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Transitional Justice

Queering Colombia's Peace Process: A Case Study of LGBTI Inclusion

Citation:

Maier, Nicole. 2020. "Queering Colombia's Peace Process: A Case Study of LGBTI Inclusion." The International Journal of Human Rights 24 (4): 377-92.

Author: Nicole Maier

Abstract:

In August 2016, Colombia's government announced that they had reached an agreement with the country's largest guerrilla group, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). This peace deal was historic in Colombia's more than half-century long armed conflict; however, Colombian voters rejected it. A revised version was ultimately passed through a congressional vote. Despite the intense domestic criticism of the peace talks, they have been praised internationally and revered as a model for the world, particularly with regard to their efforts surrounding victims of the armed conflict. This article focuses on one particular group of victims, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) individuals. The experience of LGBTI people in armed conflicts has historically been one of exclusion from peace processes. This article explores how Colombia's peace process has approached the LGBTI experience through interviews with LGBTI activists and analyses of collaborative civil society efforts. The actions taken by LGBTI organisations reveal the critical role of truth and memory initiatives and capacity building. While much work has been done, Colombia is left with many unanswered questions about what a post-conflict society will look like for LGBTI victims of the armed conflict.

Keywords: LGBT, victim, Colombia, armed conflict, transitional justice, peacebuilding

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Gender, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Justice, Transitional Justice, LGBTQ, Post-Conflict, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Sexuality Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2020

Hacia Una Mirada Feminista Del Rol De La Mujer En El Posconflicto Colombiano

Citation:

González, Angélica María Anicharico, Héctor Martinez Ortega, Claudia Cristina Cerón Ruiz, and Katherine Rengifo Agudelo. 2019. “Hacia Una Mirada Feminista Del Rol De La Mujer En El Posconflicto Colombiano.” Journal of International Women’s Studies 20 (6): 75-93.

Authors: Angélica María Anicharico González, Héctor Martinez Ortega, Claudia Cristina Cerón Ruiz, Katherine Rengifo Agudelo

Abstract:

SPANISH ABSTRACT:
El debate sobre los diferentes roles que las mujeres han sido forzadas a asumir en el Conflicto Armado Colombiano ha generado que, en el último proceso de Justicia Transicional, se haya reconocido la necesidad de rupturar el arquetipo histórico de las mujeres visibilizado en categorías rígidas y desiguales. Este artículo, basado en 50 entrevistas a mujeres víctimas del conflicto armado registradas en la Fiscalía General de la Nación de la República de Colombia (FIS), devela que son pocos los avances en investigación sociojurídica sobre la forma en que las mujeres podrían transformar su rol en una época de posconflicto, para disminuir la desigualdad por razones de género. Este artículo siguiendo un enfoque cualitativo y haciendo un análisis inductivo, propone una mirada feminista para la transformación de los roles que las mujeres han sido obligadas a asumir. Asimismo, se establece cómo los movimientos feministas actuales están generando nuevos roles inspirados en un enfoque epistemológico latinoamericano que permitiría no sólo la transformación y/o desconstrucción de los roles impuestos a las mujeres sino un mejoramiento de sus condiciones de vida contribuyendo así a los procesos de construcción de paz en contextos locales e internacionales.
ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
The debate over the different roles women have been forced to assume in the Colombian armed conflict has led, in the last process of Transitional Justice, to the recognition of the need to break down the historical archetype of women noticeable through rigid and unequal categories. This article, based on 50 interviews of female victims of the armed conflict, filed in the Attorney General’s Office of the Republic of Colombia (FIS), reveals that there is scant research breakthroughs on the socio-juridical field about the way women may transform their role in the post-conflict era, to reduce gender-based inequality. This study with a qualitative approach and an inductive analysis, suggests that the roles women have been forced to assume require a feminist approach to be transformed. Moreover, how the current women’s movements are generating a new role based on a Latin American epistemological approach is established. That approach would allow, not only the transformation and/or break down of those roles assumed by women, but also the improvement of their living conditions to contribute to the process of peace building in the local and international contexts.

Keywords: feminismo Latinoamericano, rol de la mujer, investigación qualitativa, Conflicto Armado, posconflicto, Latin American feminism, role of women, qualitative research, Colombian armed conflict, post-conflict

Topics: Armed Conflict, Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Justice, Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict, Peacebuilding Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2019

Reconstrucción de la Masculinidad y Reintegración de Excombatientes en Colombia

Citation:

Theidon, Kimberly. 2009. “Reconstrucción de la Masculinidad y Reintegración de Excombatientes en Colombia.” Serie Working Papers FIP 5, Fundación Ideas para la Paz, Bogotá, Colombia.

Author: Kimberly Theidon

Annotation:

SPANISH SUMMARY:
Este trabajo resulta de una investigación antropológica hecha por Kimberly Theidon, profesora asociada al departamento de sociología de la Universidad de Harvard, sobre el proceso de Desarme, Desmovilización y Reintegración (DDR) en Colombia desde 2005, con el fin de abordar el tema de la masculinidad en el conflicto armado y de esta forma incluir la perspectiva de género en los procesos de postconflicto. Para tal fin se realizaron entrevistas a profundidad a 170 hombres y mujeres ex combatientes de las FARC, ELN y de las AUC ubicados en Bogotá y sus alrededores, Medellín y la región de Urabá. También se realizaron visitas y charlas con funcionarios públicos, representantes de ONG, de iglesias y de diversos sectores de las comunidades receptoras. Con ello, logró obtener una mirada amplia a las realidades de la guerra, del DDR y la justicia transicional en Colombia. El trabajo se concentra en la economía cultural y política de la masculinidad militarizada y aborda el acceso reducido que los excombatientes tienen a los símbolos del prestigio masculino de la sociedad civil. El texto también analiza las “técnicas del cuerpo” que producen tanto el cuerpo como el porte de un soldado entre hombres cuyo único capital suele ser su cuerpo. Además, explora el papel tanto de los hombres como de las mujeres en la construcción de las prácticas utilizadas para producir formas de masculinidad violentas. Por último, el documento concluye con unas consideraciones acerca de cómo se podría incorporar el género al programa de DDR en Colombia como un paso importante hacia la reincorporación exitosa, la construcción de paz y el cambio social sostenible. (Summary from Fundación Ideas para la Paz)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, DDR, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Justice, Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict, Peacebuilding Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2009

The Transformative Potential of Gender Justice in the Land Restitution Programme in Colombia

Citation:

von Au, Anne Kathrin. 2013. "The Transformative Potential of Gender Justice in the Land Restitution Programme in Colombia." Revista Deusto de Derechos Humanos 11: 207-39.

Author: Anne Kathrin von Au

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This paper studies the existence of elements of gender justice in the ongoing land restitution process in Colombia, in order to analyse the potential of the Land Restitution Programme to contribute to the elimination of structural violence against women and the resulting gender inequalities. In this context, the sources of the analysis comprises the Victims’ and Land Restitution Law of 2011, the implementation programmes by the Land Restitution Unit, and the sentences by the specialized judges for land restitution. The paper argues that the land restitution programme could contribute to the elimination of structural forms of discrimination and exclusion of women in the Colombian society, if the elements of gender justice are applied in a coherent and systematic way and if it is accompa- nied by additional measures aimed at reducing the high security risks for internally displaced women in the land restitution process and changing the patriarchal system deeply rooted in the Colombian society.
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Este artículo estudia la existencia de elementos de justicia de género en el actual proceso de restitución de tierra en Colombia para analizar el potencial del Programa de Restitución de Tierras en la contribución a la eliminación de violencia estructural contra mujeres internamente desplazadas y las inequidades resultantes. En este contexto, las principales fuentes de datos para el análisis son la Ley de Víctimas y Restitución de Tierras de 2011, las programas de acción de la Unidad de Restitución de Tierras y las sentencias de los jueces especializados en la restitución de tierras. Este trabajo sostiene que el programa de restitución de tierras podría contribuir a la eliminación de formas estructurales de discriminación y exclusión de mujeres en la sociedad colombiana si los elementos de la justicia de género son aplicados de una manera coherente y sistemática, y si van acompañadas por medidas adicionales enfocadas a reducir el alto riesgo para mujeres internamente desplazadas en dicho proceso y a cambiar el sistema patriarcal, firmemente arraigada en la sociedad colombiana.

 

Keywords: transitional justice, displacement, land restitution, gender justice, structural violence, transformative justice, differential approach, justicia transicional, desplazamiento, restitución de tierra, justicia de género, violencia estructural, justicia transformativa, enfoque diferencial

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Justice, Transitional Justice, Rights, Land Rights, Security Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2013

Legacies of Violence and the Unfinished Past: Women in Post-Demobilization Colombia and Guatemala

Citation:

Tarnaala, Elisa. 2019. “Legacies of Violence and the Unfinished Past: Women in Post-Demobilization Colombia and Guatemala.” Peacebuilding 7 (1): 103–17.

Author: Elisa Tarnaala

Abstract:

This article examines the historically grounded social acceptance of impunity and the role of unwanted actors in peace and transitional processes. The article argues from a post-demobilization violence perspective that counter-democratic developments, which have historical and global roots, condition peacebuilding and impose important limits on the deepening of inclusion. In Colombia and Guatemala, internationally backed peacebuilding activities occurred in the same regions where the local authorities continued their partnership with criminal and authoritarian actors. Thus, parallel to the shift towards greater political and economic stability at the national level, attacks against human rights activists and environmental activists, intra-community violence, violence against women, prostitution and the trafficking of girls continued at the local level and in some areas increased.

Keywords: Colombia, Guatemala, demobilization, women, violence, historical legacies

Topics: DDR, Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender-Based Violence, Justice, Impunity, Transitional Justice, Peacebuilding, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America, South America Countries: Colombia, Guatemala

Year: 2019

Principled Pragmatism and the ‘Inclusion Project’: Implementing a Gender Perspective in Peace Agreements

Citation:

Bell, Christine, and Kevin McNicholl. 2019. "Principled Pragmatism and the ‘Inclusion Project’: Implementing a Gender Perspective in Peace Agreements." feminists@law 9 (1). 

Authors: Christine Bell, Kevin McNicholl

Abstract:

UN Security Council Resolution 1325 of 2000 provided that peace agreements should adopt a ‘gender perspective’. This commitment has been reiterated in women, peace and security resolutions since that time. This article uses a mixed qualitative and quantitative analysis to consider when and how peace agreements have adopted a gender perspective, using a new PA-X peace agreement database to analyse over 1500 peace and transition agreements from between 1990 and 2016.  It goes further to consider how inclusion of women is related to the other forms of political and group inclusion contemplated to form part of the new political settlement. The article begins by examining what might be meant by a ‘gender perspective in peace agreements’.  It maps out when and how peace agreements provide for women, girls and gender, but also for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Trans communities, and for ‘men and boys’ and ‘family’ at different stages of a peace process.  The article provides new data on the implementation of agreement commitments and specifically those issues singled out for attention by UNSC 1325. Finally, we consider the inclusion project on offer to women and its relationship to the conceptualisation of the conflict and its solution, by considering the relationship between gender, power-sharing and transitional justice. In summary, analysis of the dataset provides three main findings.  First provision for women is still largely limited to once-off provisions, or issues relating to the victimhood of women, with holistic attempts to adopt a ‘gender perspective’ relatively rare.  Second, the inclusion of women in peace agreement texts tends to be located in the more comprehensive stages of the agreement, with little consideration given to women and gender at either pre-negotiation stages of a peace process, or implementation stages. Third, surprisingly perhaps, political power-sharing is shown to be strongly correlated with several measures of gender inclusion rather than marking an exclusive focus on the inclusion of the groups at the heart of the conflict.  In conclusion we argue that peace agreements indicate the presence of ‘principled pragmatism’ whereby elite commitments to political equality are used by a range of groups to push for a more pluralist conception of the peace settlement as also concerned with the political equality of groups beyond the conflict actors.

Keywords: women and conflict, gender perspective, peace processes, power-sharing, transitional justice, constitutions

Topics: Conflict, Gender, Justice, Transitional Justice, LGBTQ, Post-Conflict, Political Participation, Peace Processes, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325

Year: 2019

Mujeres, Polifonías y Justicia Transicional en Colombia: Narrativas Afrocéntricas de la(s) Violencia(s) en el Conflicto Armado

Citation:

Garcia, Paula Medina. 2018. "Mujeres, Polifonías y Justicia Transicional en Colombia: Narrativas Afrocéntricas de la(s) Violencia(s) en el Conflicto Armado." Investigaciones Feministas 9 (2): 309-26.

Author: Paula Medina Garcia

Abstract:

SPANISH ABSTRACT:
A través de una lectura feminista interseccional del escenario de “postconflicto”/post-acuerdo en Colombia, este trabajo analiza: i) la violencia contra las mujeres en contextos de guerra como poder exhibido e instrumental; ii) el impacto de las violencias contra las mujeres afrodescendientes en el conflicto armado –para lo cual se ha utilizado tanto la información disponible del Registro Único de Víctimas (RUV) como los relatos de las víctimas; iii) las múltiples violencias superpuestas que sufren las mujeres afrodescendientes, como parte de un continuum, entendiendo la guerra como un escenario en el que éstas se encarnan y letalizan de forma pública; y iv) la justicia transicional como arena en disputa, especialmente a raíz de la firma de los Acuerdos de Paz. Para ello, se parte de las propias narrativas de las mujeres afrodescendientes como sujetos políticos activos en el proceso de justicia transicional –verdad, reparación y garantías de no repetición–. En esta línea, se parte de una revisión de la víctima qua víctima, adoptando una mirada constructivista de esta categoría –en un intento por superar concepciones esencialistas y paternalistas de la misma–, y abogando por la resignificación de la capacidad de agencia de dichas mujeres para retejer y disputar al Estado el control sobre los procesos de justicia, verdad, reparación y memoria. 
 
 
ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Through a feminist and intersectional reading of the “post-conflict”/post-agreement context, this study analyses: i) the violence against women as an instrumental and displayed power in war contexts; ii) the impact of violences against afrodescendant women during the armed conflict, drawn from Official Victims’ Registries as well as from their own narratives; iii) the multiple overlapped violences that afrodescendant women suffer, as part of a continuum, understanding war as the setting where the violences are embodied and become more lethal publicly; iv) the transitional justice as contested arena, specially with the signing of the Peace Agreements. For that purpose, the work focuses in the narratives of afrodescendant women as political and active subjects in the transitional justice process, in order to provide truth, reparation and guarantees of non-repetition to victims. In this regard, it reads through the victim qua victim, assuming a constructivist approach to understand this category –as well as we try to overcome essentialist and patronizing perspectives. Finally, this research proposes the resignification of agency ability of these women to redefine and dispute over the State’s control of justice, truth, reparation, and memory processes.

Keywords: afrodescendant women, continuum of violences, transitional justice, Colombia, mujeres afrodescendientes, continuum de violencias, justicia transitional

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Justice, Reparations, Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict, Race, Peace Processes, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2018

Buried in the Heart: Women, Complex Victimhood and the War in Northern Uganda

Citation:

Baines, Erin. 2018. Buried in the Heart: Women, Complex Victimhood and the War in Northern Uganda. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Author: Erin Baines

Annotation:

Summary:
In Buried in the Heart, Erin Baines explores the political agency of women abducted as children by the Lord's Resistance Army in northern Uganda, forced to marry its commanders, and to bear their children. Introducing the concept of complex victimhood, she argues that abducted women were not passive victims, but navigated complex social and political worlds that were life inside the violent armed group. Exploring the life stories of thirty women, Baines considers the possibilities of storytelling to reclaim one's sense of self and relations to others, and to generate political judgement after mass violence. Buried in the Heart moves beyond victim and perpetrator frameworks prevalent in the field of transitional justice, shifting the attention to stories of living through mass violence and the possibilities of remaking communities after it. The book contributes to an overlooked aspect of international justice: women's political agency during wartime. (Summary from Cambridge University Press)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Girls, Justice, Transitional Justice, Sexual Violence, SV against women, Violence Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2018

Guarantees of Non-Recurrence of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence against Women after the Khmer Rouge

Citation:

You, Sotheary. 2019. "Guarantees of Non-Recurrence of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence against Women after the Khmer Rouge." Swiss Peace Cambodia Working Paper Series 6/2019, Center for the Study of Humanitarian Law, University of Basel, Basel.

Author: Sotheary You

Abstract:

Four decades after the collapse of the Khmer Rouge regime, Cambodian women continue to suffer from discriminatory social, cultural and economic norms and to experience gender injustice in social and political spheres. Against this background, this paper asks whether and to what extent transitional justice has contributed to providing guarantees of non-recurrence of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) against women in Cambodia. This paper examines how the transitional justice process addressed SGBV committed under the Khmer Rouge regime. It shows that transitional justice has not adequately recognized SGBV against women under the Khmer Rouge, that there has been lack of representation of women in the process and that an unfair redistribution of resources after the Khmer Rouge contributed to further discrimination. Drawing from the concept of guarantees of non-recurrence and feminist scholarship on gender justice, this paper highlights how a lack of gender-transformative policy and the government’s lack of capacity to comply with international legal standards has shaped women’s experiences after the Khmer Rouge. It argues that, in order to guarantee the non-repetition of SGBV against women, transitional justice initiatives should aim to address social and cultural injustice effectively; to subvert patriarchal and oppressive norms; and to promote women’s participation in social, economic and political development in Cambodia. It concludes with policy recommendations.

Keywords: Khmer Rouge, guarantee of non-recurrence, transformative reparation, transitional justice, Cambodia, sexual and gender-based violence

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Justice, Transitional Justice, Political Participation, Sexual Violence, SV against women Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia

Year: 2019

Gendered Impact of Zimbabwe's Transitional Justice: Too Little Too Late

Citation:

Chaminuka, Lilian. 2019. "Gendered Impact of Zimbabwe’s Transitional Justice: Too Little Too Late." International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science 3 (3): 94-100.

Author: Lilian Chaminuka

Abstract:

The gendered impact of transitional justice after Zimbabwe’s liberation struggle is similar to early efforts in other countries to try and address massive and systematic human rights violations that are largely gender blind. The paper takes a historical analysis highlighting how government chose not to specifically address sexual violence, nor did they examine how women had been distinctly impacted by the war of liberation. There was a pervasive silence regarding violence against, harm to, and the degradation of women with female ex combatants becoming recipients of piecemeal policies and fragmented efforts to accommodate them. The process and what has been done for the Zimbabwean woman is either too little or has been done too late as the legacy of this violence endures long after independence was achieved in 1980. This is not to say government has done absolutely nothing as some gains have been made in building a gender balanced society that factors in contribution of women. The study which employed the qualitative approach, revealed that women are not particularly happy as they feel more can be done as the realities they face today under study show a continuum in the violence exercised against them, their subordinate role, their oppression, the threats and harassment they endured in the past and present lack of economic resources to live a dignified life. The paper is based from a broad study that was undertaken by the author in her studies at the Africa University in 2014.

Keywords: gender, human rights, women ex-combatants, reintegration, transitional justice

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Justice, Transitional Justice, Rights, Human Rights, Sexual Violence, Violence Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Zimbabwe

Year: 2019

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