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Water & Sanitation

“On the Network, Off the Map”: Developing Intervillage and Intragender Differentiation in Rural Water Supply

Citation:

Birkenholtz, Trevor. 2013. “‘On the Network, Off the Map’: Developing Intervillage and Intragender Differentiation in Rural Water Supply.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 31 (2): 354–71.

Author: Trevor Birkenholtz

Abstract:

Despite decades of water-supply development programs in the Global South, their effect on gendered access to water remains both unclear and contradictory. This paper addresses this lacuna by examining the expansion of a rural water-supply network aimed at reducing household water scarcity in the arid zone of Rajasthan, India. Specifically, the Indira Gandhi Canal was conceived and constructed during the green revolution to ‘green the Thar Desert’. But now, through a complex network of reservoirs, treatment facilities, distribution centers, and supply pipelines, it connects much of rural and urban western Rajasthan to a drinking water-supply network. The paper examines the interaction of water-supply technologies, social power relations and dynamic socioecological change operating within these development processes. To do so it draws on household surveys, interviews with water users and government engineers, and participant observation with women and children water collectors. The paper finds that this ongoing water development project rendered the water provision landscape technical on the surface, but that uneven flows of water between villages and people reveal a more complex water provision landscape. The expansion of the network based on a technical reimagining of water supply has resulted in intervillage scarcity, intragender differential access, usurious private water markets, the abandonment and then the proposed rehabilitation of traditional water bodies, and urban water logging. In the conclusion I argue for a rethinking of water-supply development programs through a political ecology approach that focuses on the emergent capacities of water-supply technologies to redirect existing socioecological associations in unanticipated ways. Looking at the relationship between nature— society and technology may illuminate the possible ruptures in these associations and the ways that they may be rearticulated to produce less differentiating modes of accessing water. 

Keywords: political ecology, water, power, gender, scarcity, India

Topics: Development, Environment, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Privatization Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2013

A Weight for Water: An Ecological Feminist Critique of Emerging Norms and Trends in Global Water Governance

Citation:

Darling, Kate. 2012. “A Weight for Water: An Ecological Feminist Critique of Emerging Norms and Trends in Global Water Governance.” Melbourne Journal of International Law 13 (1): 368–95.

Author: Kate Darling

Annotation:

Summary:
The human population is placing an ever-greater demand on the Earth’s freshwater supply. These water systems are interdependent components of a planetary hydrologic cycle. Reflecting this reality, a global water governance framework, based on multilateral agreements, international institutions and rights regimes, has begun to emerge. As this framework becomes entrenched, so too does a normalised view of water as a commodity valued principally on the basis of its usefulness to certain forms of human endeavour. In this view, androcentric values receive priority while elements of care for, and protection of, the flourishing of all human and non-human life are neglected. Looking at the issue from an ecological feminist perspective, this paper argues against treating water scarcity as a threat for which only a narrow spectrum of efficiency-based solutions are available. Instead, it suggests incorporating a diversity of cultural, spiritual and scientific views in our search for a fair and sustainable water governance framework. (Summary from original source)

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gendered Discourses, Governance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, International Organizations

Year: 2012

Gender and Water in Mongolia

Citation:

Hawkins, Roberta, and Joni Seager. 2010. “Gender and Water in Mongolia.” The Professional Geographer 62 (1): 16–31.

Authors: Roberta Hawkins, Joni Seager

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT
Global institutions, academics, and practitioners have long acknowledged the need to consider gender in creating sustainable water management plans. However, for most countries a dearth of context-specific information on gender and water relations hinders gender-sensitive plan development. Mongolia is particularly poorly represented in the gender and water literature. This article presents fieldwork revealing distinctive gendered practices around water use, decision making, and management including an unusually high degree of men's participation in water collection. This research adds new context-specific data to the understanding of actual gender and water relations and underscores the need for further investigation into the Mongolian context.
 
CHINESE ABSTRACT

 

 

 

SPANISH ABSTRACT
Durante mucho tiempo, las instituciones globales, académicos y prácticos han reconocido la necesidad de considerar el género cuando se trate de la formulación de planes de manejo sostenible del agua. Sin embargo, en la mayoría de los países la escasez de información contextual específica sobre género y las relaciones con temas del agua obstaculiza el desarrollo de planes sensibles a la consideración de género. En particular, el caso de Mongolia está pobremente representado en la literatura que relacione género y agua. Este artículo presenta los resultados del trabajo de campo, que revelan prácticas en las que concretamente interviene el género sobre uso, toma de decisiones y manejo del agua, que incluyen un grado inusualmente alto de participación de los hombres en la captación del recurso hídrico. Esta investigación agrega nuevos datos de contexto específico para la cabal comprensión de relaciones entre género y agua, y pone al descubierto la necesidad de más investigación dentro del contexto mongol.

Keywords: gender, Mongolia, water, water management, 性别, 蒙古, 水, 水管理, gênero, agua, manejo del agua

Topics: Gender, Men, Gender Analysis, Governance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: Mongolia

Year: 2010

Sustainable Development, Water Resources Management and Women's Empowerment: The Wanaraniya Water Project in Sri Lanka

Citation:

Aladuwaka, Seela, and Janet Momsen. 2010. “Sustainable Development, Water Resources Management and Women’s Empowerment: The Wanaraniya Water Project in Sri Lanka.” Gender & Development 18 (1): 43–58.

Authors: Seela Aladuwaka, Janet Momsen

Abstract:

Water is one of the most important natural resources, and its effective management is essential given its scarcity. In rural Sri Lanka, the management of available water resources needs special attention because investment for water resource improvement is hard to obtain, and water itself is relatively scarce in the drier areas of the country. The Wanaraniya Water Project pipes water 6.5km from its source to individual houses in the village, saving women daily time and effort. The project is founded on commitments to community participation and the adoption of local knowledge. It was initiated by women, and has been operated and managed by them for the last six years. This study argues that the project can serve as a model for better planning of water management, and focuses on the unique strategies and innovative methods that have been used. In particular, it shows the impact of involvement in the project on women's empowerment. The implementation of the project has helped women to improve their leadership qualities, confidence, self-reliance, and gain more power in the community through their successful establishment of a village water supply. (Abstract from original source)

Keywords: Sri Lanka, water, community, participatory development, women's empowerment

Topics: Gender, Women, Governance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Sri Lanka

Year: 2010

Water Security Across the Gender Divide

Citation:

Fröhlich, Christiane, Giovanna Gioli, Roger Cremades, and Henri Myrttinen. 2018. Water Security Across the Gender Divide. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Authors: Christiane Fröhlich, Giovanna Gioli, Roger Cremades, Henri Myrttinen

Annotation:

Summary:
This book examines water security as a prime example of how the economic, socio-cultural and political-normative systems that regulate access to water reflect the evolving and gendered power relations between different societal groups. Access to water is characterized by inequalities: it depends not only on natural water availability, but also on the respective socio-political context. It is regulated by gender-differentiated roles and responsibilities towards the resource, which are strongly influenced by, among others, tradition, religion, customary law, geographical availability, as well as the historical and socio-political context. While gender has been recognized as a key intervening variable in achieving equitable water access, most studies fail to acknowledge the deep interrelations between social structures and patterns of water use. Proof of these shortcomings is the enduring lack of data on water accessibility, availability and utilization that sufficiently acknowledges the relational nature of gender and other categories of power and difference, like class and socioeconomic status, as well as their comprehensive analysis. This book addresses this major research gap. (Summary from Springer International Publishing)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Bridging Troubled Waters: Water Security Across the Gender Divide
Henri Myrttinen, Roger Cremades, Christiane Fröhlich and Giovanna Gioli
 
2. Gender and Water in a Changing Climate: Challenges and Opportunities
Farhana Sultana
 
3. More than Women and Men: A Framework for Gender and Intersectionality Research on Environmental Crisis and Conflict
Amber J. Fletcher
 
4. Gender and Water in the Middle East. Local and Global Realities
Mauro van Aken and Anita De Donato
 
5. Land and Water Reforms in South Africa: "Men in White Coats"
Deepa Joshi, Natasha Donn-Arnold, and Mart Kamphuis
 
6. Integrating Gender Equality in WASH Emergency Response in the Central African Republic 
Beatrice Mosello, Virginie Le Masson, Gladys Le Masson, Elena Diato, and Véronique Barbelet
 
7. Engaging with Gender in Water Governance and Practice in Kenya 
Chinwe Ifejika Speranza and Edward Bikketi
 
8. When Water Security Programmes Seek to Empower Women - A Case Study from Western Nepal 
Floriane Clement and Emma Karki 
 
9. "Just Women" is Not Enough: Toward a Gender-Relational Approach to Water and Peacebuilding 
Janpeter Schilling, Rebecca Froese, and Jana Naujoks 
 
10. Calming the Waters, Ploughing the Sea - Can Gender-Responsive Appraoches to Intra-State Water Conflicts Lead to Peacebuilding? Evidence from Lebanon and Nepal 
Henri Myrttinen
 
11. The Role of Women in Transboundary Water Dispute Resolution 
Lynette de Silva, Jennifer C. Veilleux, and Marian J. Neal

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Intersectionality, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Security

Year: 2018

Suffering for Water, Suffering from Water: Emotional Geographies of Resource Access, Control and Conflict

Citation:

Sultana, Farhana. 2011. "Suffering for Water, Suffering from Water: Emotional Geographies of Resource Access, Control and Conflict." Geoforum 42 (2): 163-72. 

Author: Farhana Sultana

Abstract:

This article argues that resource access, use, control, ownership and conflict are not only mediated through social relations of power, but also through emotional geographies where gendered subjectivities and embodied emotions constitute how nature–society relations are lived and experienced on a daily basis. By engaging the insights from feminist political ecology literatures and emotional geographies literatures, the article demonstrates that resource struggles and conflicts are not just material challenges but emotional ones, which are mediated through bodies, spaces and emotions. Such a focus fleshes out the complexities, entanglements and messy relations that constitute political ecologies of resources management, where practices and processes are negotiated through constructions of gender, embodiments, and emotions. Abstractions of ‘resource struggles’ and ‘resource conflicts’ are thereby grounded in embodied emotional geographies of places, peoples, and resources, enabling us to better understand the ways resources and emotions come to matter in everyday survival struggles. This framing can enrich feminist political ecology theorizations and texture our understandings of commonly used terms such as access, use, control, conflict and struggles vis-à-vis natural resources in any context. In other words, we are better able to conceptualize and explain how and why people access, use, and struggle over resources the ways they do. A case study of drinking water contamination from Bangladesh is used to develop the theoretical arguments in contributing to existing debates in (feminist) political ecologies.

Keywords: political ecology, emotional geography, resource access, conflict, gender, water, Bangladesh

Topics: Conflict, Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Political Economies Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2011

A Well of One's Own: Gender Analysis of an Irrigation Program in Bangladesh

Citation:

Jordans, Eva, and Margreet Zwarteveen. 1997. A Well of One's Own: Gender Analysis of an Irrigation Program in Bangladesh. Colombo: International Irrigation Management Institute. 

Authors: Eva Jordans, Margreet Zwarteveen

Annotation:

Table of Contents:
1. Introduction
 
2. Research Methodology
 
3. Gender Relations and Irrigated Agriculture
 
4. Gender Policies and Strategies of GKF
 
5. Irrigation-Related Activities of GKF
 
6. Conclusions and Discussion
 

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods, Political Participation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 1997

Rural Women in Sri Lanka's Post-Conflict Rural Economy

Citation:

Wanasundera, Leelangi. 2006. Rural Women in Sri Lanka’s Post-Conflict Rural Economy. Bangkok: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Author: Leelangi Wanasundera

Annotation:

Summary
"The major objective of this review was to assess rural women’s situation in reconstruction and rehabilitation of agriculture and the rural economy in areas emerging from armed conflict. The purpose is to ensure that gender issues are incorporated and that reconstruction and rehabilitation processes do not bypass women. The review focuses on the Northern and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka and certain areas of North Central districts and Uva provinces that border the North and East. The primary focus is on the North East province that bore the brunt of the armed conflict for almost two decades" (Wanasundera 2006, 33).
 
Table of Contents:
1. Livelihood and poverty conditions in the conflict region
 
2. Rural women and livelihood activities
 
3. Social realities of rural women in the conflict region
 
4. Rehabilitation of agriculture and the rural sector in the North East
 
5. Implementation and performance for gender responsive rehabilitation 
 
6. Rural women's access to resources and assets in the conflict region
 
7. Conclusion and Recommendations
 

Topics: Agriculture, Civil Wars, Economies, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, International Organizations, Livelihoods, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Sri Lanka

Year: 2006

Gender, Land, and Water: From Reform to Counter-Reform in Latin America

Citation:

Deere, Carmen Diana, and Magdalena Leon. 1998. “Gender, Land, and Water: From Reform to Counter-Reform in Latin America.” Agriculture and Human Values 15(4): 375–86.

Authors: Carmen Diana Deere, Magdalena Leon

Abstract:

Rural women did not fare very well in the land reforms carried out during the Latin American “reformist period” of the 1960s and 1970s, with women being under-represented among the beneficiaries. It is argued that women have been excluded from access to and control over water for similar reasons that they were excluded from access to land during these reforms. The paper also investigates the extent to which women have gained or lost access to land during the “counter-reforms” of the 1980s and 1990s. Under the neo-liberal agenda, production cooperatives as well as communal access to land have largely been undermined in favor of privatization and the individual parcelization of collectives. Significant land titling efforts are also being carried out throughout the region to promote the development of a vigorous land market. This latter period has also been characterized by the growth of the feminist movement throughout Latin America and a growing commitment by states to gender equity. The paper reviews the extent to which rural women‘s access to land and, thus, water has potentially been enhanced by recent changes in agrarian and legal codes.
 

Keywords: cooperatives, land markets, land reform, gender and land, Latin American rural women, Neo-liberal restructuring

Topics: Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Feminisms, Gendered Power Relations, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Privatization, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America

Year: 1998

Mastering the Struggle: Gender, Actors and Agrarian Change in a Mexican Ejido

Citation:

Brunt, Dorien. 1992. “Mastering the Struggle: Gender, Actors and Agrarian Change in a Mexican Ejido.” PhD diss., the Agricultural University in Wageningen.

Author: Dorien Brunt

Annotation:

Summary:
"This book is about power and about the social order, but it is approached through the struggles of men and women, members of an ejido in Western Mexico (highly integrated in national and international product and labour markets) to improve the quality of their lives. It explores the possibilities they see and the limitations they are confronted with, and how they try to overcome these limitations. As James Scott (1985:XV-XVII) puts it: 'Most subordinate classes throughout most of history have rarely been afforded the luxury of open political activity. Most subordinated classes are far less interested in changing the larger structures and the law than what Hobsbawm has appropriately called "working the system... to their minimum disadvantage. ... For these reasons it seems to be more important to understand what we might call everyday forms of ... resistance.'
 
"In this case, the everyday struggles are about access to land, access to credit and irrigation water, and keeping control over the land and the production process. But by no means are they only economic struggles, they are also struggles over influence, identity, ideology, creating support. Nor are these struggles only between the local population and the 'representatives of die state', but also take place within the local population itself, between men and women, between those with and those without land, between older and younger generations" (Brunt 1992, 4). 

Topics: Age, Agriculture, Class, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 1992

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