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Violence

Hunger for Farmland among Female Farmers in Limpopo Province: Bodies, Violence and Land

Citation:

Makhetha, Esther, and Tim Hart. 2018. “Hunger for Farmland among Female Farmers in Limpopo Province: Bodies, Violence and Land.” Agenda 32 (4): 65-77.

Authors: Esther Makhetha, Tim Hart

Abstract:

This article explores intersections between women’s bodies, violence and land amongst female farmers in Limpopo Province, South Africa. We explore how female farmers negotiate access to land through their own agency and resistance on a daily basis by analysing their narratives and experiences in their quest to access and use land for farming. Based largely on ethnographic interviews and observations the article argues that women’s involvement in farming should be considered not only as an economic survival strategy, but also as an indication of how the female farmers express resistance and agency in their pursuit to acquire land for farming. This article contributes to the body of literature that explores the relationship between women’s bodies, violence and access to land but does so by focusing on land redistribution and some of the challenges it poses to women of different backgrounds and degrees of social power and influence. The paper make four recommendations about how the government can improve its focus on female farmers and get to grips with gender mainstreaming and needs.

Keywords: land redistribution, farming, gender mainstreaming, women's bodies, Limpopo Province

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Rights, Land Rights, Violence Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 2018

Extractivism, Gender, and Disease: An Intersectional Approach to Inequalities

Citation:

Cielo, Cristina, and Lisset Coba. 2018. "Extractivism, Gender, and Disease: An Intersectional Approach to Inequalities." Ethics & International Affairs 32 (2): 169-78.

Authors: Cristina Cielo, Lisset Coba

Abstract:

Social inequalities can only be understood through the interaction of their multiple dimensions. In this essay, we show that the economic and environmental impacts of natural resource extraction exacerbate gendered disparities through the intensification and devaluation of care work. A chikungunya epidemic in the refinery city of Esmeraldas, Ecuador, serves to highlight the embodied and structural violence of unhealthy conditions. Despite its promises of development, the extraction-based economy in Esmeraldas has not increased its vulnerable populations’ opportunities. It has, instead, deepened class and gendered hierarchies. In this context, the most severe effects of chikungunya are experienced by women, who bear the burden of social reproduction and sustaining lives under constant threat. (Cambridge University Press) 

Topics: Class, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Ecuador

Year: 2018

Curious Erasures: The Sexual in Wartime Sexual Violence

Citation:

Baaz, Maria Eriksson, and Maria Stern. 2018. “Curious Erasures: The Sexual in Wartime Sexual Violence.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 20 (3): 295-314.

Authors: Maria Eriksson Baaz, Maria Stern

Abstract:

Wartime sexual violence is especially egregious precisely because it is a sexual form of violence that causes particular harms. Yet, curiously, and in contrast to feminist theory on sexual violence more generally, the sexual has been erased from frames of understanding in dominant accounts of wartime rape. This article places the seeming certainty that “wartime rape is not about sex (it’s about power/violence)” under critical scrutiny and poses questions about the stakes of the erasure of the sexual in explanations of conflict-related sexual violence. It argues that the particular urgency that accompanies this erasure reflects the workings of familiar distinctions between war and peace, as well as efforts to clearly recognize violence and separate it from sex. Erasing the sexual from accounts of wartime rape thus ultimately reinscribes the normal and the exceptional as separate and reproduces a reductive notion of heterosexual masculine sex (in peacetime) that is ontologically different from the violence of war.

Keywords: sexual violence, wartime, peacetime, rape, feminist theory, sexuality

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Discourses, Sexual Violence, Rape, Sexuality, Violence

Year: 2018

Intimate War

Citation:

Pain, Rachel. 2015. "Intimate War." Political Geography 44: 64-73.

Author: Rachel Pain

Abstract:

Contending that domestic violence and modern international warfare are part of a single complex of violence, this paper identifies their shared intimate dynamics. Both violences operate through emotional and psychological registers that are as central to their effectiveness as incidents of direct physical harm. While these dynamics are intimate, they are present across scale, and read here through a feminist lens on intimacy-geopolitics where neither framing has primacy. Research on the connections between domestic violence and international warfare is longstanding, most recently highlighting how intimate violence is produced within warzones. The analysis here begins instead from intimate dynamics, to draw out the warlike nature of domestic violence in peacetime. Tactics of modern warfare are juxtaposed with the dynamics of domestic violence in suburban Scottish homes: shock and awe, hearts and minds, cultural and psychological occupation, just war and collateral damage. Resisting the temptation to regard domestic violence as everyday militarism, the relation is rotated: both violences continuously wind through the intimate-geopolitical. This spatial reconfiguration is structured by gender, race, class, nation and citizenship, resulting in uneven impacts from all kinds of intimate war. The interweaving of military and intimate themes is intended as a casting-off point for progressing political geographies that are attentive to intimacy as foundational in the workings of power across scale.

Keywords: domestic violence, war, intimacy, geopolitics, emotions, military tactics, militarism

Topics: Armed Conflict, Domestic Violence, Gender, Women, Men, Gender-Based Violence, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Violence

Year: 2015

Right-Wing Sisterhood: Everyday Politics of Hindu Nationalist Women in India and Zionist Settler Women in Israel-Palestine

Citation:

Mehta, Akanksha. 2017. "Right-Wing Sisterhood: Everyday Politics of Hindu Nationalist Women in India and Zionist Settler Women in Israel-Palestine." PhD diss., SOAS University of London.

Author: Akanksha Mehta

Annotation:

Summary: 
"Right-Wing movements have gained political momentum in the last few decades, drawing within their ranks women who not only embody their exclusionary and violent politics but who also simultaneously contest everyday patriarchies. This thesis examines the everyday politics of women in two right-wing movements, the cultural nationalist Hindu right-wing project in India and the settler-colonial Zionist project in Israel-Palestine. Based on fourteen months of ethnographic, narrative, and visual ‘fieldwork’ conducted with women in both these movements, I argue that through a politics of the everyday, right-wing women bargain and negotiate with patriarchal communities/homes, male-formulated ideologies and discourses, and maledominated right-wing projects and spaces. These mediations replicate and affirm as well as subvert and challenge patriarchal structures and power hierarchies, troubling the binaries of home/world, private/public, personal/political, and victim/agent. I assert that dominant literature on rightwing women focuses on motherhood and family, ignoring various other crucial subject positions that are constituted and occupied by right-wing women and neglecting the agential and empowering potential of right-wing women’s subjectivities.
 
"I use four themes/lenses to examine the everyday politics of right-wing women. These are: pedagogy and education; charity and humanitarian work; intimacy, friendship, sociability and leisure; and political violence. By interrogating the practices that are contained in and enabled by these four locations of Hindu right-wing and Zionist settler women’s everyday politics, this thesis highlights the multiple narratives, contradictions, pluralities, hierarchies, power structures, languages, and discourses that encompass right-wing women’s projects" (Mehta 2017, 3-4). 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Nationalism, Political Participation, Religion, Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Southeast Asia Countries: India, Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2017

Women's Entrepreneurship and Intimate Partner Violence: A Cluster Randomized Trial of Microenterprise Assistance and Partner Participation in Post-Conflict Uganda

Citation:

Green, Eric P., Christopher Blattman, Julian Jamison, and Jeannie Annan. 2015. “Women's Entrepreneurship and Intimate Partner Violence: A Cluster Randomized Trial of Microenterprise Assistance and Partner Participation in Post-Conflict Uganda.” Social Science & Medicine 133: 177-88.

Authors: Eric P. Green, Christopher Blattman, Julian Jamison, Jeannie Annan

Abstract:

Intimate partner violence is widespread and represents an obstacle to human freedom and a significant public health concern. Poverty alleviation programs and efforts to economically “empower” women have become popular policy options, but theory and empirical evidence are mixed on the relationship between women's empowerment and the experience of violence. We study the effects of a successful poverty alleviation program on women's empowerment and intimate partner relations and violence from 2009 to 2011. In the first experiment, a cluster-randomized superiority trial, 15 marginalized people (86% women) were identified in each of 120 villages (n ¼ 1800) in Gulu and Kitgum districts in Uganda. Half of villages were randomly assigned via public lottery to immediate treatment: five days of business training, $150, and supervision and advising. We examine intent-to-treat estimates of program impact and heterogeneity in treatment effects by initial quality of partner relations. 16 months after the initial grants, the program doubled business ownership and incomes (p < 0.01); we show that the effect on monthly income, however, is moderated by initial quality of intimate partner relations. We also find small increases in marital control (p < 0.05), self-reported autonomy (p < 0.10), and quality of partner relations (p < 0.01), but essentially no change in intimate partner violence. In a second experiment, we study the impact of a low-cost attempt to include household partners (often husbands) in the process. Participants from the 60 waitlist villages (n ¼ 904) were randomly assigned to participate in the program as individuals or with a household partner. We observe small, non-significant decreases in abuse and marital control and large increases in the quality of relationships (p < 0.05), but no effects on women's attitudes toward gender norms and a non-significant reduction in autonomy. Involving men and changing framing to promote more inclusive programming can improve relationships, but may not change gender attitudes or increase business success. Increasing women's earnings has no effect on intimate partner violence.

Keywords: Uganda, poverty, gender, cash transfers, microenterprise, empowerment, Intimate partner violence, post-conflict

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Health, Livelihoods, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, SV against women, Violence Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2015

Reducing Gender-Based Violence in Public Transportation: Strategy Design for Mexico City, Mexico

Citation:

Rivadeneyra, Aldo Tudela, Abel Lopez Dodero, Shomik Raj Mehndiratta, Bianca Bianchi Alves, and Elizabeth Deakin. 2015. “Reducing Gender-Based Violence in Public Transportation: Strategy Design for Mexico City, Mexico” Transportation Research Record 2531 (1): 187–94.

Authors: Aldo Tudela Rivadeneyra, Abel Lopez Dodero, Shomik Raj Mehndiratta, Bianca Bianchi Alves, Elizabeth Deakin

Abstract:

Gender-based violence on public transportation in Mexico City, Mexico, is a growing concern. Current efforts to counteract the violence have focused on transit vehicles for exclusive use by women and children and campaigns to promote the report of offenses. To characterize the problem, this study conducted a transit user survey, workshops with transit users, interviews with operators, and interviews with experts in the field. The study found that, even though transit users believed that the gender-exclusive transport service reduced problematic encounters, they did not view the service as a solution to the problem of gender-based violence. Transit users would prefer to see the problem addressed through a combination of interventions including social marketing, mobile phone reporting systems, and transit service upgrades. Government agencies acknowledged that gender segregation and current reporting systems were only partially successful, and nongovernmental organizations and private operators agreed. Those agencies added that they were ready to contribute to the effort to find solutions to the problem. Study recommendations included (a) a communication campaign to foster better social behavior by passengers; (b) the use of technology, such as cell phone applications, to enable users to report offenses; and (c) the further investigation of the potential for new technology-based niche transportation services to address particular markets that were unsafe.

Topics: Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Transportation, Sexual Violence, Violence Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2015

Double Disaster: Disaster through a Gender Lens

Citation:

Bradshaw, Sarah, and Maureen Fordham. 2015. “Double Disaster: Disaster through a Gender Lens.” In Hazards, Risks and Disasters in Society, edited by John F. Shroder, Andrew E. Collins, Samantha Jones, Bernard Manyena, and Janaka Jayawickrama, 233-51. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 

Authors: Sarah Bradshaw, Maureen Fordham

Abstract:

This chapter explores the impact of disasters on women and girls, with particular reference to the context of the developing world. It critically explores the conceptual and theoretical basis for assuming that a differential impact exists. It highlights that disasters are gendered events and women and girls experience them differently from men, suffering longer term and more intangible impacts such as a rise in violence or greater insecurity in employment. Given women and girls are impacted more and differently than men and boys, it might be expected gender issues would be a key policy concern, yet the chapter highlights that gender is still excluded from much policy on disaster risk reduction. Drawing on the lessons learned from processes to “engender development,” it suggests that, although exclusion remains an issue, how women are included in disaster risk reduction and response can also raise concerns. It concludes by highlighting that tackling gendered risk demands both a reconceptualization of “disaster” and for disasters to become a development issue. (Abstract from Elsevier) 

Keywords: disaster risk reduction, engendering, gender, women, Adolescent girls

Topics: Development, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Livelihoods, Violence

Year: 2015

Recalling Violence: Gender and Memory Work in Contemporary Post-conflict Peru

Citation:

Boesten, Jelke. 2019. "Recalling Violence: Gender and Memory Work in Contemporary Post-conflict Peru." In Rethinking Transitional Gender Justice: Transformative Approaches in Post-Conflict Settings, edited by Rita Shackel and Lucy Fiske, 165-85. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

Author: Jelke Boesten

Abstract:

Drawing on the memory battles in contemporary Peru, Jelke Boesten explores victimhood, agency and representation across lines of class, race and gender. In particular, she looks at how gendered aspects of violence are recalled in artistic representations of the past, and if and how such representations may provide any form of redress, reparation or consolation for victim-survivors of war. Such a gendered reading of commemorative practices and symbolic reparations highlights what is not said, what is still hidden and whose trauma is at stake—and whose is not. (Abstract from Springer)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Post-Conflict, Race, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Peru

Year: 2019

Gender Dimensions of (Non)Violence in Communal Conflict: The Case of Jos, Nigeria

Citation:

Krause, Jana. 2019. "Gender Dimensions of (Non)Violence in Communal Conflict: The Case of Jos, Nigeria." Comparative Political Studies: 1-34.

Author: Jana Krause

Abstract:

Peacebuilding is more likely to succeed in countries with higher levels of gender equality, but few studies have examined the link between subnational gender relations and local peace and, more generally, peacebuilding after communal conflict. This article addresses this gap. I examine gender relations and (non)violence in ethno-religious conflict in the city of Jos in central Nigeria. Jos and its rural surroundings have repeatedly suffered communal clashes that have killed thousands, sometimes within only days. Drawing on qualitative data collected during fieldwork, I analyze the gender dimensions of violence, nonviolence, and postviolence prevention. I argue that civilian agency is gendered. Gender relations and distinct notions of masculinity can facilitate or constrain people’s mobilization for fighting. Hence, a nuanced understanding of the gender dimensions of (non)violence has important implications for conflict prevention and local peacebuilding.

Keywords: communal violence, gender relations, nonviolence, peacebuilding, masculinities

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Ethnicity, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Conflict, Nonviolence, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Religion, Violence Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2019

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