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UNSCR 1820

Contesting Feminism’s Institutional Doubles: Troubling the Security Council’s Women, Peace and Security Agenda

Citation:

Otto, Dianne. 2019. "Contesting Feminism’s Institutional Doubles: Troubling the Security Council’s Women, Peace and Security Agenda." In Governance Feminism: Notes from the Field, edited by Janet Halley, Prabha Kotiswaran, Rachel Rebouché, and Hila Shamir, 200-29. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Author: Dianne Otto

Annotation:

Summary:
"In early 2000, feminist peace activists embarked on an ambitious new strategy of engagement with institutional power, from within rather than from outside the international military and diplomatic establishment, when the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) led a coalition of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) hoping to persuade the UN Security Council to adopt a thematic resolution on women, peace, and security (WPS). Previously, the Council had shown almost no interest in women except, commencing with the 1990s conflicts in the Balkans, as victims of conflict-related sexual violence. That the Council responded positively to the efforts of the NGO Working Group on Women, Peace and Security (hereafter referred to simply as the NGO Working Group) and unanimously adopted Resolution 1325 (SCR 1325) on October 31, 2000, came as a surprise to me, although, as I will explain, I have since realized that there was much for the Council to gain by (re)presenting itself as feminist-friendly. I have also been astonished by the remarkable institutional productivity that has followed the adoption of SCR 1325. Not only has it prompted annual Security Council debates on WPS and annual Secretary-General’s Reports since 2004; it has led to a further seven resolutions on this theme (as of October 2016). Cascades of gender policies, training manuals, checklists, indicators, benchmarks, targets, studies, and reports have also followed, as well as many new positions established for “gender experts,” including the special representative of the secretary-general on sexual violence in conflict and Gender Advisory Teams deployed by UN Peacekeeping to all multidimensional peacekeeping operations" (Otto 2019, 200-1).

Topics: Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, International Organizations, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Peacekeeping, Sexual Violence, SV against Women, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 1820, UNSCR 1888, UNSCR 1889, UNSCR 1960, UNSCR 2106, UNSCR 2122, UNSCR 2242

Year: 2019

Engendering Peacebuilding: The International Gender Nomenclature of Peace Politics and Women’s Participation in the Colombian Peace Process

Citation:

Boutron, Camille. 2018. "Engendering Peacebuilding: The International Gender Nomenclature of Peace Politics and Women's Participation in the Colombian Peace Process." Journal of Peacebuilding & Development 13 (2): 116-21.

Author: Camille Boutron

Keywords: Colombia, gender politics, women's empowerment, liberal peace-building

Annotation:

Summary:
"The peace negotiations held between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) in Habana between 2012 and 2016 represented a historical precedent for the inclusion of a gender approach in conflict resolution. If gender and women’s issues had not been noteworthy topics during the first two years of the negotiations (2012–2014), this configuration changed in a significant way with the establishment in September 2014 of a gender subcommittee at the negotiations table, composed of representatives of the Colombian government and the FARC guerrillas (Bouvier 2016, 21). The gender subcommittee was established thanks to the combined endeavours of women’s organisations and those of the actors from the international community engaged in promoting the gender lens in Colombian peacebuilding. It played a substantial role in the inclusion of a transversal gender perspective in the peace agreement signed by both parties on 26 September 2016. Indeed, no peace agreement had ever gone so far in the inclusion of a gender perspective since the adoption of the UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 of October 2000, which laid the foundations for the subsequent elaboration of the Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) global agenda and represented a starting point for the adoption of many additional UN resolutions ensuring women’s leadership in peacebuilding and preventing sexual violence in armed conflicts (UNSCR 1889, 1820, 1888, 1960, 2106, 2242). These resolutions enabled the constitution of a broader roadmap guiding the inclusion of women in international peace politics. Colombia appears to be an emblematic case when it comes to analysing the various forms of implementation of the WPS agenda" (Boutron 2018, 116).

Topics: Gender, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 1820, UNSCR 1888, UNSCR 1889, UNSCR 1960, UNSCR 2106, UNSCR 2242 Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2018

Bringing Gender In? EU Foreign and Security Policy after Brexit

Citation:

Haastrup, Toni, Katharine A. M. Wright, and Roberta Guerrina. 2019. "Bringing Gender In? EU Foreign and Security Policy after Brexit." Politics and Governance 7 (3): 62-71.

Authors: Toni Haastrup, Katharine A. M. Wright, Roberta Guerrina

Abstract:

In this article, we identify Brexit as a critical process, wherein the EU has had the opportunity to reflect on and reinforce its identity, as a promoter of gender issues within the security domain. It draws on this identity from a foundational myth of the EU as gender equality polity, resulting in the creation of a socio-legal order and sustained discourse on gender inclusivity in all policy areas. Existing scholarship has drawn attention to the EU’s particular success in gender equality promotion in the areas of social inclusion at member state level, including in the UK. But, is the EU’s reach comprehensive beyond this policy sphere? We examine the ways in which gender is manifested in the area of foreign policy, an area where the UK has consistently shown some leadership on the integration of gender perspectives in its foreign policy through its international development programmes and the implementation of the Women, Peace and Security agenda. It is therefore timely to consider what impact Brexit has on EU policies, practices and the promotion of gender equality in this policy domain. Using a critical feminist lens, this article looks at the evolution of gender equality as a dimension of EU foreign and security policy in the context of EU–UK relations, and the divergences, opportunities and constraints that are crystallised by the Brexit process.

Keywords: Brexit, critical feminism, EU, foreign policy, gender, gender equality, UK, women's agency

Topics: Feminisms, Feminist Foreign Policy, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Organizations, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 1820 Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2019

In the Aftermath of Reparations: The Experiences of Female Beneficiaries of Ghana's Reparations Programme

Citation:

Baiden, Regina Akosua Dede. 2019. "In the Aftermath of Reparations: The Experiences of Female Beneficiaries of Ghana's Reparations Programme." Journal of Peacebuilding & Development 14 (1): 22-35.

Author: Regina Akosua Dede Baiden

Abstract:

With increased attention to the needs of women in conflict and post-conflict situations, a multitude of resolutions on Women, Peace and Security have been adopted at the international level. Security Council Resolutions 1325, 1820, and 2122 all reflect an increased recognition of the need to engage, monitor, and increase women’s participation in post-conflict recovery process. Although scholars on reparations have focused on the benefits that a gendered perspective brings to reparations programmes, scare research exists on the experiences of women years after the acquisition of reparation. This article investigates the lived experiences of female beneficiaries of Ghana’s reparations programme 8 years after completion of the programme. It highlights the violence experienced by four female beneficiaries of the programme, showing the long-term impacts of violence on their lives. The article reveals the reparations programme’s inability to adequately address the effect of violence on the lives of female beneficiaries.

Keywords: gender-based violence, women's rights, reparations, transitional justice, economic violence, resilience

Topics: Gender, Women, Justice, Reparations, Post-Conflict, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 1820, UNSCR 2122, Violence Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2019

Building Resilient Societies: The Relevance of UNSCR 1325 in Egypt's Political Transition

Citation:

Nasser, Salma. 2018.  "Building Resilient Societies: The Relevance of UNSCR 1325 in Egypt's Political Transition." Journal of International Women's Studies 19 (6): 35-52.

Author: Salma Nasser

Abstract:

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 and 1820 and the more recent 1888, 1889, 1960, 2106, 2122 and 2242 reflect a rights-based approach to human security with a focus on the prevention of violence against women and girls and fostering their active and meaningful participation in public life in conflict and post conflict contexts. This is a particularly important framework in the African context where, over the past 5 years alone, conflict has plagued over 18 countries and has had devastating socio-economic impacts on women and led to the weakening of justice systems and social norms, which at the best of times secure minimum protection for women. In 2011 the North of the continent boiled over with political unrest which culminated with civil war in some countries. A notable phenomenon is that even in countries that escaped the predicament of armed conflict, women were subject to many of the same threats. As such, while UNSCR 1325 addresses the protection of women in times of armed conflict and peace building, provisions are still relevant in cases of political transition such as that of Egypt where there have been serious challenges to security, justice and accountability. The institutional framework in place for protecting women in conflict calls for their integration into the ensuing decision making process and inclusive dialogue is the only way to develop resilient and effective institutions for societies in transition. This paper will present a case study of lessons that could be learnt from UNSCR 1325 in terms of protecting women and girls from violence; ensuring the mainstreaming of gender perspectives in national policies; and increasing the participation of women in decisionmaking and political transition processes.

Keywords: UNSCR 1325, women's rights, violence against women, political transition, Egypt, peace building

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Conflict, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Gender Mainstreaming, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, International Organizations, Justice, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Rights, Security, Human Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 1820, UNSCR 1888, UNSCR 1889, UNSCR 1960, UNSCR 2106, UNSCR 2122, UNSCR 2242 Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Asia, Middle East Countries: Egypt

Year: 2018

The Elusive Peace: Ending Sexual Violence during and after Conflict

Citation:

Atuhaire, Pearl Karuhanga, Nicole Gerring, Laura Huber, Mirgul Kuhns, and Grace Ndirangu. 2018. The Elusive Peace: Ending Sexual Violence during and after Conflict. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace. 

Authors: Pearl Karuhanga Atuhaire, Nicole Gerring, Laura Huber, Mirgul Kuhns, Grace Ndirangu

Annotation:

Summary:
"The consequences of sexual violence during armed conflict include trauma, social stigma, cyclical poverty, health issues, and unwanted pregnancies. Furthermore, the impacts of sexual violence during armed conflict last generations, disrupting societies and making peace elusive. Recognizing the scale of the problem, the United Nations Security Council in 2008 adopted Resolution 1820, which condemned sexual violence as a tool of war and offered specific actions to address the causes and consequences of wartime sexual violence. The implementation of Resolution 1820 has primarily focused on sexual violence committed by armed actors, but ten years of programming and research demonstrate clear connections between conflict and sexual violence that extend beyond wartime. Other forms of sexual violence, including sexual exploitation and abuse, domestic sexual violence, and violence targeted at women in politics, are often exacerbated by armed conflict and increase insecurity. This report defines this violence as conflict-associated sexual violence. Conflict-associated sexual violence contributes to the normalization of violence, undermines social cohesion, and worsens structural inequalities. The harmful impacts of conflict-associated sexual violence threaten the security of women, communities, and states, and disrupt peace processes. The United Nations and its member states, civil society organizations, media outlets, the private sector, and academia must recognize and address the detrimental impacts of conflict-associated sexual violence. The policy community must consider conflict-associated sexual violence as both a public health and a security concern” (Atuhaire et al 2018, 1).

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Society, Economies, Poverty, Domestic Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Peace and Security, Post-Conflict, Political Participation, Peace Processes, Security, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1820, Violence

Year: 2018

Advancing Women's Empowerment or Rolling Back the Gains? Peace Building in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

Citation:

Abdullah, Hussaina J. 2014. “Advancing Women’s Empowerment or Rolling Back the Gains? Peace Building in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone.” In Feminisms, Empowerment and Development: Changing Women’s Lives, edited by Andrea Cornwall and Jenny Edwards. London: Zed Books.

Author: Hussaina J. Abdullah

Annotation:

Summary: 
“Sierra Leone’s reconstruction and peace consolidation policies and programmes are pursued within the post-conflict peace-building framework (UN 1992). Within this framework, women and gender issues have been articulated through a series of UN Security Council resolutions, such as 1325 (in 2000), 1820 (in 2008), 1888 and 1889 (in 2009), 1960 (in 2010) and 2106 and 2122 (in 2013). These resolutions specifically address women’s rights in post-conflict societies, their participation in reconstruction processes, their protection from violence, and the strengthening of justice systems. For instance, resolution 1325, the premier declaration on Women, Peace and Security, clearly links sexual violence as a weapon of war with the pursuit of peace and security, and outlines a legal structure for addressing these concerns at various levels” (Abdullah 2014, 67-68).
 
“To further consolidate the Women, Peace and Security agenda, the UN released two reports – ‘Report of the Secretary- General on Women, Peace and Security’ and ‘Report of the Secretary-General on Women’s Participation in Peacebuilding’ – on the tenth anniversary of the adoption of resolution 1325. The outstanding element in the latter report, which looked at women’s needs and participation in post-conflict reconstruction and transformation and peace-building processes, was the stipulation that 15 per cent of all UN-managed post-conflict financing funds should support projects that ‘address women’s specific needs, advance gender equality or empower women’ (UN 2010). While this framework has a transformatory edge, it does not go far enough to ensure women’s empowerment. Its application in post-conflict Sierra Leone is disjointed and full of loopholes that can be used to roll back whatever gains women have achieved. This chapter explores and reflects on this outcome” (68-69).

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Peace and Security, Justice, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 1820, UNSCR 1888, UNSCR 1889, UNSCR 1960, UNSCR 2106, UNSCR 2122, Sexual Violence Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2014

Victims, Soldiers, Peacemakers and Caretakers: The Neoliberal Constitution of Women in the EU's Security Policy

Citation:

Muehlenhoff, Hanna L. 2017. “Victims, Soldiers, Peacemakers and Caretakers: The Neoliberal Constitution of Women in the EU’s Security Policy.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 19 (2): 153–67.

Author: Hanna L. Muehlenhoff

Abstract:

Feminist scholars praise and criticize the UNSC Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security for its considerations of women and gender in conflicts. Poststructuralist feminists show how gender is constructed in the UN’s security policies and how these constructions reproduce gendered dichotomies between women and men and representations of women as victims, part of civil society and neoliberal subjects. Although the UNSC Resolutions 1325 and 1820 are implemented by the EU, there is no literature on how the EU is taking up the UN’s discourse. Scholars studying gender policies in and of the EU mainly analyze the (in)effectiveness of EU gender mainstreaming but rarely interrogate its discursive foundations. Using a governmentality perspective, I argue that on the one hand the EU produces a binary and stereotypical understanding of gender, and on the other hand constitutes women as neoliberal subjects responsible for their own well-being, ignoring broader structures of (gender) inequality and war and making gender equality solely an instrument to achieve more security and development.

Keywords: governmentality, EU, gender, security, neoliberal

Topics: Civil Society, Development, Economies, Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Peace and Security, International Organizations, Peacebuilding, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 1820

Year: 2017

Women in Peace and Security through United Nations Security Resolution 1325: Literature Review, Content Analysis of National Action Plans, and Implementation

Citation:

Miller, Barbara, Milad Pournik and Aisling Swaine. 2014. "Women in Peace and Security through United Nations Security Resolution 1325: Literature Review, Content Analysis of National Action Plans, and Implementation." IGIS Working Paper 13,  Elliot School of International Affairs, Institute for Global and International Studies, George Washington University, Washington, D.C..

Authors: Barbara Miller, Milad Pournik, Aisling Swaine

Abstract:

The complex challenges and opportunities of the Women, Peace and Security Agenda, as enunciated in United National Security Council Resolution 1325 of 2000, and several subsequent resolutions, lend themselves to both a “cup half full” and a “cup half empty” interpretation. The very phrase, the Women, Peace, and Security Agenda (WPS, for short), is itself a sign of progress among professionals working on global gender policy and programs around the world, as it is increasingly accepted as an important mandate across a wide variety of institutions, both public and private. On the downside, the WPS agenda is clearly not a household term (widely known outside activist and policy circles), nor is its foundational policy, United Nations Security Resolution 1325 (UNSCR 1325).

This Working Paper looks at the Women, Peace and Security agenda as laid out in UNSCR 1325 and in six following Security Council Resolutions - UNSCR 1820, 1888, 1889, 1960, 2106 and 2122 (see Boxes 1 and 2) - to assess progress in the past decade and a half since the adoption of UNSCR 1325 in 2000. We conducted an extensive desk study of the existing literature on UNSCR 1325, performed a detailed content analysis of 40 of the 42 existing 1325 NAPs, and offer an update on implementation of Women, Peace, and Security goals more broadly. The Working Paper is addresses three main questions:

  • What does the social science and related literature say about UNSCR 1325 since its adoption in 2000?
  • What does content analysis of National Action Plans (NAPs) in support of UNSCR 1325 reveal about the effectiveness of such plans?
  • What are examples of implementation of 1325 principles with and beyond 1325 NAPs?

Topics: Gender, Women, Peace and Security, International Organizations, Peacebuilding, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 1820, UNSCR 1888, UNSCR 1889, UNSCR 1960, UNSCR 2106, UNSCR 2122

Year: 2014

Reframing Conflict-Related Sexual and Gender-Based Violence: Bringing Gender Analysis Back In

Citation:

Davies, Sara E. and Jacqui True. 2015. “Reframing Conflict-Related Sexual and Gender-Based Violence: Bringing Gender Analysis Back In.” Security Dialogue 46 (6): 495-512.

Authors: Sara E. Davies, Jacqui True

Abstract:

Over the past decade, significant global attention has been paid to the issue of ‘widespread and systematic’ sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). To contribute to the prevention of SGBV, researchers have examined the relationship between the presence of armed conflict and the causes of SGBV. Much of this causal literature has focused on the individual and group perpetrator dynamics that fuel SGBV. However, we argue that research needs to lay bare the roots of SGBV in normalized and systemic gender discrimination. This article brings back structural gender inequality as a causal explanation for SGBV. In order to better understand and prevent SGBV, we propose a critical knowledge base that identifies causal patterns of gendered violence by building on existing indicators of gender discrimination.

Keywords: gender, international security, peace and security, political violence, women

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Conflict, Peace and Security, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1820, Sexual Violence

Year: 2015

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