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Terrorism

From Where We Stand: War, Women's Activism and Feminist Analysis

Citation:

Cockburn, Cynthia. 2007. From Where We Stand: War, Women's Activism and Feminist Analysis. New York: Zed Books.

Author: Cynthia Cockburn

Abstract:

The product of 80,000 miles of travel by the author over a two-year period, this original study examines women's activism against wars as far apart as Sierra Leone, Colombia and India. It shows women on different sides of conflicts in the former Yugoslavia and Israel refusing enmity and co-operating for peace. It describes international networks of women opposing US and Western European militarism and the so-called 'war on terror'. Women are often motivated by adverse experiences in male-led anti-war movements, preferring to choose different methods of protest and remain in control of their own actions. But like the mainstream movements, women's groups differ - some are pacifist while others put justice before non-violence; some condemn nationalism as a cause of war while others see it as a legitimate source of identity. The very existence of feminist antimilitarism proposes a radical shift in our understanding of war, linking the violence of patriarchal power to that of class oppression and ethnic 'othering'.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Society, Class, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Nonviolence, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Race, Terrorism, Violence Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, North America, South America, Asia, South Asia, Europe, Western Europe Countries: Colombia, India, Sierra Leone, United States of America

Year: 2007

On Torture: Abu Ghraib

Citation:

Puar, Jasbir K. 2005. "On Torture: Abu Ghraib." Radical History Review 93: 13-38.

Author: Jasbir K. Puar

Keywords: prisons, torture

Topics: International Law, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Rights, Human Rights, Terrorism, Torture, Sexual Torture Regions: MENA, Americas, North America, Asia, Middle East Countries: Iraq, United States of America

Year: 2005

Monster, Terrorist, Fag: The War on Terrorism and the Production of Docile Patriots

Citation:

Puar, Jasbir K., and Amit Rai. 2002. "Monster, Terrorist, Fag: The War on Terrorism and the Production of Docile Patriots." Social Text 20 (3): 117-48.

Authors: Jasbir K. Puar, Amit Rai

Keywords: war on terror, terrorism, heterosexuality, patriotism

Topics: Gender, Patriarchy, Masculinism, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Nationalism, Security, Sexuality, Terrorism Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2002

Gender Group Differences in Coping with Chronic Terror: The Israeli Scene

Citation:

Zeidner, Moshe. 2006. "Gender Group Differences in Coping with Chronic Terror: The Israeli Scene." Sex Roles 54 (3): 297-310.

Author: Moshe Zeidner

Abstract:

Gender group differences in terror–stress, cognitive appraisals, ways of coping with terror, and stress reactions were explored in a sample of Israeli adults following prolonged exposure to political violence. Data were gathered at the height of the Al-Aqsa Intifada uprising (May/July 2002) from a sample of 707 adult participants (60% women and 40% men) residing in Haifa and northern Israel. Israeli women reported that they were more distressed by political violence than the men did, and they also appraised the crisis situation as more threatening and less manageable. Women reported using more problem-focused as well as emotion-focused coping than men did; both men and women used a mixture of coping strategies. Compared to men, women reported that they experienced more somatic symptoms and more frequent posttraumatic stress symptoms than men did. Negative affectivity was found to mediate gender differences in appraisals, coping, and outcomes. Overall, the nexus of relations among key variables was found to be highly similar for men and women. These data suggest that women may be more reactive to chronic political violence situations than men are. The data are discussed and explicated in the context of stress and coping theory and prior research on political violence and community disasters. 

Keywords: trauma, mental health, posttraumatic stress disorder, female civilians, male civilians

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma, Terrorism, Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel

Year: 2006

Gender Differences in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Primary Care Patients after the World Trade Center Attack of Sept 11, 2001

Citation:

Weissman, Myrna M., Yuval Neria, Amar Das Adriana Feder, Carlos Blanco, Rafael Lantigua, Shea Steven, Raz Gross, Marc J. Gameroff, Daniel Pilowsky, and Mark Olfson. 2005. "Gender Differences in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Primary Care Patients after the World Trade Center Attack of September 11, 2001." Gender Medicine 2 (2): 76-87.

Authors: Myrna M. Weissman, Yuval Neria, Amar Das Adriana Feder, Carlos Blanco, Rafael Lantigua, Shea Steven, Raz Gross, Marc J. Gameroff, Daniel Pilowsky, Mark Olfson

Abstract:

Background: Debate surrounds the nature of gender differences in rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Objective: The goal of this study was to quantify and explore the reasons for gender differences in rates of PTSD in low income, primary care patients after the World Trade Center (WTC) attack of September 11, 2001.

Methods: A survey was conducted at a large primary care practice in New York City 7 to 16 months after the WTC attack. The study involved a systematic sample of primary care patients aged 18 to 70 years. The main outcome measures were the Life Events Checklist, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version, and the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire, all administered by a bilingual research staff.

Results: A total of 3807 patients were approached at the primary care clinic. Of the 1347 who meteligibility criteria, 1157 (85.9%) consented to participate. After the addition of the WTC/PTSD supplement to the study, the total number of patients was 992, of whom 982 (99.0%) completed the survey. Both sexes had high rates of direct exposure to the WTC attack and high rates of lifetime exposure to stressful life events. Overall, females had lower rates of exposure to the attack compared with males (P < 0.05). Hispanic females had the highest rate of PTSD in the full sample. Gender differences in rates of PTSD were largely accounted for by differences in marital status and education. The rate of current major depressive disorder (MDD) was higher in females than in males (P < 0.001), and the reverse was true for substance abuse (P < 0.001). Gender differences for MDD and substance abuse persisted even after adjustments for demographic differences between the sexes.

Conclusions: The increased rate of PTSD in women attending a primary care clinic was mediatedby their social and economic circumstances, such as living alone without a permanent relationship and with little education or income. The increased rate of MDD in women appeared to be less dependent on these circumstances. These findings have implications for the treatment of women with PTSD in primary care and for research on gender differences in rates of psychiatric disorders.

Keywords: posttraumatic stress disorder, terrorism, depression, substance abuse, mental health

Topics: Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma, Terrorism Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2005

Is Terror Gender-Blind? Gender Differences in Reaction to Terror Events

Citation:

Solomon, Zahava, Marc Gelkopf, and Avraham Bleich. 2005. "Is Terror Gender-Blind? Gender Differences in Reaction to Terror Events." Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 40 (12): 947-954.

Authors: Zahava Solomon, Marc Gelkopf, Avraham Bleich

Abstract:

Objective: This study examines gender differences in posttraumatic vulnerability in the face of the terror attacks that occurred during the Al-Aqsa Intifada. In addition, the contribution of level of exposure, sense of safety, self-efficacy, and coping strategies is assessed.

Method: Participants were 250 men and 262 women, who constitute a representative sample of Israel's adult population. Data were collected via a structured questionnaire consisting of 51 items that were drawn from several questionnaires widely used in the study of trauma.

Results: The findings indicate that women endorsed posttraumatic and depressive symptoms more than men and that, generally, their odds of developing posttraumatic stress symptoms are six times higher than those of men. Results also revealed that women's sense of safety and self-efficacy are lower than men's and that there are gender differences in coping strategies in the face of terror.

Conclusions: Gender differences in vulnerability to terror may be attributable to a number of factors, among these are women's higher sense of threat and lower self-efficacy, as well as their tendency to use less effective coping strategies than men. Level of exposure to terror was ruled out as a possible explanation for the gender differences in vulnerability.

Keywords: terrorism, posttraumatic stress disorder, mental health, depression

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Terrorism Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel

Year: 2005

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