, ethnicity, water insecurity, food insecurity

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Agriculture, Development, Environment, Food Security, Gender, Gender Analysis, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Multi-national Corporations, Rights, Land Rights, Security Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Peru

Year: 2015

An Analysis of Water Collection Labor among Women and Children in 24 Sub-Saharan African Countries

Citation:

Graham, Jay P., Mitsuaki Hirai, and Seung-Sup Kim. 2016. “An Analysis of Water Collection Labor among Women and Children in 24 Sub-Saharan African Countries.” PLOS ONE 11 (6): e0155981. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155981.

Authors: Jay P. Graham, Mitsuaki Hirai, Seung-Sup Kim

Abstract:

Background

It is estimated that more than two-thirds of the population in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) must leave their home to collect water, putting them at risk for a variety of negative health outcomes. There is little research, however, quantifying who is most affected by long water collection times.

Objectives

This study aims to a) describe gender differences in water collection labor among both adults and children (< 15 years of age) in the households (HHs) that report spending more than 30 minutes collecting water, disaggregated by urban and rural residence; and b) estimate the absolute number of adults and children affected by water collection times greater than 30 minutes in 24 SSA countries.

Methods

We analyzed data from the Demographic Health Survey (DHS) and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) (2005–2012) to describe water collection labor in 24 SSA countries.

Results

Among households spending more than 30 minutes collecting water, adult females were the primary collectors of water across all 24 countries, ranging from 46% in Liberia (17,412 HHs) to 90% in Cote d’Ivoire (224,808 HHs). Across all countries, female children were more likely to be responsible for water collection than male children (62% vs. 38%, respectively). Six countries had more than 100,000 households (HHs) where children were reported to be responsible for water collection (greater than 30 minutes): Burundi (181,702 HHs), Cameroon (154,453 HHs), Ethiopia (1,321,424 HHs), Mozambique (129,544 HHs), Niger (171,305 HHs), and Nigeria (1,045,647 HHs).

Conclusion

In the 24 SSA countries studied, an estimated 3.36 million children and 13.54 million adult females were responsible for water collection in households with collection times greater than 30 minutes. We suggest that accessibility to water, water collection by children, and gender ratios for water collection, especially when collection times are great, should be considered as key indicators for measuring progress in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector.

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, Health, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Côte D'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Sao Tome & Principe, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Swaziland, Zimbabwe

Year: 2016

Women’s Crucial Role in Collective Operation and Maintenance of Drinking Water Infrastructure in Rural Uganda

Citation:

Naiga, Resty, Marianne Penker, and Karl Hogl. 2017. “Women’s Crucial Role in Collective Operation and Maintenance of Drinking Water Infrastructure in Rural Uganda.” Society & Natural Resources 30 (4): 506–20. doi:10.1080/08941920.2016.1274460.

Authors: Resty Naiga, Marianne Penker, Karl Hogl

Abstract:

Operation and maintenance of communally owned water sources in Uganda still pose challenges despite the devolution of water management from the state to user communities. Using a mixed-methods approach and a gender-sensitive collective action analytical framework, this article quantifies the role of women in drinking-water governance and identifies barriers to women’s participation. The findings show that women not only are more willing to contribute but have also stated higher actual contribution than their male counterparts. The article outlines the institutional and individual attributes constraining women’s effective participation in water management and suggests how to enhance women’s participation in water governance. We argue that a strategy built on water users’ collective action in Uganda has to be built on women’s participation through effective rules and monitoring mechanisms, as well as on long-term sensitization and awareness creation on gender stereotypes that hitherto hinder women’s participation.

Keywords: collective action, demand-driven approach, drinking water, gender relations, local water governance, operation and maintenance, rural Uganda, willingness to contribute, women

Topics: Citizenship, Development, Gender, Women, Men, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Political Participation Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2017

'A Good Wife Brings Her Husband Bath Water’: Gender Roles and Water Practices in Nampula, Mozambique

Citation:

Houweling, Emily Van. 2016. “‘A Good Wife Brings Her Husband Bath Water’: Gender Roles and Water Practices in Nampula, Mozambique.” Society & Natural Resources 29 (9): 1065–78.

Author: Emily Van Houweling

Abstract:

In the Global South, gender roles and relations are closely connected to water collection and use. The aim of this article is to move beyond the simple development associations linking improved water access with women’s empowerment by showing how gender roles, marital relations, and the division of labor are connected to everyday water practices. Ethnographic research took place in five communities in Nampula, Mozambique, during a year when residents endured seasonal dry months and later received a water supply project. This research explores how gender roles and relations are impacted by changes in community water resources, and how these impacts are understood from local perspectives. In rural Mozambique, water collection and use are not only gendered activities, but also practices that shape marital relations and cultural notions of a good wife and mother (Abstract from original source​).

Keywords: africa, development, empowerment, environmental change, gender, Mozambique, water, women

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Households, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Mozambique

Year: 2016

The Role of Women in Water Management and Conflict Resolution in Marsabit, Kenya

Citation:

Yerian, Sarah, Monique Hennink, Leslie E. Greene, Daniel Kiptugen, Jared Buri, and Matthew C. Freeman. 2004. “The Role of Women in Water Management and Conflict Resolution in Marsabit, Kenya.” Environmental Management 54: 1320-30. 

Authors: Sarah Yerian, Monique Hennink, Leslie E. Greene, Daniel Kiptugen, Jared Buri, Matthew C. Freeman

Abstract:

We employed qualitative methods to explore how conflict over water collection and use impacts women, and the role that women play in water management and conflict resolution in Marsabit, Kenya. Conflicts between domestic and livestock water led to insufficient water for domestic use and intra-household conflict. Women’s contributions to water management were valued, especially through informal initiatives, though involvement in statutory water management committees was not culturally appropriate. Promoting culturally appropriate ways to involve women in water management, rather than merely increasing the percentage of women on water committee, may reduce conflicts and increase women’s access to domestic water supplies.

 

Keywords: water conflict, water management, Kenya, Qualitative, women, water governance, gender

Topics: Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Security, Human Security Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2014

Gender and Energy for Sustainable Development

Citation:

Oparaocha, Sheila, and Soma Dutta. 2011. "Gender and Energy for Sustainable Development." Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 3 (4): 265-271.

Authors: Sheila Oparaocha, Soma Dutta

Abstract:

Energy services are linked to well-being and have the potential to impact almost every area of human life, from increased economic activity to improved child literacy, safe drinking water and women's empowerment. Energy is a critical input in the daily lives of women for their household chores such as cooking and space heating; for agricultural uses, including post-harvest processing; and for rural industry uses such as milling and process heat. Energy poverty is a problem that has a disproportionate effect on women and girls. This paper explores the implications of the prevalent energy poverty for women in developing countries. At the same time, the paper highlights how addressing gender issues in the energy sector can help achieve overall developmental goals, contribute towards achievement of the MDGs, and makes specific recommendations towards gender mainstreaming in the energy sector.

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender Mainstreaming, Households, Infrastructure, Energy, Water & Sanitation

Year: 2011

Gender and Community Mobilisation for Urban Water Infrastructure Investment in Southern Nigeria

Citation:

Acey, Charisma. 2010. “Gender and Community Mobilisation for Urban Water Infrastructure Investment in Southern Nigeria.” Gender & Development 18 (1): 11–26. doi:10.1080/13552071003599970.

Author: Charisma Acey

Abstract:

Although women in urban households in Nigeria are primarily responsible for sourcing and managing domestic water supplies, their responses to problems with obtaining water have to be negotiated within the context of gender power relations, roles and responsibilities, both within and outside the household. This article, focusing on women in poor communities in Lagos and Benin City, Nigeria, shows that there is some relationship between women’s desire to organise for water improvements, and membership in voluntary associations. However, women are generally unable to influence decision-making in the sector through voluntary associations, and are excluded from actual participation in the business of water supply and the associated economic opportunities.

Keywords: gender, development, water, urban, Nigeria, africa

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Transportation, Water & Sanitation Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2010

Users’ Perspectives on Decentralized Rural Water Services in Tanzania

Citation:

Masanyiwa, Zacharia S., Anke Niehof, and Catrien J. A. M. Termeer. 2015. “Users’ Perspectives on Decentralized Rural Water Services in Tanzania.” Gender, Place & Culture 22 (7): 920–36. doi:10.1080/0966369X.2014.917283.

Authors: Zacharia S. Masanyiwa, Anke Niehof, Catrien J. A. M. Termeer

Abstract:

This article examines the impact of decentralization reforms on improving access to domestic water supply in the rural districts of Kondoa and Kongwa, Tanzania, using a users’ and a gender perspective. The article addresses the question whether and to what extent the delivery of gender-sensitive water services to rural households improved after the reforms. Household- and village-level data were obtained through a household survey and qualitative methods. The findings show an increase of the proportion of households using improved sources of domestic water between 2002 and 2011. However, more than half of users still travel over a kilometre and use more than an hour to collect water in the dry season. Despite the increased proportion of women in water management committees, the outcomes of these decentralized arrangements differ for men and women. Overall, the reforms have produced contradictory effects by improving access to water supply for some users, and creating or reinforcing existing inter- and intra-village inequalities. 

 

Keywords: decentralization, domestic water supply, gender perspective, users' perspective, water governance

Topics: Gender, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2015

Gender, Large-Scale Development, and Food Insecurity in Lesotho: An Analysis of the Impact of the Lesotho Highlands Water Project

Citation:

Braun, Yvonne A. 2010. “Gender, Large-Scale Development, and Food Insecurity in Lesotho: An Analysis of the Impact of the Lesotho Highlands Water Project.” Gender & Development 18 (3): 453–64.

Author: Yvonne A. Braun

Abstract:

This article investigates the effects of development policy on gender and food security. It analysis how one policy instituted by a large-scale multi-dam development project, the Lesotho Highlands Water Project (LHWP), affected women's food security in the rural highlands of Lesotho, southern Africa. This was a mitigation policy, aiming to ensure that the LHWP did not negatively impact on the people living in the area where the dams were constructed. However, ethnographic research suggests that the policy itself reinforced and exacerbated gender inequalities that affected women's ability to secure food, and put women at risk of food insecurity within their households. Once again we see that gender issues must be central to the constitution and implementation of development projects.

Keywords: gender, women, food security, development, inequality, Lesotho

Topics: Development, Food Security, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Lesotho

Year: 2010

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