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Gender and the Dynamics of Mobility: Reflections on African Migrant Mothers and ‘Transit Migration’ in Morocco


Stock, Inka. 2012. “Gender and the Dynamics of Mobility: Reflections on African Migrant Mothers and ‘Transit Migration’ in Morocco.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 35 (9): 1577–95.

Author: Inka Stock


By describing the everyday lives of African migrant mothers and their children in Morocco, this paper highlights how migration and ‘immobility’ in so-called ‘transit countries’ are gendering and gendered experiences. Relying on migrants' narratives, the paper demonstrates how migrants' transitions to motherhood create both specific and gendered spaces for agency and particular and gendered constraints upon agency that shape women migrants' mobility dynamics in space and time.

Keywords: migration, gender, Morocco, transit, African migrants, migrant mothers

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa Countries: Morocco

Year: 2012

Does Gendered Driving Create Gendered Mobility? Community-Related Mobility in Finnish Women and Men Aged 65+


Siren, Anu, and Liisa Hakamies-Blomqvist. 2006. “Does Gendered Driving Create Gendered Mobility? Community-Related Mobility in Finnish Women and Men Aged 65+.” Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 9 (5): 374–82.

Authors: Anu Siren, Liisa Hakamies-Blomqvist


Older women are a largely invisible group in traffic research literature. Many phenomena related to ageing and transport are however likely to be gendered, although presented as gender neutral in research literature. The present study examined how gender-related differences in car driving and modal choices are reflected in the mobility options and resources of older women and men. The study was carried out as a mail survey among Finnish citizens aged 65 and above (N=2500). The response rate was 62%. The results showed that older women did not have the option to drive as often as men did. They consequently had poorer overall mobility and were more dependent on being in good health and on getting help from other people for their personal mobility. The results imply that the intersection of both gender and age regimes create different standards for personal mobility for older women than for older men.

Keywords: gender, aging, car driving, driver license, mobility, gender regimes

Topics: Age, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Finland

Year: 2006

Mobility, Education and Livelihood Trajectories for Young People in Rural Ghana: A Gender Perspective


Porter, Gina, Kate Hampshire, Albert Abane, Augustine Tanle, Kobina Esia-Donkoh, Regina Obilie Amoako-Sakyi, Samuel Agblorti, and Samuel Asiedu Owusu. 2011. “Mobility, Education and Livelihood Trajectories for Young People in Rural Ghana: A Gender Perspective.” Children’s Geographies 9 (3–4): 395–410.

Authors: Gina Porter, Kate Hampshire, Albert Abane, Augustine Tanle, Kobina Esia-Donkoh, Regina Obilie Amoako-Sakyi, Samuel Agblorti, Samuel Asiedu Owusu


This paper examines the gendered implications of Africa's transport gap (the lack of cheap, regular and reliable transport) for young people in rural Ghana, with particular reference to the linkages between restricted mobility, household work demands, access to education and livelihood potential. Our aim is to show how mobility constraints, especially as these interact with household labour demands, restrict young people's access to education and livelihood opportunities. Firstly, the paper considers the implications of the direct constraints on young people's mobility potential as they travel to school. Then it examines young people's (mostly unpaid) labour contributions, which are commonly crucial to family household production and reproduction, including those associated with the transport gap. This has especially important implications for girls, on whom the principal onus lies to help adult women carry the heavy burden of water, firewood, and agricultural products required for household use. Such work can impact significantly on their educational attendance and performance in school and thus has potential knock-on impacts for livelihoods. Distance from school, when coupled with a heavy workload at home will affect attendance, punctuality and performance at school: it may ultimately represent the tipping point resulting in a decision to withdraw from formal education. Moreover, the heavy burden of work and restricted mobility contributes to young people's negative attitudes to agriculture and rural life and encourages urban migration. Drawing on research from rural case study sites in two regions of Ghana, we discuss ethnographic material from recent interviews with children and young people, their parents, teachers and other key informants, supported by information from an associated survey with children ca. 9–18 years.

Keywords: school distance, child labour, transport gap, load-carrying, educational access

Topics: Age, Youth, Education, Gender, Girls, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2011

Transport Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa II: Putting Gender into Mobility and Transport Planning in Africa


Porter, Gina. 2008. “Transport Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa II: Putting Gender into Mobility and Transport Planning in Africa.” Progress in Development Studies 8 (3): 281–89. 

Author: Gina Porter


“The first progress report in this transport series presented an overview of major current transport research themes and gaps in Sub-Saharan Africa from a social science perspective. This second report is specifically concerned with gender and in particular, women’s physical mobility, transport needs and patterns of transport use. It reviews the causes and effects of the current broad pattern of gender disparity in transport access and use in Africa, paying particular attention to cultural constraints on women’s travel, the impact of poor transport on women’s health and women’s access to intermediate means of transport (IMTs). It then considers the gendered impact of transport interventions and suggests reasons why efforts to improve women’s access to transport have had limited impact to date” (Porter 2008, 281).

Topics: Gender, Gender Analysis, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Africa

Year: 2008

A Gender Analysis of Everyday Mobility in Urban and Rural Territories: From Challenges to Sustainability


Miralles-Guasch, Carme, Montserrat Martínez Melo, and Oriol Marquet. 2016. “A Gender Analysis of Everyday Mobility in Urban and Rural Territories: From Challenges to Sustainability.” Gender, Place & Culture 23 (3): 398–417. 

Authors: Carme Miralles-Guasch, Montserrat Martínez Melo, Oriol Marquet


Gender differences in mobility patterns between women and men have long been acknowledged. This study analyses how these differences are reproduced in different urban and rural contexts. Using mobility data from a large travel survey taken in 2006 in Spain, we examine the differences between gender mobility through age, modal split and trip purposes. Special attention is paid to how territory shapes mobility and how these territorial settings differently affect gendered mobilities. The use of this data source allows the comparison of all trips made by the total population, including all means of transport. By taking a global view on mobility, the uneven relationships that men and women have with different means of transport become more visible. After disaggregating data by age and territorial settings, results show that women are using sustainable transport modes more often than men, and travelling for more diverse reasons. Gender is thus a fundamental variable in understanding modal split and, by extension, transport sustainability, in terms of energy consumption and the emission of greenhouse gases. From this point of view, we consider women's mobility knowledge and practices – typically related to the most sustainable means of transport – as factors with rising value that could effectively guide public policy in its way to promote more sustainable mobility patterns.
Las diferencias de género en los patrones de movilidad entre mujeres y hombres son conocidas ya desde hace tiempo. Este estudio analiza cómo estas diferencias son reproducidas en distintos contextos urbanos y rurales. Utilizando datos de movilidad provenientes de una gran encuesta de movilidad realizada en 2006 en España, examinamos las diferencias entre la movilidad de género a través de la edad, la elección modal y los propósitos de viaje. Se presta especial atención a como el territorio da forma a la movilidad y cómo estos contextos territoriales afectan diferentemente a la movilidad de género. El uso de esta fuente de datos permite la comparación de todos los viajes llevados a cabo por la población, incluyendo todos los medios de transporte. Tomando una mirada global sobre la movilidad, las relaciones desiguales que hombres y mujeres tienen con los diferentes medios de transporte se vuelven más visibles. Después de desagregar los datos por edad y contexto territorial, los resultados muestran que las mujeres utilizan medios de transporte sostenibles con más frecuencia que los hombres, y que viajan por motivos más diversos. El género es por lo tanto una variable fundamental para entender la división modal y, por extensión, la sostenibilidad del transporte, en términos de consumo de energía y emisión de gases de efecto invernadero. Desde este punto de vista, consideramos el conocimiento y las prácticas de movilidad de las mujeres -típicamente relacionadas con los medios de transporte más sostenibles- como factores con creciente valor que podrían guiar efectivamente las políticas públicas en su camino a promover patrones de movilidad más sostenibles.

Keywords: movilidad cotidiana, transporte, gênero, sustentable, urbano, daily mobility, transport, gender, sustainable, urban, rural

Topics: Age, Environment, Gender, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Spain

Year: 2016

Changes in Gendered Mobility Patterns in the Context of the Great Recession (2007–2012)


Maciejewska, Monika, Oriol Marquet, and Carme Miralles-Guasch. 2019. “Changes in Gendered Mobility Patterns in the Context of the Great Recession (2007–2012).” Journal of Transport Geography 79. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2019.102478.

Authors: Monika Maciejewska, Oriol Marquet, Carme Miralles-Guasch


The aim of the present study is to analyze the interrelation between daily mobility and gender in the context of economic change. The financial crisis that has affected Spain from 2008 has witnessed significant shifts in daily mobility, which have not been equal for all socio-demographic groups. This study was undertaken in the Barcelona Metropolitan Region and it seeks to understand whether or not, during those economically difficult circumstances of the Great Recession, more equal travel patterns between men and women have emerged or, by contrast, whether or not the already existent gendered differences have deepened, paying special attention to which gender has travel habits that have changed the most. Using a quantitative approach, based on mobility data from the Working Day Mobility Surveys (EMEF) from the years 2007 and 2012, the analysis examines the changing trends in several mobility indicators such as men's and women's immobility rate, their average number of daily trips, their main mobility purposes, their modal choice habits and the time they invest in traveling.

Keywords: gender differences, daily travel patterns, Barcelona

Topics: Economies, Gender, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Spain

Year: 2019

Transmobilities: Mobility, Harassment, and Violence Experienced by Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Public Transit Riders in Portland, Oregon


Lubitow, Amy, JaDee Carathers, Maura Kelly, and Miriam Abelson. 2017. “Transmobilities: Mobility, Harassment, and Violence Experienced by Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Public Transit Riders in Portland, Oregon.” Gender, Place & Culture 24 (10): 1398–418.

Authors: Amy Lubitow, JaDee Carathers, Maura Kelly, Miriam Abelson


This research endeavours to fill a conceptual gap in the social science literature on gender, public space, and urban mobilities by exploring how transgender and gender nonconforming individuals experience public transit. Although previous research has surveyed gender minorities about harassment and discrimination in a range of environments, little is known about the quality or content of these experiences. Drawing from 25 interviews with transgender and gender nonconforming individuals in Portland, Oregon, this article finds that gender minorities experience frequent harassment while engaging with the public transit system. We articulate the concept of transmobilites to describe the ways that transgender and gender nonconforming individuals experience a form of mobility that is altered, shaped, and informed by a broader cultural system that normalizes violence and harassment towards gender minorities. We conclude that gender minorities have unequal access to safe and accessible public transportation when harassment is widespread, normalized, and when policies prohibiting discrimination remain unenforced on urban public transit.

Keywords: gender minorities, harassment and discrimination, non-hegemonic mobilities, public transportation, transmobilities, urban mobility

Topics: Gender, Infrastructure, Transportation, LGBTQ, Violence Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2017

Gender, Everyday Mobility, and Mass Transit in Urban Asia


Lee, Anru. 2017. “Gender, Everyday Mobility, and Mass Transit in Urban Asia.” Mobility in History 8 (1): 85–94.

Author: Anru Lee


Mobility is a key word for understanding gender and class formation. In a recent review of feminism, gender, and mobility, historian Georgine Clarsen reminds us that movement never occurs through neutral physical space; it involves gendered bodies through gendered spaces, by means of transport technologies that are often deeply gendered. Furthermore, gendered meanings, practices, and experiences change greatly over time and location. For all these reasons, mobility is—and has to be—contextualized. This article takes inspiration from Clarsen and investigates recent literature on the issue of gender and everyday mobility in urban Asia across a number of academic disciplines.

Topics: Class, Feminisms, Gender, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Asia

Year: 2017

Gender and Daily Mobility in a New Zealand City, 1920–1960


Law, Robin. 2002. “Gender and Daily Mobility in a New Zealand City, 1920–1960.” Social & Cultural Geography 3 (4): 425–45.

Author: Robin Law


Although it is widely accepted that transport—like other social practices—is gendered, the concept of gender used in transport research is often one‐dimensional, with the focus on gendered variations in behaviour rather than on gendered meaning and identities. In this paper, I develop a more complex and multi‐stranded way of approaching the issue of gender and transport (or rather, daily mobility). A case study of a neighbourhood in the New Zealand city of Dunedin in the early decades of last century is presented to explore how the practices of daily mobility constituted gender. A three‐part concept of gender is developed as a basis for analysis: gender as a pattern of social relations, a cultural system of meaning and a component of personal identity. This is then used to analyse a collection of sixty oral histories. The period 1920–1960 is particularly interesting; in these decades extensive and widely used public transport systems (notably electric trams) shared urban streets with bicycles and pedestrians, and the emerging private modes of motorcycle and motor car. As new transport technologies were taken up, they offered the opportunity for new social practices to be formed around their use, for cultural meanings to be assigned to the technologies and for embodied individual subjectivities to be constructed. I argue that we can usefully interpret the shifting patterns of transport use through the lens of gender, and that we can come to understand the process by which gender is constructed by attention to everyday trip‐making and presence on the street.
Il est généralement reconnu que le transport—tout comme d'autre pratiques sociales—est une réalité qui se vit différemment selon le sexe de l'utilisateur. Pourtant, les conceptions du masculin et féminin utilisées dans les recherches sur le transport sont souvent unidimensionnelles et se concentrent davantage sur les variations de comportement que sur le sens de l'identité homme ou femme. Dans cet article, j'élabore une approche plus diversifiée en rapport à la question du transport (ou plutôt de la mobilité quotidienne) et du genre. Une étude de cas est présentée, celle d'un quartier dans la ville nouvellezélandaise de Dunedin au début du siècle dernier, afin d'explorer comment les pratiques quotidiennes de la mobilité contribuent à former les rôles attribués à chaque sexe. Une théorie du genre en trois parties forme la base de l'analyse: les identités sexuelles sont un cadre de relations sociales, un système culturel de sens, et une composante de l'identité personnelle. Cette théorie est ensuite utilisée dans l'analyse de soixante testaments oraux. La période allant de 1920 à 1960 est particulièrement intéressante; pendant ces décennies, des systèmes de transport publics très étendus et largement utilisés (notamment les tramways électriques) se partageaient les voies urbaines avec les bicyclettes, les piétons et d'autres modes de transport privé émergeant à l'époque tels que la voiture et la motocyclette. Au fur et à mesure que de nouvelles technologies de transport furent adoptées, celles‐ci ouvrirent la voie à de nouvelles pratiques sociales issues de leur utilisation, ainsi qu'à de nouvelles idées culturelles et subjectivités individuelles reliées à ces technologies. Je soutiens qu'une analyse des rôles sexuels offre de riches interprétations des modes changeants d'utilisation des transports. De même, l'analyse des déplacements quotidiens et de la présence dans la rue offre des voies de compréhension utiles du processus de formation des identités masculine et féminine.
A pesar de que sea bien reconocido que al transporte—al igual que otras prácticas sociales—le ponemos género, el concepto de género aplicado en las investigaciones sobre el transporte es, a menudo, mono‐dimensional y centrado en variaciones en comportamiento, en vez de significado e identidades por lo que se refiere a género. En este papel, me dirijo al tema de género y transporte (o más bien, movilidad cotidiana) de un modo más complejo y multiforme. Presento un estudïo de caso de un barrio en la ciudad nueva zelandesa de Dunedin en las primeras décadas del siglo pasado para explorar el modo en que las prácticas de movilidad cotidiana constituían género. Un concepto de género en tres partes forma la base del análisis: género como un modelo de relaciones sociales, un sistema cultural de significado, y un componente de identidad personal. Luego se utiliza este concepto para analizar una colección de 60 historias orales. El período de 1920 a 1960 es particularmente interesante; en estas décadas un extensivo y extensamenre usado sistema de transporte público (notablemente los tranvías eléctricos) compartia las calles urbanas con bicicletas y peatones, y los emergentes modos de transporte privados; el motocicleta y el auto. Las nuevas tec‐nologias de transporte que se iba adoptando ofrecían la oportunidad para la formación de nuevas prácticas sociales alrededor de su uso, para la atribución de significados culturales a las tecnologías, y para la construcción de subjetividades individuales encarnadas. Sugiero que es útil interpretar los cambiantes modelos de uso de transporte desde el punto de vista de género y que podemos llegar a entender el proceso por el cual se construye el género si prestamos atención a viajes cotidianos y por presencia en la calle.

Keywords: transport, mobility, streets, public transport, trams, genre (féminin/masculine), mobilité, rues, transports public, tramways, movilidad, calles, transporte público, gender, transporte, tranvías, gênero

Topics: Gender, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Oceania Countries: New Zealand

Year: 2002

How Gender Differences and Perceptions of Safety Shape Urban Mobility in Southeast Asia


Hidayati, Isti, Wendy Tan, and Claudia Yamu. 2020. “How Gender Differences and Perceptions of Safety Shape Urban Mobility in Southeast Asia.” Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 73: 155–73.

Authors: Isti Hidayati, Wendy Tan, Claudia Yamu


Despite numerous studies on how gender differences affect transport mobility choices and perception of safety, there has been little emphasis on the influence of spatial and socio-cultural constructs on it, particularly in the Southeast Asian context. This article investigates this relation through (1) an on-street survey involving 383 participants in eight neighbourhoods in Jakarta and Kuala Lumpur, (2) analysing videos taken with the walking with video approach, and (3) a computational analysis of the street network using space syntax. Findings suggest that a large proportion of women ascribed to negative perceptions of safety as compared to men. Negative perceptions of safety were related to wariness towards motorcycles in Jakarta and absence of other pedestrians and the image of the place in Kuala Lumpur. This difference can be attributed to distinctions in spatial configurations and socio-cultural constructs between both cities. Findings provide practical insights – mode segregation or changes to street design – to address gendered mobility for sustainable urban transport in the region.

Keywords: mobility, gender, perceived safety, on-street survey, walking with video, space syntax

Topics: Gender, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia, Malaysia

Year: 2020


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