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Trafficking

Trafficking in Women: The Business Model Approach

Citation:

Shelley, Louise. 2003. “Trafficking in Women: The Business Model Approach.” Brown Journal of World Affairs 10 (1): 119–31.

Author: Louise Shelley

Topics: Corruption, Gender, Women, Livelihoods, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Trafficking, Drug Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking

Year: 2003

Mapping Of Missing, Kidnapped And Trafficked Children And Women: Bangladesh Perspective

Citation:

Shamim, Ishrat. 2001. Mapping Of Missing, Kidnapped And Trafficked Children And Women: Bangladesh Perspective. Dhaka, Bangladesh: International Organization for Migration.

Author: Ishrat Shamim

Topics: Gender, Women, Girls, Boys, Sexual Violence, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2001

The ‘Natasha’ Trade: The Transnational Shadow Market of Trafficking in Women

Citation:

Hughes, Donna. 2000. “The ‘Natasha’ Trade: The Transnational Shadow Market of Trafficking in Women.” Journal of International Affairs 53 (2): 625–51.

Author: Donna Hughes

Topics: Corruption, Displacement & Migration, Gender, Women, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Europe, Eastern Europe Countries: Ukraine

Year: 2000

Human Trafficking: The Ruthless Trade in Human Mistery

Citation:

Everts, Daan. 2003. “Human Trafficking: The Ruthless Trade in Human Mistery.” Brown Journal of World Affairs 10 (1): 149–58.

Author: Daan Everts

Topics: Economies, Rights, Human Rights, Trafficking, Human Trafficking

Year: 2003

Criminal Groups and Transnational Illegal Markets

Citation:

Bruinsma, Gerben, and Wim Bernasco. 2004. “Criminal Groups and Transnational Illegal Markets.” Crime, Law & Social Change 41: 79–94.

Authors: Gerben Bruinsma, Wim Bernasco

Abstract:

In the study of organised crime, the traditional view of criminal groups as centrally controlled organisations has been replaced by the notion of criminal networks. However, little use has been made of concepts and theories of social networks that have developed in other social sciences. This paper uses concepts from social network theory to describe and tentatively explain differences in social organization between criminal groups that perform three types of transnational illegal activities: smuggling and large-scale heroine trading, trafficking in women, and trading stolen cars. Groups that operate in the large-scale heroin market tend to be close-knit, cohesive and ethnically homogenous. Groups active in the trafficking of women have a chain structure, while those that operate in the market for stolen cars are charactersed by three clusters of offenders in a chain. Both groups are less cohesive than criminal groups in the large-scale heroin market. The differences in social organisation between the three types of illegal activities appear to be related to the legal and financial risks associated with the crimes in question, and thereby to the required level of trust between collaborating criminals.

Topics: Corruption, Economies, Trafficking, Drug Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking

Year: 2004

Smuggling and Trafficking in Human Beings: The Phenonmenon, the Markets That Drive It and the Organizations That Promote It

Citation:

Aronowitz, Alexis. 2001. “Smuggling and Trafficking in Human Beings: The Phenonmenon, the Markets That Drive It and the Organizations That Promote It.” European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 9: 163–95.

Author: Alexis Aronowitz

Abstract:

This article will define the concepts of smuggling and trafficking in human beings and discuss the difficulty in applying the definition. The magnitude and scope of the problem will be examined as well as its causes. Trafficking in human beings will be analysed as an illegal market, particularly with reference to its relationship with other illegal markets and the involvement of organised crime groups. The phenomenon will be discussed in more depth focusing on countries and regions where projects are currently being implemented under the auspices of the United Nations Global Programme against Trafficking in Human Beings. The discussion closes with an overview of situations which facilitate the practice, and current measures and recommendations to stem the tide of smuggling and trafficking.

Keywords: criminal organizations, illegal markets, migration, smuggling, Trafficking

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women, Girls, Livelihoods, Rights, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking

Year: 2001

Trafficking — a Demand Led Problem?

Citation:

Anderson, Bridget, and Julia O’Connell Davidson. 2003. Trafficking — a Demand Led Problem?. 15. IOM Migration Research Series. Geneva: International Organization for Migration.

Authors: Bridget Anderson, Julia O’Connell Davidson

Abstract:

The 2001 ASEM Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children stressed the need to encourage research on the demand for the most common forms of exploitation of trafficked women and children, in particular for commercial sex services, and recommended a multi-country study into the demand side of trafficking as one of its follow-up actions.

In response to this recommendation, the Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, SLDA and Save the Children Sweden, commissioned this pilot research study on the demand underlying two sectors where labour/services of trafficked persons are known to be subject to exploitation: prostitution and domestic work. This report sets out some of the findings of the pilot study and ongoing research concerning employer demand for domestic workers in private households, and consumer demand for commercial sexual services in selected European and Asian countries.

Topics: Gender, Women, Girls, Boys, Households, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe, Southern Europe Countries: India, Italy, Sweden, Thailand

Year: 2003

Treading along a Treacherous Trail: Research on Trafficking in Persons in South Asia

Citation:

Ali, A.K.M. Masud. 2005. “Treading along a Treacherous Trail: Research on Trafficking in Persons in South Asia.” International Migration 43 (1/2): 141–64.

Author: A.K.M. Masud Ali

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of research on trafficking in persons in South Asia. The trend of trafficking is on the rise, but the existing knowledge base is inadequate for a full understanding of the phenomenon at the regional level. The paper is based on secondary data and analysis of existing literature on trafficking in South Asia.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Asia, South Asia

Year: 2005

Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by Peacekeeping Operations in Contemporary Africa

Citation:

Utas, Mats, and Fanny Ruden. 2009. Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by Peacekeeping Operations in Contemporary Africa. 2. Uppsala, SE: The Nordic Africa Institute.

Authors: Fanny Ruden, Mats Utas

Abstract:

In international peacekeeping operations (PKOs) some individuals are involved in sexual exploitation and abuse of the host country’s population, buying of sexual services and trafficking of prostitutes. Far from being a new phenomenon it goes back a long time, and reports on the issue have increased over the years. All too frequently we read about peacekeepers visiting prostitutes, committing rape, or in other ways sexually exploiting host populations. Some peacekeepers are taking advantage of the power their work gives them, and becoming abusers rather than protectors in situations where the host population is powerless and in dire need of protection. Peacekeepers’ abuse of their mandate is inflicting severe damage on host societies and often results in a number of unintended consequences such as human rights violations, rapid spread of HIV, decreased trust in the UN as well as other international aid agencies, and harmful changes to gender patterns. Women and children, both girls and boys, are especially exposed. Having already suffered from war and instability they risk becoming even more physically and mentally wounded. Peacekeeping operations risk doing more harm than good in African war zones, and if they cannot learn from previous mistakes maybe they ought to stay at home. We do not argue for the latter; rather, we point towards the urgent need to change explicit and implicit patterns and habits in international peacekeeping operations in relation to sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) in Africa. In this Policy Note we focus predominantly on military staff, but acknowledge that the civilian staff of PKOs, and international aid workers, are also implicated. On the other hand it should initially be pointed out that most PKO staff are not sexual exploiters and abusers.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Health, HIV/AIDS, Humanitarian Assistance, International Organizations, Livelihoods, Sexual livelihoods, Peacekeeping, Rights, Human Rights, Sexual Violence, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Africa

Year: 2009

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