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Trafficking

Combating Human Trafficking: Transnational Advocacy Networks between Thailand and the United States

Citation:

Bertone, Andrea. 2008. “Combating Human Trafficking: Transnational Advocacy Networks between Thailand and the United States.” Paper presented at 49th Annual International Studies Association Convention, San Francisco, March 24 – March 28.

Author: Andrea Bertone

Topics: Gender, International Law, International Human Rights, International Organizations, NGOs, Sexual Violence, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Thailand, United States of America

Year: 2008

Trafficking of Women and Children in Indonesia

Citation:

Agustinanto, Fatimana, Jamie Davis, Anis Hamim, Ketut Ika Inggas, Ranggoaini Jahja, Farida Mahri, Neha Misra, Anna Puspita Rahayu, Ruth Rosenberg, Ira Soedirham, Rebecca Surtees, and Yuyan Wahyuningrum. 2003. Ruth Rosenberg, eds. Trafficking of Women and Children in Indonesia. Jakarta: International Catholic Migration Commission.

Authors: Fatimana Agustinanto, Jamie Davis, Anis Hamim, Ketut Ika Inggas, Ranggoaini Jahja, Farida Mahri, Neha Misra, Anna Puspita Rahayu, Ruth Rosenberg, Ira Soedirham, Rebecca Surtees, Yuyan Wahyuningrum

Abstract:

Information about trafficking of Indonesian women and children is limited. Many newspaper articles have been written and research on related topics conducted, but it has not yet been consolidated or analyzed as a whole. The purpose of this report is to consolidate the information that already exists about trafficking in Indonesia into one comprehensive report and disseminate this information widely.

It is anticipated that this report will be helpful for people working on counter trafficking in Indonesia, as well as people interested in trafficking worldwide. Not only does the report provide a fairly comprehensive overview of the problem, but it also includes a variety of resources to help combat trafficking, including: a review of existing Indonesian legislation; a list of international agreements which contain articles relevant to combating trafficking; an overview of the Indonesian National Plan of Action for the Elimination of Trafficking of Women and Children; a list of our Indonesian partner organizations working on trafficking in Indonesia; a list of Internet-based resources for trafficking; and a bilingual glossary of trafficking–related terms. It is our hope that a better understanding of the nature of trafficking in women and children in Indonesia will lead to more effective interventions to prevent trafficking and to assist trafficking survivors.

This report was produced by the staff of the International Catholic Migration Commission (ICMC) and the American Center for International Labor Solidarity (Solidarity Center). ICMC and the Solidarity Center are jointly implementing a project to counter trafficking of women and children in Indonesia, with funding from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). More information about the project is included in Appendix C.

Topics: Civil Society, Gender, Women, Girls, Boys, International Law, International Organizations, NGOs, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2003

Millennium Development Goals and the Protection of Displaced and Refugee Women and Girls

Citation:

Akram, Susan. 2013. “Millennium Development Goals and the Protection of Displaced and Refugee Women and Girls.” Laws 2 (3): 283–313.

Author: Susan Akram

Abstract:

The international protection regime of refugee, stateless and displaced women and girls has significant deficiencies. As refugees and displaced persons, women and girls experience unique challenges. They suffer abuse disproportionately as women through rape, human trafficking, and female genital mutilation. Women and girl refugees face greater challenges and risks to safety at every stage of displacement: in refugee camps, in urban spaces, in transit to safe haven, and in the process of obtaining legal status. They are frequently at the mercy of male family members in making claims to refugee and asylum status, as females are often unable to obtain necessary documentation and navigate barriers to the asylum process that uniquely disfavor women’s claims. This paper argues that the UN must expand the scope of the Millennium Development Goals to specifically include state responsibility towards refugees and displaced persons in their territories, without regard to their legal status. Until the international regime designed to protect refugees and displaced persons closes the gaps in addressing female refugees and displaced persons’ unique vulnerabilities, the UN’s Millennium Development Goals should be reoriented to include state responsibility to meet these deficiencies.

Keywords: refugee women, refugee girls, Millennium Development Goals, female genital mutilation, rape, displacement

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender-Based Violence, Sexual Violence, Rape, Trafficking, Human Trafficking

Year: 2013

The Disappearing of a Migration Category: Migrants Who Sell Sex

Citation:

Agustín, Laura. 2006. “The Disappearing of a Migration Category: Migrants Who Sell Sex.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 32 (1): 29–47. 

Author: Laura Agustín

Abstract:

Migrant women selling sex are generally neglected by migration and diaspora studies. The moral panic on ‘trafficking’, a prolonged debate within feminism on commercial sex and some activists’ attempts to conflate the concept of ‘prostitution’ with ‘trafficking’ combine to shift study of these migrants to domains of criminology and feminism, with the result that large numbers of women’s migrations are little known. This article reveals the silences at work and where the attention goes, and theorises that the shift from conventional study to moral outrage facilitates the avoidance of uncomfortable truths for Western societies: their enormous demand for sexual services and the fact that many women do not mind or prefer this occupation to others available to them.

Keywords: sex, prostitution, Trafficking, diaspora, migration

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Forced Migration, Gender, Women, Livelihoods, Sexual livelihoods, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking

Year: 2006

'Some Could Suckle over Their Shoulder’: Male Travelers, Female Bodies, and the Gendering of Racial Ideology, 1500-1770

Citation:

Morgan, Jennifer L. 1997. “‘Some Could Suckle over Their Shoulder’: Male Travelers, Female Bodies, and the Gendering of Racial Ideology, 1500-1770.” The William and Mary Quarterly Third Series, 54 (1): 167–92.

Author: Jennifer L. Morgan

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Gender, Women, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Race, Trafficking, Human Trafficking Regions: Africa, Americas

Year: 1997

On the Battlefield of Women’s Bodies: An Overview of the Harm of War to Women

Citation:

Hynes, H. Patricia. 2004. “On the Battlefield of Women’s Bodies: An Overview of the Harm of War to Women.” Women’s Studies International Forum 27 (5–6): 431–45.

Author: H. Patricia Hynes

Abstract:

By the 1990s, 9 of 10 people who died in war from direct and indirect effects were civilians. Bombs and weapons of modern war kill and maim civilian women in equal numbers to civilian men. A unique harm of war for women is the trauma inflicted in military brothels, rape camps, and the growing sex trafficking for prostitution and by increased domestic violence, all of which is fueled by the culture of war, male aggression, and the social and economic ruin left in the wake of war. Widows of war, women victims of landmines, and women refugees of war are particularly vulnerable to poverty, prostitution, the extortion of sex for food by post-war peacekeepers, and higher illness and death in the post-conflict period. While problems exist with definitions and methods of measurement, a full accounting of the harm of war to civilian women is needed in the debate over whether war is justified.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Domestic Violence, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Livelihoods, Sexual livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, SV against women, Trafficking, Sex Trafficking

Year: 2004

How Conflict and Displacement Fuel Human Trafficking and Abuse of Vulnerable Groups. The Case of Colombia and Opportunities for Real Action and Innovative Solutions

Citation:

Nagle, Luz Estella. 2013. “How Conflict and Displacement Fuel Human Trafficking and Abuse of Vulnerable Groups. The Case of Colombia and Opportunities for Real Action and Innovative Solutions.” Groningen Journal of International Law 1 (2): 1-53.

Author: Luz Estella Nagle

Abstract:

Disaffected, impoverished, and displaced people in weak and failing states are particularly vulnerable. Human trafficking exploits social and political turmoil caused by natural disasters, economic crisis, and armed conflict. The exploitation and forced servitude of millions of trafficking victims take many forms. Women and children are trafficked into becoming child soldiers and concubines of illegal armed groups, men, women and children are trafficked into forced labor and sexual slavery, forced to sell drugs, steal, and beg money for the criminals controlling them, and thousands are coerced or forced into a growing black market trade in human body parts. The growth in illegal mining operations by illegal armed groups and organized crime is also fueling conditions for forced labor. Trafficking victims are dehumanized and suffer grave physical and mental illness and often die at the hands of their captors and exploiters. Colombia is particularly afflicted by the scourge of human trafficking. All the elements of modern-day slavery and human exploitation are present in this Latin American state that is struggling to overcome decades of internal armed conflict, social fragmentation, poverty, and the constant debilitating presence of organized crime and corruption. Women’s Link Worldwide recently reported that human trafficking is not viewed as an internal problem among Colombian officials, despite estimates that more than 70,000 people are trafficked within Colombia each year. This article examines human trafficking in its many forms in Colombia, the parties involved in trafficking, and the State’s response or lack of response to human trafficking. The article also presents innovations that might be effective for combating human trafficking, and proposes that Colombia can serve as an effective model for other countries to address this growing domestic and international human rights catastrophe.

Keywords: Colombia, human trafficking, trafficking of women and children

Annotation:

Quotes:

“Of the estimated 70,000 Colombian women and children who fall prey to human trafficking each year, many enter one of about 560 trafficking pipelines within Colombia, and about 254 of trafficking pipelines out of Colombia into Ecuador and Venezuela, and into Europe (Spain, Germany and Holland), Asia (China, Japan, and Singapore), North America and Central America, and the Middle East (particularly Jordan and Iran).” (26)

“Coincidentally, [the county/district] Sucumbios encompasses most of the 30 crossing points for weapons smuggling, drug trafficking and human trafficking, and establishes the link between the products trafficked and the routes used to transport different types of illicit goods and trafficking victims.” (28)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Corruption, Displacement & Migration, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Girls, Boys, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2013

Women, brokerage and transnational organized crime. Empirical results from the Dutch Organized Crime Monitor

Citation:

Kleemans, Edward R., Edwin W. Kruisbergen, and Ruud F. Kouwenberg. 2014. “Women, brokerage and transnational organized crime. Empirical results from the Dutch Organized Crime Monitor.” Trends in Organized Crime 17 (1-2): 16- 30.

Authors: Edward R. Kleemans, Edwin W. Kruisbergen, Ruud F. Kouwenberg

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the role of women in various types of transnational organized crime and tests the ‘gendered markets’ hypothesis by Zhang et al. (Criminology 45 (3):699-733 2007) for a wide cross-section of 150 cases from the Dutch Organized Crime Monitor. The main information sources for the Dutch Organized Crime Monitor are closed Dutch police investigations into criminal groups, often spanning a period of several years. Following four data sweeps, a wide cross-section of 150 cases was collected about various forms of organized crime (period 1994-2011): ‘traditional’ drug trafficking cases (cocaine, heroin, and cannabis), but also other—less frequently prioritized—phenomena such as synthetic drugs (production and export), human smuggling, human trafficking, and fraud and money laundering. The paper discusses several important theoretical perspectives from the organized crime literature: the gendered markets hypothesis; the social embeddedness of (transnational) organized crime: and the idea of brokerage. Furthermore, empirical data are presented on how often women play a (prominent) role in different types of criminal activities and which roles they play. These findings are related to the ‘gendered markets’ hypothesis and alternative explanations. Further qualitative analysis is presented on the transnational aspects which can be discerned in the studied cases: transnational marriage and transnational relationships; language and mediation; and migration and legal status. Finally, the main conclusions are discussed as well as their theoretical and empirical relevance.

Keywords: women, crime, organized crime, brokerage, social networks, theory

Annotation:

Quotes:

“In 102 cases, women were involved as suspects. Overall, we gained data on 247 women, their roles, and the context of the criminal groups and the criminal activities in which they were involved. This means that11% of all suspects (N= 2295) were female. Many of the criminal activities concerned various forms of ‘transit crime’: international smuggling activities, such as drug trafficking, smuggling illegal immigrants, human trafficking for sexual exploitation, arms trafficking, trafficking in stolen vehicles, and other transnational illegal activities, such as money laundering, fraud, and evasion of taxes (e.g. cigarette smuggling, oil fraud, and Value Added Tax fraud).” (8)

For human trafficking for sexual exploitation, 21% of the suspects were female. This is the largest percentage in the study. (9)

“Women are not absent and women play also other roles than victim roles, but still the picture of ‘men trafficking women’ prevails.” (11)

Topics: Corruption, Economies, Gender, Women, Sexual Violence, Female Perpetrators, Male Perpetrators, Trafficking, Drug Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking

Year: 2014

HUMAN TRAFFICKING AROUND THE WORLD: HIDDEN IN PLAIN SIGHT

Citation:

Hepburn, Stephanie, and Rita J. Simon. 2013. HUMAN TRAFFICKING AROUND THE WORLD: HIDDEN IN PLAIN SIGHT. New York: Columbia University Press.

Authors: Stephanie Hepburn, Rita J. Simon

Abstract:

An examination of human trafficking around the world including the following countries: United States, Japan, United Arab Emirates, Thailand, Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, Colombia, Iraq, Syria, Canada, Italy, France, Iran, India, Niger, China, South Africa, Australia, United Kingdom, Chile, Germany, Poland, Mexico, Russia, and Brazil. (WorldCat)

Annotation:

Table of Contents:

Introduction

Part I: Work Visa Loopholes for Traffickers
1) United States
2) Japan
3) United Arab Emirates

Part II: Stateless Persons
4) Thailand
5) Israel & The Occupied Palestinian Territories

Part III: Unrest, displacement, and Who is in charge
6) Colombia
7) Iraq
8) Syria

Part IV: Conflation
9) Canada

Part V: Conflicting Agendas
10) Italy
11) France

Part VI: Gender Apartheid
12) Iran

Part VII: Social Hierarchy
13) India
14) Niger
15) China

Part VIII: Muti Murder
16) South Africa

Part IX: Hard-to-Prove Criterion and a slap on the wrist
17) Australia
18) United Kingdom
19) Chile
20) Germany

Part X: Transparent borders
21) Poland

Part XI: Fear Factor
22) Mexico

Part XII: Poverty and Economic Boom
23) Russia
24) Brazil

Conclusion

*Each Chapter follows the following format with some variations:

Introduction
As a destination
Internal trafficking
Trafficking abroad
What happens to victims after trafficking
What happens to traffickers
Internal efforts to decrease trafficking

 

Quotes:

"Devestation from a natural disaster...creates a sudden high demand for low-wage and largely unskilled labor. Disruption of the traditional labor supply leaves room for illicit contractors to move in, and new workers can be brought in unnoticed." (19)

"There continue to be more criminal convictions of sex traffickers than of forced-labor traffickers [However, this number of individuals victimized by forced labor may be increasing]." (32)

"Many experts state that the yakuza (organized crime) networks play a significant role in the smuggling and subsequent debt bondage of women--particularly women from China, Thailand, and Colombia--for forced prostitution in Japan. Determining the exact extent of yakuza involvement is difficult because of the covert nature of the sex industry. Consequently, the yakuza are able to minimize people's direct knowledge of their involvement...The yakuza networks work with organized crime groups from other nations, such as China, Russia, and Colombia." (49-50)

Topics: Economies, Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, International Law, International Human Rights, Multi-national Corporations, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, Central America, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, Middle East, Southeast Asia, Europe, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Oceania Countries: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, France, Germany, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Niger, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, Poland, Russian Federation, South Africa, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States of America

Year: 2013

RETHINKING SURVIVAL SEX AND TRAFFICKING IN CONFLICT AND POST – CONFLICT ZONES: THE CASE OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINIA

Citation:

Dewey, Susan. 2012. “ONE: RETHINKING SURVIVAL SEX AND TRAFFICKING IN CONFLICT AND POST – CONFLICT ZONES: THE CASE OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINIA.” Wagadu: A Journal of Transnational Women’s & Gender Studies 10: 15-31.

Author: Susan Dewey

Abstract:

Using the example of Radovan Stanković, whose case was the first transferred from the ICTY to the Sarajevo War Crimes Chamber (and who escaped from prison just weeks into his sentence), this article describes how weaknesses in infrastructure and political will seriously inhibit efforts to localize the implementation of international law.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, International Law, International Human Rights, International Organizations, Political Participation, Trafficking, Human Trafficking Regions: Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina

Year: 2012

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