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Violence

The (Little) Militia Man: Memory and Militarized Masculinity in Lebanon

Citation:

Haugbolle, Sune. 2012. “The (Little) Militia Man: Memory and Militarized Masculinity in Lebanon.” Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies 8 (1): 115–39.

Author: Sune Haugbolle

Abstract:

This article discusses how militiamen who fought in the Lebanese civil war (1975-1990) have been represented in Lebanese cultural production and how these militiamen relate to public discourse on masculinity and culpability in the postwar period. Through an analysis of interviews with former militiamen from the Lebanese press, an autobiographical novel, and a play about the war, this paper examines the link between debates about memory and responsibility on one hand, and contentions over norms of masculine behavior on the other. The texts suggest that some Lebanese artists privilege a redemptive narrative, where former fighters are shown as regretful, even feminized, “little men” on par with other human victims of a senseless war. This narrative is meant to counter the widely held notion in Lebanon that militiamen bear a large part of the responsibility for the war. At the same time, this redemptive narrative seeks to sever the link between masculinity and sectarian cultures that, still today, celebrate violence committed during the civil war.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militias, Post-Conflict, Violence Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Lebanon

Year: 2012

Toward Human Security and Gender Justice: Reflections on Afghanistan and Iraq

Citation:

Moghadam, Valentine M. 2013. “Toward Human Security and Gender Justice: Reflections on Afghanistan and Iraq.” In Globalization, Social Movements, and Peacebuilding, edited by Jackie Smith and Ernesto Verdeja, 97–133. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.

Author: Valentine M. Moghadam

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Justice, Security, Human Security, Violence Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Iraq

Year: 2013

'The King of the Streets': Hip Hop and the Reclaiming of Masculinity in Jerusalem’s Shu’afat Refugee Camp

Citation:

Greenberg, Ela. 2009. “‘The King of the Streets:’ Hip Hop and the Reclaiming of Masculinity in Jerusalem’s Shu’afat Refugee Camp.” Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication 2 (2): 231-50.

Author: Ela Greenberg

Abstract:

This paper examines G-Town, a Palestinian hip hop crew from Shu‘afat Refugee Camp in Jerusalem. G-Town is part of a worldwide cultural phenomenon in which marginalized youths borrow and adapt African-American hip hop culture to their socio-political contexts. Their ability to convey authenticity as rap artists comes from living in a refugee camp, where they are exposed to drugs, violence, and limited opportunities. While G-Town uses rap music as a vehicle to express their opposition to the Israeli occupation, they also use rap music to reclaim their masculinity, especially as Palestinian masculinity has become increasingly emasculated by the practices of the occupation. With Tupac Shakur as their model, the members of G-Town have created for themselves a hyper form of masculinity as a way of coping with the occupation. Rapping has enabled G-Town to emerge as self-appointed leaders of local camp youth, and through their music, they encourage their mainly male audiences to resist the Israeli occupation, while they criticize those who remain passive and whose masculinity thus becomes questionable. Not all their peers, however, are supportive of rap music, and criticize G-Town for having given up practices traditionally associated with the camp’s notion of masculinity.

Keywords: Jerusalem, Shu'afat Refugee Camp, hip hop, rap, music, youth, masculinity, G-Town, palestine

Topics: Occupation, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Boys, Masculinity/ies, Violence Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel

Year: 2009

Empire, Desire and Violence: A Queer Transnational Feminist Reading of the Prisoner ‘Abuse’ in Abu Ghraib and the Question of ‘Gender Equality'

Citation:

Richter-Montpetit, Melanie. 2007. “Empire, Desire and Violence: A Queer Transnational Feminist Reading of the Prisoner ‘Abuse’ in Abu Ghraib and the Question of ‘Gender Equality.’” International Feminist Journal of Politics 9 (1): 38-59.

Author: Melanie Richter-Montpetit

Abstract:

Dominant discourses in the United States paint the acts of prisoner 'abuse' committed by US soldiers in Abu Ghraib in 2003 as either the obscene but exceptional example of some low-ranking soldiers gone mad, or as the direct result of the suspension of the rule of law in the global 'war on terror'. Alternatively, feminist theorist Barbara Ehrenreich suggests that the pictures depicting female soldiers torturing prisoners are both horrifying and a sign of 'gender equality'. This article departs from all three of these positions. I argue that the micro-level violences shown in the Abu Ghraib pictures are neither just aberrations nor a sign of gender equality. Rather they follow a pre-constructed heterosexed, racialized and gendered script that is firmly grounded in the colonial desires and practices of the larger social order and that underpins the hegemonic 'save civilization itself'-fantasy of the 'war on terror'. I explore how the participation of some of the US Empire's internal Others, namely White western women, may disrupt some of the social processes of normalization underpinning this colonial fantasy, but nevertheless serves to re/produce the identity and hegemony of the US Empire and its heterosexed, racialized and classed World (Dis)Order.

Keywords: Abu Ghraib, civilization, colonial, desires, Ehrenreich, Empire, fantasy, gender equality, militarized masculinity, orientalism, US, 'Whiteness'

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Race, Sexual Violence, Female Perpetrators, SV against men, Violence

Year: 2007

Gendering the Palestinian Political Cartoon

Citation:

Yaqub, Nadia. 2009. “Gendering the Palestinian Political Cartoon.” Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication 2 (2): 187–213.

Author: Nadia Yaqub

Abstract:

This paper examines the representation of the distribution of agency and responsibility across gender roles in Palestinian political cartoons. Cartoons are read to discover the nature of family dynamics, the relationship between the home and what lies outside it, and public and private sources of culture and Palestinian identity. Included are the work of Naji al-Ali whose widely- read cartoons appeared in Arabic language newspapers from the 1960’s until his assassination in 1987, and that of six contemporary cartoonists: Baha Boukhari, Khalil Abu Arafeh, Omayya Joha, Muhammed Sabaaneh, Naser al-Jafari, and Emad Hajjaj. In al-Ali’s cartoons, Palestinian men and their families are deeply affected by the pressures of dispossession, violence, and exploitation by elites. However, because the disruption affects mainly the public sphere of military action, politics, and wage labor, it is men who are most negatively affected by those pressures. They are often at a loss as to how to respond, and do not always make wise choices. On the other hand, al-Ali locates the idea of Palestine squarely in the private sphere, in women’s roles in biological and social reproduction. Because this idea is intact, women are able to perform their roles even in states of extreme violence and dispossession. The cartoons of later artists differ in that masculinity is divorced from military action, and although politics is largely ineffectual, men are endowed with agency in the public sphere. Women in the later cartoons continue to be defined chiefly, though not exclusively, by the domestic sphere, but Palestinian motherhood is in crisis and women in grave danger in many of these cartoons, a reflection of the crisis of the idea of Palestine as a whole and sound homeland.

Keywords: Palestinian, political cartoons, gender, representation, masculinity, Naji al-Ali

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Violence Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2009

The Unlikely Terrorist: Women and Islamic Resistance in Lebanon and the Palestinian Territories

Citation:

Holt, Maria. 2010. “The Unlikely Terrorist: Women and Islamic Resistance in Lebanon and the Palestinian Territories.” Critical Studies on Terrorism 3 (3): 365–82.

Author: Maria Holt

Abstract:

Islamic resistance groups in Lebanon and the Palestinian territories have been accused of using terrorist tactics to achieve their aims. Although some critics suggest that such groups may also have hijacked the democratic agenda in ways that disadvantage women, their supporters claim that they are promoting a model of modernity that is empowering women. This article examines the reasons why some Lebanese Shi’i and Palestinian women support the resistance against Israeli invasion and occupation that is justified in terms of religion. Far from seeing the actions of Hizbullah in Lebanon and Hamas in the Palestinian territories as acts of terrorism, many women welcome the resistance as it brings dignity and meaning to their lives and enhances feelings of national identification.

Keywords: women, islamic resistance, Lebanon, Palestinian territories, modernity, female martyr, Hamas, Hizbullah

Topics: Gender, Women, Religion, Terrorism, Violence Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Lebanon, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2010

Power, Borders, Security, Wealth: Lessons of Violence and Desire from September 11

Citation:

Agathangelou, Anna M., and L. H. M. Ling. 2004. “Power, Borders, Security, Wealth: Lessons of Violence and Desire from September 11.” International Studies Quarterly 48 (3): 517–38.

Authors: Anna M. Agathangelou, L. H. M. Ling

Abstract:

America's “war on terror” and Al Qaeda's “jihad” reflect mirror strategies of imperial politics. Each camp transnationalizes violence and insecurity in the name of national or communal security. Neoliberal globalization underpins this militarization of daily life. Its desire industries motivate and legitimate elite arguments (whether from “infidels” or “terrorists”) that society must sacrifice for its hypermasculine leaders. Such violence and desire draw on colonial identities of Self vs. Other, patriotism vs. treason, hunter vs. prey, and masculinity vs. femininity that are played out on the bodies of ordinary men and women. We conclude with suggestions of a human security to displace the elite privilege that currently besets world politics.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Security, Human Security, Violence

Year: 2004

Raising Children in a Violent Context: An Intersectionality Approach to Understanding Parents’ Experiences in Ciudad Juárez

Citation:

Grineski, Sara E., Alma A. Hernández, and Vicky Ramos. 2013. “Raising Children in a Violent Context: An Intersectionality Approach to Understanding Parents’ Experiences in Ciudad Juárez.” Women’s Studies International Forum 40 (September): 10–22. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2013.04.001.

Authors: Sara E. Grineski, Alma A. Hernández, Vicky Ramos

Abstract:

Children's and parents' daily lives are rarely highlighted in coverage of drug wars. Using 16 interviews with parents in the Mexican border city of Juárez in 2010, we examine how drug violence impacts families with a focus on intersections of gender and social class. Related to mobility (the first emergent theme), fathers had increased mobility as compared to mothers, which caused different stresses. Material hardships heightened mothers' isolation within the home, and mothers more often had to enforce children's mobility restrictions, which children resisted. Related to employment (the second emergent theme), fathers took on dangerous jobs to provide for the family while mothers had fewer options for informal employment due to violence. In sum, men and women faced different challenges, which were intensified due to class-based material disadvantages. Conformity with traditional gender expectations for behavior was common for men and women, illustrating the normalization of gender inequality within this context.

Topics: Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Trafficking, Drug Trafficking, Violence Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2013

Telling Stories—Rethreading Lives: Community Education, Women’s Development and Social Change Among the Maya Ixil

Citation:

Lykes, M. Brinton, Ana Caba Mateo, Jacinta Chávez Anay, Ana Laynez Caba, Ubaldo Ruiz, and Joan W. Williams. 1999. “Telling Stories—Rethreading Lives: Community Education, Women’s Development and Social Change Among the Maya Ixil.” International Journal of Leadership in Education: Theory and Practice 2 (3): 207–27.

Authors: M. Brinton Lykes, Ana Caba Mateo, Jacinta Chávez Anay, Ana Laynez Caba, Ubaldo Ruiz, Joan W. Williams

Abstract:

Peace negotiations culminating in accords signed between the Guatemalan government and guerrilla forces (URNG) on 29 December 1996 have ‘ended’ nearly 36 years of war in Guatemala and afforded new spaces in which survivors testify to horrific violence including massacres, military occupation, internal displacement, extreme poverty and exile. In this paper we describe the development of a women's organization in rural Guatemala that was created to respond to some of the psychological, economic and educational consequences of this war. The Association's genesis and current work reflect collaborative processes of interethnic and transnational non-formal education, community organizing and leadership development. While responding directly to social injustices—including centuries of discrimination and marginalization of indigenous peoples—and the multiple effects of war, the Association provides a context wherein rural Maya women are enhancing self- and community-confidence to act on their own behalf in the development of action plans for change within their local community. In this paper we discuss some of our experiences as insiders in a rural area deeply impacted by war, state violence and poverty, and as outsiders who seek to accompany them in constructing peace with justice at a local level. We document some of the challenges experienced in collaborations across multiple differences as well as their contributions to women's development and to their creation of more just and equitable educational programmes for themselves and children in their communities.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Development, Economies, Poverty, Education, Gender, Women, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Guatemala

Year: 1999

Análisis de la Problemática del Feminicidio en un Posible Escenario de Posconflicto

Citation:

Huertas-Díaz, Omar, María Cristina Patiño-González, and Angie Lorena Lorena Ruíz-Herrera. 2016. “Análisis de la Problemática del Feminicidio en un Posible Escenario de Posconflicto.” Principia Iuris 12 (23): 186–215.

Authors: Omar Huertas-Díaz, María Cristina Patiño-González, Angie Lorena Lorena Ruíz-Herrera

Abstract:

Este trabajo destaca la interdependencia existente entre los contextos públicos y privados de relacionamiento, lo cual se evidencia en la normalización de la violencia como forma de resolución de los conflictos. Esta normalización es el resultado de una historia caracterizada por las confrontaciones armadas, especialmente desde el establecimiento de organizaciones guerrilleras y paramilitares en el país. En paralelo a esta normalización, se encuentra la consolidación de imaginarios de género que relegan a la mujer a una posición de víctima u objeto sexual que se refleja en las acciones de los combatientes tanto en las acciones emprendidas bajo el contexto de la confrontación, como en las que se desarrollan luego de la dejación de las armas. Ante este panorama, el trabajo plantea la necesidad de considerar tales imaginarios de género, especialmente sobre aquellos individuos cuyas nociones de pensamiento se vieron moldeadas por su pertenencia a una organización militar, teniendo en cuenta el posible escenario de posconflicto y en consecuencia la salida de la guerra de cientos de hombres y mujeres combatientes; esto en miras de la prevención de actos de violencia contra la mujer, específicamente de actos de feminicidio. En este sentido, la formulación de estrategias dirigidas a la prevención y erradicación de la violencia contra la mujer deben considerar no sólo medidas de carácter punitivo ejemplificado con la reciente Ley 1761, sino también la reconstrucción de las estructuras de pensamiento que sustentan tales violencias.

Keywords: Violencia contra la mujer, femenicidio, violencia sexual, imaginarios de género, desmovilizados, proceso de paz, posconflicto, Ley 1761

Topics: Combatants, DDR, Gender, Women, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2016

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