Connecting to Economic Opportunity: the Role of Public Transport in Promoting Women’s Employment in Lima


Martinez, Daniel F., Oscar A. Mitnik, Edgar Salgado, Lynn Scholl, and Patricia Yañez-Pagans. 2020. “Connecting to Economic Opportunity: the Role of Public Transport in Promoting Women’s Employment in Lima.” Journal of Economics, Race, and Policy 3 (March): 1–23.

Authors: Daniel Martinez, Oscar A. Mitnik, Edgar Salgado, Lynn Scholl, Patricia Yañez-Pagans


Limited access to safe transportation is one of the greatest challenges to labor force participation faced by women in developing countries. This paper quantifies the causal impacts of improved urban transport systems in women’s employment outcomes, looking at Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and elevated light rail investments in the metropolitan region of Lima, Perú. We find large gains in employment and earnings per hour among women, and not for men, due to these investments. Most of the gains arise on the extensive margin, with more women being employed, but employment does not appear to be of higher quality than that for comparison groups. We find also evidence of an increase in the use of public transport. Results are robust to alternative specifications and we do not find evidence that they are driven by neighborhood composition changes or reorganization of economic activity. Overall, these findings suggest that infrastructure investments that make it faster and safer for women to use public transport can generate important labor market impacts for women who reside in the area of influence of the improved infrastructure.

Topics: Economies, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Infrastructure, Transportation, Urban Planning, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Peru

Year: 2020

Transforming Gender Relations in Nepal’s Trail Bridge Programme: Policies and Practice


Sherpa, Mona, Ansu Tumbahangfe, Niraj Acharya, Devendra Chhetry, Indu Tuladhar, and Jane Carter. 2020. “Transforming Gender Relations in Nepal’s Trail Bridge Programme: Policies and Practice.” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Transport 173 (2): 107–21.

Authors: Mona Sherpa, Ansu Tumbahangfe, Niraj Acharya, Devendra Chhetry, Indu Tuladhar, Jane Carter


This paper considers the extent to which the full and equal rights guaranteed in Nepal’s constitution are reflected in the government’s trail bridge programme (TBP). A review of the legal provisions and relevant literature was used to inform interviews and field enquiries at nine short-span trail bridges and one long-span bridge. The analysis indicates that the TBP is broadly gender responsive in its policies, but often falls short at field level. Analysis of the findings of the study was guided by five drivers of change for women’s economic empowerment identified by the 2016 United Nations High-Level Panel. It considered the degree to which the TBP tackles adverse gender norms and promotes positive role models; addresses unpaid care work; promotes women’s assets, representation and leadership; and contributes to a revision of gender-discriminatory laws. The paper concludes with five key suggestions for rendering the TBP more gender transformative: to address the time constraints imposed on women by unpaid care work; to ensure better facilitation of social processes; to strengthen women’s leadership; to maximise women’s income from wage labour through avoiding debt, turning it into assets and undertaking skills training; to incorporate inclusive community planning and construction of long-span bridges.

Keywords: bridges, public policy, transport management

Topics: Economies, Care Economies, Economic Inequality, Feminist Economics, Gender, Infrastructure, Transportation, Urban Planning, Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2020

A Review on the Influence of Barriers on Gender Equality to Access the City: A Synthesis Approach of Mexico City and its Metropolitan Area


Mejía-Dorantes, Lucía, and Paula Soto Villagrán. 2020. “A Review on the Influence of Barriers on Gender Equality to Access the City: A Synthesis Approach of Mexico City and its Metropolitan Area.” Cities 96: 1-9.

Authors: Lucía Mejía-Dorantes, Paula Soto Villagrán


This paper explores the link between urban planning and transport through a gender perspective. Using as case study Mexico City Metropolitan Area, we discuss the importance of public transport for its inhabitants, the vital role it plays for carrying out different activities and enjoying the city. Moreover, we present the experiences that public transport system brings about to female citizens. Through a synthesis approach of different qualitative sources, we discuss how these issues are transformed into multiple barriers that shape the accessibility of women and define their commuting trips. The results suggest that, apart from many barriers, there is one type not widely discussed in the transport and accessibility literature, regarding emotional and corporal experiences, which may generate other specific forms of urban exclusion. Finally, we discuss how these barriers directly affect gender and its adverse consequences to society as a whole.

Keywords: gender inequality, barriers, transport and land-use planning, social exclusion, time poverty, Mexico City metropolitan area

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Transportation, Urban Planning Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2020

Gender Mainstreaming in Rural Road Construction/Usage in Ethiopia: Impact and Implications


Abhishek, Abraham, Cecilia Borgia, Kebede Manjur, Frank van Steenbergen, and Letty Farjado Vera. 2020. “Gender Mainstreaming in Rural Road Construction/usage in Ethiopia: Impact and Implications.” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Transport 173 (2): 122–31.

Authors: Abraham Abhishek, Cecilia Borgia, Kebede Manjur, Frank van Steenbergen, Letty Farjado Vera


This study investigated the engagement of men, women spouses (WS) and women heads-of-household (WHH) in the planning and construction of rural roads in two Ethiopian districts of Tigray and Amhara, and the differential impacts of rural roads on the mobility and transport of men, WS and WHH. The fieldwork established that there is a strong demand among women for both road use and employment opportunities in road construction. Compared with men, women demonstrated specific priorities with respect to rural road development, such as access to ambulance services, flat, wide and levelled roads, and improved access to means of transport. Although women's concerns have been slowly but steadily pushed up the planning agenda, there are gaps between gender provision in rural road development and implementation. The benefits of roads for women can be enhanced by \ targeting gender mainstreaming provisions to take into account the specific travel and transport needs of WS and WHH.

Keywords: government, local government, infrastructure planning

Topics: Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Households, Infrastructure, Transportation, Urban Planning, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Ethiopia

Year: 2020

Public Transport from a Gender Perspective: Insecurity and Victimization in Latin America. The Case of Lima and Asuncion Metropolitan Areas


Jaitman, Laura. 2020. “Public Transport from a Gender Perspective: Insecurity and Victimization in Latin America. The Case of Lima and Asuncion Metropolitan Areas.” Journal of Economics, Race, and Policy 3: 24–40.

Author: Laura Jaitman


Lack of security is the main concern of citizens in the region. Crime and violence distort the allocation of resources by governments and businesses and alter citizens’ routines. This is particularly the case for women. This paper measures women’s perceptions of insecurity and victimization on public transport in the Asuncion (Paraguay) and Lima (Peru) metropolitan areas and analyzes their influence on mobility patterns. An innovative methodology, which considers both users and nonusers of public transport in a representative sample from those metropolitan areas, is used. The paper concludes that both women’s perceptions and experiences of insecurity when using public transport, especially in the Lima metropolitan area, are among the worst in Latin America. This is associated with lower public transportation use; therefore, it limits women’s transport options, directly affecting their mobility and causing economic and time loss. About 30% of women in Lima and 6% of women in Asuncion area reported being victims of crime on public transport systems, while 79% in Lima and 24% in Asuncion have witnessed episodes of violence against women on public transport in the past 12 months. More than one third of women have suffered sexual offenses on public transport at some point in their lives. More than 80% of women do not report these crimes. Policies to enhance women’s security on public transport are analyzed as they are key to promoting gender equality. 

Topics: Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Transportation, Security, Sexual Violence, SV against Women, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Paraguay, Peru

Year: 2020

Scaling Up Gender Mainstreaming in Transport: Policies, Practices and Monitoring Processes


Njenga, Peter, and Nite Tanzarn. 2020. “Scaling Up Gender Mainstreaming in Transport: Policies, Practices and Monitoring Processes.” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Transport 173 (2): 64–75.

Authors: Peter Njenga, Nite Tanzarn


Four rural transport programmes, one each in Ghana, Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania, were reviewed in respect of gender mainstreaming. National gender frameworks and transport policies were analysed for each country. The four countries have constitutional, policy and legislative frameworks that underpin the principles of gender equality. Gender mainstreaming measures have further been cascaded downwards into sector policies, including transport. The programmes reviewed showed good practices in integration of gender across the project cycle. However, it is notable that the programmes reviewed were donor-funded and thus were significantly influenced by the gender policies of the funding mechanisms. While it was not ascertained if government-funded rural transport programmes had similarly embedded gender integration issues, there is undoubtedly a good foundation that has been laid through the programmes reviewed in this study. This practice needs to be replicated and institutionalised so that it becomes a common norm across all transport programmes. An important part of this is for national governments to ensure sector-wide enforcement of the constitutional and legislative gender precepts. The case study programmes reviewed have put in place some good gender performance assessment tools, which provide examples of the tools that could be made mandatory as part of gender accountability in the transport sector.

Keywords: developing countries, knowledge management, public policy

Topics: Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda

Year: 2020

Engendering Cities: Designing Sustainable Urban Spaces for All


Sánchez de Madariaga, Inés, and Michael Neuman, eds. 2020. Engendering Cities: Designing Sustainable Urban Spaces for All. New York: Routledge.

Authors: Inés Sánchez de Madariaga, Michael Neuman


Engendering Cities examines the contemporary research, policy, and practice of designing for gender in urban spaces. Gender matters in city design, yet despite legislative mandates across the globe to provide equal access to services for men and women alike, these issues are still often overlooked or inadequately addressed. This book looks at critical aspects of contemporary cities regarding gender, including topics such as transport, housing, public health, education, caring, infrastructure, as well as issues which are rarely addressed in planning, design, and policy, such as the importance of toilets for education and clothes washers for freeing-up time. In the first section, a number of chapters in the book assess past, current, and projected conditions in cities vis-à-vis gender issues and needs. In the second section, the book assesses existing policy, planning, and design efforts to improve women’s and men’s concerns in urban living. Finally, the book proposes changes to existing policies and practices in urban planning and design, including its thinking (theory) and norms (ethics).
The book applies the current scholarship on theory and practice related to gender in a planning context, elaborating on some critical community-focused reflections on gender and design. It will be key reading for scholars and students of planning, architecture, design, gender studies, sociology, anthropology, geography, and political science. It will also be of interest to practitioners and policy makers, providing discussion of emerging topics in the field. (Summary from Routledge)

Table of Contents:
1.Planning the Gendered City
Inés Sánchez de Madariaga and Michael Neuman

2.A Gendered View of Mobility and Transport: Next Steps and Future Directions
Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris

3.Gendered Mobility Patterns of Carers in Austria
Bente Knoll and Teresa Schwaninge

4.Violence Against Women in Moving Transportation in Indian Cities: Reconceptualising Gendered Transport Policy
Yamini Narayanan

5.Planning Mobility in Portugal with a Gender Perspective
Margarida Queirós and Nuno Marques da Costa

6.Implementation of Gender and Diversity Perspectives in Transport Development Plans in Germany
Elena von den Driesch, Linda Steuer, Tobias Berg, and Carmen Leicht-Scholten

7.Why Low-Income Women in the U.S. Need Automobiles
Evelyn Blumenberg

8.Public Toilets: The Missing Component in Designing Sustainable Urban Spaces for Women
Clara Greed

9.Are Safe Cities Just Cities? A Perspective from France
Lucile Biarrotte and Claire Hancock

10.Everyday Life Experiences of Afghan Immigrant Women as Representation of their Place of Belonging in Auckland
Roja Tafaroji

11.Gender Mainstreaming in the Regional Discourse over the Future of the Ruhr Metropolitan Area: Implementation of Gender Mainstreaming in Planning Processes
Jeanette Sebrantke, Mechtild Stiewe, Sibylle Kelp-Siekmann, and Gudrun Kemmler-Lehr

12.An Analysis of EU Urban Policy from the Perspective of Gender
Sonia De Gregorio Hurtado

13.Gender Mainstreaming Urban Planning and Design Processes in Greece
Charis Christodoulou

14.Gendering the Design of Cities in Aotearoa New Zealand: Are We There Yet?
Dory Reeves, Julie Fairey, Jade Kake, Emma McInnes, and Eva Zombori

15.Gender Impact Assessments, a Tool for the Implementation of the New Urban Agenda: The Case of Madrid Nuevo Norte
Ines Novella Abril

16.Gender and the Urban in the 21st Century: Paving Way to ‘Another’ Gender Mainstreaming
Camilla Perrone

17.Epilogue: Unifying Difference and Equality Concepts to Buttress Policy
Inés Sánchez de Madariaga

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Urban Displacement, Development, Economies, Care Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Gender Mainstreaming, Health, Infrastructure, Transportation, Urban Planning, Water & Sanitation Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, South Asia, Europe, Central Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Oceania Countries: Austria, Germany, Greece, India, New Zealand, Portugal, Spain, United States of America

Year: 2020

The Effects of Gender Transport Poverty in Karachi


Iqbal, Sana, Andree Woodcock, and Jane Osmond. 2020. “The Effects of Gender Transport Poverty in Karachi.” Journal of Transport Geography 84 (April).

Authors: Sana Iqbal , Andree Woodcock, Jane Osmond


Karachi is the economic hub of Pakistan, with an estimated population of 20 million (Khawar, 2017). However, it lacks a systematised public transport service, with few buses and no trains, leaving private bus owners to run poor-quality deregulated services. Although it may be argued that poor service fails to accommodate the needs of the inhabitants of this megacity, women are additionally marginalised by restricted transport services. Men not only have more space allocated to them on public transport but also have the freedom to use alternative and cheaper private modes of transport such as motorbikes and cycles, which are socially discouraged for women. However, there is little literature on the barriers to women's mobility in countries in the Global South, which shows how they are differentially deprived of their agency owing to the cultural norms and gender disparity in transport provision. This paper aims to identify and assess the various aspects of gender transport poverty faced by young working women in Karachi using a quantitative survey. It will broaden the understanding of gender transport poverty in the Global South.

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2020

Gender-Biased Street Naming in Urban Sub-Saharan Africa: Influential Factors, Features and Future Recommendations


Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas, and Liora Bigon. 2020. "Gender-Biased Street Naming in Urban Sub-Saharan Africa: Influential Factors, Features and Future Recommendations." Journal of Asian and African Studies. doi:10.1177/0021909620934825.

Authors: Dorcas Zuvalinyenga, Liora Bigon


This article explores the present-day problematic of gender-biased street names as prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa’s cityscapes. That is, the abundance of masculine street names as opposed to feminine ones in the urban environments of this region. The article first provides a comparative view on the scope of this toponymic phenomenon in other geographic regions with relation to sub-Saharan Africa. It also identifies few decisive factors in the creation of the gender-biased urban landscapes in sub-Saharan Africa. These factors consist of: recent tendencies in critical toponymy studies; colonial and post-colonial cultures of governmentality; and inadequate urban planning legislation and vision as pertained by post-colonial states. This toponymic problematic is then exemplified in a site-specific analysis of the city of Bindura in north-eastern Zimbabwe. The article concludes with recommendations for designing a more socially inclusive urban management policy in the region, pointing to future research directions of this under-studied phenomenon in critical place-name studies.

Keywords: gender-biased street names, Sub-Saharan Africa, Bindura/Zimbabwe, urban planning, urban management, Critical toponymy studies

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Governance, Infrastructure, Transportation, Urban Planning Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Zimbabwe

Year: 2020

Gendered Mobility and Violence in the São Paulo Metro, Brazil


Moreira, Gustavo Carvalho, and Vania Aparecida Ceccato. 2020. “Gendered Mobility and Violence in the São Paulo Metro, Brazil.” Urban Studies, 1-20. doi:10.1177/0042098019885552.

Authors: Gustavo Carvalho Moreira, Vania Aparecida Ceccato


With about 12 million inhabitants, São Paulo, Brazil, is the largest city in South America. As in many other major southern hemisphere cities, this extreme concentration of people imposes a number of mobility and security challenges. The objective of this article was to investigate the space-time patterns of mobility and violent victimisation in São Paulo’s metro stations from a gender perspective. The methodology combines use of a Geographical Information System (GIS), statistical analysis through negative binomial regression modelling and hypothesis testing. Results indicate that mobility and the level of victimisation are gender dependent. Women are at higher risk of victimisation than men in São Paulo’s central metro station, while men run higher risk of violence at end stations – both notably during late night periods. The presence of employees reduces the risk of violence, except during the mornings. The article suggests that crime prevention initiatives need to be gender informed and sensitive to the particular spatial and temporal features of rapid transit environments.


Keywords: crime prevention, public spaces, public transport, routine activity theory, 例常活动理论, 公共交通, 公共空间, 犯罪预防, Safety

Topics: Gender, Infrastructure, Transportation, Urban Planning, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2020


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