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SV against women

Women in Post-Conflict Niger-Delta of Nigeria: Amnesty versus Restorative Justice

Citation:

Abimbola, Foluke Oluyemisi. 2019. "Women in Post-Conflict Niger-Delta of Nigeria: Amnesty versus Restorative Justice." Journal of Law and Criminal Justice 7 (1): 23-34.

Author: Foluke Oluyemisi Abimbola

Abstract:

The Niger-Delta of Nigeria is known for violence and conflicts as a result of opposition of militant groups to oil exploration activities concentrated in this area of Nigeria. The militant groups are still agitating for a share of the oil revenue and for the development of their region. Women in the Niger-Delta of Nigeria have experienced different levels of violence and torture during these conflict situations. Some of the crimes perpetrated against women during these conflicts are rape, forced labour, sex slavery, and brutal murder of their family members. In addition, during conflict situations and even thereafter, the women experience a deeper level of poverty as a result of their inability to continue with their economic activities such as farming or fishing due to displacements caused by the conflict as most of the women living in the Niger-Delta rural communities are subsistence farmers. Following years of insurgency by angry militants against the Nigerian government, the amnesty strategy was eventually mapped out by the government of the day in order to give the militant youth economic opportunities to stem the tide of conflicts. However, the vast majority of women and girls who were and are still victims of these conflicts were not included. This paper shall highlight the need for restorative justice especially for women who are victims of the insurgency. Whereas amnesty seeks to give a better future to the militants, the women are unable to recover effectively with little or no means of indemnifying their losses. This paper proposes restitution or compensation for victims while creating constructive roles for victims in the criminal justice process.

Keywords: women, Niger Delta, post-conflict mechanisms, amnesty, restorative justice

Topics: Age, Youth, Agriculture, Displacement & Migration, Economies, Poverty, Conflict, Resource Conflict, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Governance, Justice, Torture, Sexual Violence, Rape, Sexual Slavery, SV against women, Violence Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2019

Gender Inequalities in the Military Service: A Systematic Literature Review

Citation:

Reis, João, and Sofia Menezes. 2020. "Gender Inequalities in the Military Service: A Systematic Literature Review." Sexuality & Culture 24: 1004-18.

Authors: João Reis, Sofia Menezes

Abstract:

This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the literature regarding gender inequalities in the military service. In doing so, it discloses challenges and opportunities for women’s integration and finds new avenues for future research. Recent scientific research has evidenced that women still represent a growing minority in most Western militaries. Women’s integration deserves equal opportunities across all branches and levels of responsibility in the military, however, their expansion to ground combat roles is still a challenge to the military and policy-makers. Scholars have also reported about the decision to increase the number of women in combat roles, as it may potentiate adverse experiences, due to closer proximity to men in circumstances with little or no privacy. Conversely, scientific research has shown that more egalitarian women reported significantly less sexual harassment victimization. Furthermore, our insights suggest that it might be fruitful to integrate women in ground combat roles as special forces’ operators, with a view to induce a reduction of marginalization and sexual harassment, by gaining respect in a male-dominant culture. The presented idea should be interpreted with caution and needs to be supported by empirical research; although we are convinced that future research will be revealing and might represent a game-changing situation to women inequalities in the armed forces.

Topics: Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Sexual Violence, SV against women

Year: 2020

Violence against Women and New Venture Initiation with Microcredit: Self-Efficacy, Fear of Failure, and Disaster Experiences

Citation:

Shahriar, Abu Zafar M., and Dean A. Shepherd. 2019. "Violence against Women and New Venture Initiation with Microcredit: Self-Efficacy, Fear of Failure, and Disaster Experiences." Journal of Business Venturing 34 (6).

Authors: Abu Zafar M. Shahriar, Dean A. Shepherd

Abstract:

Domestic violence is the most prevalent form of gender-based violence that threatens the wellbeing and dignity of women. In this paper, we examine whether and how exposure to physical or sexual assault by male partners influences women's decision to initiate a new business when they have access to financing. We collected primary data from rural Bangladesh in collaboration with a microfinance institution that provided small collateral-free loans to a group of married women. We conducted a baseline survey before loan disbursement and then conducted a follow-up survey 12 to 15 months later to collect information on loan usage. We find that women who experienced physical or sexual violence by their husband before receiving a loan are less likely to initiate a new business with their loan than those who did not experience such violence. Exposure to domestic violence obstructs the initiation of new businesses through reduced entrepreneurial self-efficacy and increased fear of business failure. The adverse impact of domestic violence is more detrimental for women who recently experienced another potentially traumatic event—an environmental disaster—than for those without such an experience.

Keywords: domestic violence, women's entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, fear of business failure, environmental disaster, microcredit

Topics: Economies, Domestic Violence, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender-Based Violence, Sexual Violence, SV against women, Violence Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2019

Public Transport from a Gender Perspective: Insecurity and Victimization in Latin America. The Case of Lima and Asuncion Metropolitan Areas

Citation:

Jaitman, Laura. 2020. “Public Transport from a Gender Perspective: Insecurity and Victimization in Latin America. The Case of Lima and Asuncion Metropolitan Areas.” Journal of Economics, Race, and Policy 3: 24–40.

Author: Laura Jaitman

Abstract:

Lack of security is the main concern of citizens in the region. Crime and violence distort the allocation of resources by governments and businesses and alter citizens’ routines. This is particularly the case for women. This paper measures women’s perceptions of insecurity and victimization on public transport in the Asuncion (Paraguay) and Lima (Peru) metropolitan areas and analyzes their influence on mobility patterns. An innovative methodology, which considers both users and nonusers of public transport in a representative sample from those metropolitan areas, is used. The paper concludes that both women’s perceptions and experiences of insecurity when using public transport, especially in the Lima metropolitan area, are among the worst in Latin America. This is associated with lower public transportation use; therefore, it limits women’s transport options, directly affecting their mobility and causing economic and time loss. About 30% of women in Lima and 6% of women in Asuncion area reported being victims of crime on public transport systems, while 79% in Lima and 24% in Asuncion have witnessed episodes of violence against women on public transport in the past 12 months. More than one third of women have suffered sexual offenses on public transport at some point in their lives. More than 80% of women do not report these crimes. Policies to enhance women’s security on public transport are analyzed as they are key to promoting gender equality. 

Topics: Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Transportation, Security, Sexual Violence, SV against women, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Paraguay, Peru

Year: 2020

Water Access in Changing Climate in Bangladesh: A Study of Social Impacts on Women who Manage Household Water

Citation:

Islam, M. Rafiqul. 2020. "Water Access in Changing Climate in Bangladesh: A Study of Social Impacts on Women who Manage Household Water." Bandung 7 (1): 107-29.

Author: M. Rafiqul Islam

Abstract:

Access to water depends on the availability of water but climate change impact such as sea level rise, increase frequency and intensity of cyclone, floods, and erratic rainfall reduces the availability of water by either polluting water sources or damaging water supply and management infrastructure. Women are the worst victims of climate change regarding water access as they are primarily responsible for managing water for the household. This study focuses on how climate change is responsible for reducing water access and subsequently bear on women in addressing the water crisis problem. The study found that women face challenges in access to water that affect them in terms of less time, physical and mental health problems, sexual assault/harassment, violence in the household, reduce their income, children’s education, early marriage, divorce, and make more difficult to perform their responsibility. Initiatives should be taken to enhance water access for women on a priority basis.

Keywords: access to water, availability of water, climate change impact, water crises, women, Rainwater harvesting

Topics: Education, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, Households, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Sexual Violence, SV against women

Year: 2020

Response to and Reparations for Conflict-Related Sexual Violence in Iraq: The Case of Shi'a Turkmen Survivors in Tel Afar

Citation:

Bor, Güley. 2019. Response to and Reparations for Conflict-Related Sexual Violence in Iraq: The Case of Shi'a Turkmen Survivors in Tel Afar. London: London School of Economics Middle East Centre.

Author: Güley Bor

Abstract:

Conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) has been widespread in Iraq during the most recent Islamic State conflict. Thousands of Yazidi and hundreds of Shiʿa Turkmen women and girls were subjected to various forms of CRSV, including sexual slavery and forced marriages. Survivors need, demand and have a right to emergency responses as well as reparations. However, an overview of the situation of Shiʿa Turkmen survivors who returned to Tel Afar demonstrates how the Government of Iraq’s inaction, together with its discriminatory laws and practices, continue to fail women, and survivors in particular. Shiʿa Turkmen survivors must be provided with timely, comprehensive and survivor-centric medical, legal, economic services and mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS), while community-oriented programmes must address the high levels of stigma to which survivors are subjected. To address the medical, psychological and social harms arising from CRSV, complex reparation programmes (both urgent and comprehensive) should be designed and implemented through effective survivor consultation, by ensuring that all survivors are included in their scope. While the recent reparations bill is a step in the right direction, Iraq is in urgent need for wider reform in addressing sexual violence and ensuring its non-repetition.

Topics: Conflict, Gender, Women, Girls, Governance, Health, Mental Health, Justice, Reparations, Sexual Violence, Sexual Slavery, SV against women Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Iraq

Year: 2019

'What Is Wrong with Men?’: Revisiting Violence against Women in Conflict and Peacebuilding

Citation:

Pankhurst, Donna. 2016. “‘What Is Wrong with Men?’: Revisiting Violence against Women in Conflict and Peacebuilding.” Peacebuilding 4 (2): 180–93.

Author: Donna Pankhurst

Abstract:

Much has been written about the high rates of rape and other forms of violence against ‘enemy’ women in wartime and sustained violence against women in post-war contexts. Research on violence against women, recognised as a problem for peace and development and even a threat to international security, has begun to identify and explain contrasts between different locations. The explanations focus on men, their behaviour and ‘masculinities’, some of which, and even some military codes, may even proscribe such violence. By contrast, research on the mental health of male former combatants, and possibly other male survivors of war trauma, suggests that there is a strong risk of them perpetrating violence specifically against women, even in cases where the highest standard of veteran care is expected, but without much explanation. This article considers what potential there is in this topic for lessons in peacebuilding policy and identifies areas for future research.

Keywords: sexual violence, gender, war, peacebuilding, masculinity, men, ex-combatants, veterans, soldiers

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Health, Mental Health, Peacebuilding, Sexual Violence, Rape, SV against women

Year: 2016

Understanding Women's Experience of Violence and the Political Economy of Gender in Conflict: The Case of Syria

Citation:

Alsaba, Khuloud, and Anuj Kapilashrami. 2016. "Understanding Women's Experience of Violence and the Political Economy of Gender in Conflict: The Case of Syria." Reproductive Health Matters 24 (47): 5-17.

Authors: Khuloud Alsaba, Anuj Kapilashrami

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Political conflicts create significant risks for women, as new forms and pathways of violence emerge, and existing patterns of violence may get amplified and intensified. The systematic use of sexual violence as a tactic of war is well-documented. Emergent narratives from the Middle East also highlight increasing risk and incidence of violence among displaced populations in refugee camps in countries bordering states affected by conflict. However, much less is known about the changing nature of violence and associated risks and lived experiences of women across a continuum of violence faced within the country and across national borders. Discussion on violence against women (VAW) in conflict settings is often stripped of an understanding of the changing political economy of the state and how it structures gender relations, before, during and after a conflict, creating particular risks of violence and shaping women’s experiences. Drawing on a review of grey and published literature and authors’ experiences, this paper examines this underexplored dimension of VAW in political conflicts, by identifying risk environments and lived realities of violence experienced by women in the Syrian conflict, a context that is itself poorly understood. We argue for multi-level analysis of women’s experiences of violence, taking into account the impact of the political economy of the wider region as shaping the lived realities of violence and women’s response, as well as their access to resources for resistance and recovery.
 
FRENCH ABSTRACT:
Les conflits politiques créent des risques importants pour les femmes, parallèlement à l’apparition de nouvelles formes et voies de violence ainsi qu’à l’amplification et l’intensification des modes existants de violence. Le recours systématique à la violence sexuelle comme tactique de guerre est bien documenté. Des récits provenant du Moyen-Orient mettent également en lumière le risque accru et la multiplication des actes de violence parmi les personnes déplacées dans des camps de réfugiés dans des pays voisins des États touchés par le conflit. Néanmoins, la nature changeante de la violence au sein des pays et les risques associés, de même que les expériences vécues par les femmes dans un continuum de violence au sein des pays et à travers les frontières nationales sont nettement moins bien connus. La discussion sur la violence faite aux femmes dans les conflits parvient rarement à comprendre la mutation de l’économie politique de l’État et la manière dont elle structure les relations entre hommes et femmes, avant, pendant et après un conflit, comment elle génère des risques particuliers de violence et façonne l’expérience des femmes. Se fondant sur un examen de la «littérature grise», des publications et de l’expérience des auteurs, cet article se penche sur cette dimension sous-explorée de la violence faite aux femmes dans les conflits politiques, en identifiant les environnements à risque et les réalités vécues de violence subie par les femmes dans le conflit syrien, un contexte qui est en lui-même mal compris. Nous préconisons une analyse à plusieurs niveaux de la violence faite aux femmes, en tenant compte de l’impact de l’économie politique de l’ensemble de la région qui remodèle les réalités vécues de la violence et la réaction des femmes, ainsi que leur accès aux ressources pour résister et récupérer.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Los conflictos políticos crean riesgos significativos para las mujeres, a medida que surgen nuevas formas y vías de violencia, y los patrones existentes de violencia posiblemente se amplifiquen e intensifiquen. El uso sistemático de la violencia sexual como una táctica de guerra está bien documentado. Relatos emergentes del Oriente Medio también destacan creciente riesgo e incidencia de violencia entre poblaciones desplazadas en campos de refugiados, en los países fronterizos con Estados afectados por conflicto. Sin embargo, se sabe mucho menos acerca de la naturaleza cambiante de la violencia y riesgos asociados, y acerca de las experiencias vividas por las mujeres a lo largo de un continuum de violencia enfrentada en el país y a través de fronteras nacionales. La discusión sobre la violencia contra las mujeres (VCM) en ámbitos de conflicto a menudo es despojada de comprensión de la economía política cambiante del Estado y cómo ésta estructura las relaciones de género antes, durante y después de un conflicto, creando riesgos específicos de violencia y afectando las experiencias de las mujeres. Basado en una revisión de la literatura gris y publicada, y en las experiencias de los autores, este artículo examina esta dimensión subexplorada de la VCM en conflictos políticos, e identifica ambientes de riesgo y realidades vividas de violencia sufrida por mujeres en el conflicto sirio, un contexto que en sí no es bien comprendido. Argumentamos a favor del análisis en múltiples niveles de las experiencias de las mujeres con la violencia, tomando en cuenta el impacto de la economía política de la región en general como algo que define las realidades vividas de violencia y la respuesta de las mujeres, así como su acceso a recursos para resistancia y recuperación.

Keywords: gender, conflict, Violence against women, political economy of violence, Syria

Topics: Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Livelihoods, Sexual Violence, SV against women, Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Syria

Year: 2016

Buried in the Heart: Women, Complex Victimhood and the War in Northern Uganda

Citation:

Baines, Erin. 2018. Buried in the Heart: Women, Complex Victimhood and the War in Northern Uganda. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Author: Erin Baines

Annotation:

Summary:
In Buried in the Heart, Erin Baines explores the political agency of women abducted as children by the Lord's Resistance Army in northern Uganda, forced to marry its commanders, and to bear their children. Introducing the concept of complex victimhood, she argues that abducted women were not passive victims, but navigated complex social and political worlds that were life inside the violent armed group. Exploring the life stories of thirty women, Baines considers the possibilities of storytelling to reclaim one's sense of self and relations to others, and to generate political judgement after mass violence. Buried in the Heart moves beyond victim and perpetrator frameworks prevalent in the field of transitional justice, shifting the attention to stories of living through mass violence and the possibilities of remaking communities after it. The book contributes to an overlooked aspect of international justice: women's political agency during wartime. (Summary from Cambridge University Press)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Girls, Justice, Transitional Justice, Sexual Violence, SV against women, Violence Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2018

Guarantees of Non-Recurrence of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence against Women after the Khmer Rouge

Citation:

You, Sotheary. 2019. "Guarantees of Non-Recurrence of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence against Women after the Khmer Rouge." Swiss Peace Cambodia Working Paper Series 6/2019, Center for the Study of Humanitarian Law, University of Basel, Basel.

Author: Sotheary You

Abstract:

Four decades after the collapse of the Khmer Rouge regime, Cambodian women continue to suffer from discriminatory social, cultural and economic norms and to experience gender injustice in social and political spheres. Against this background, this paper asks whether and to what extent transitional justice has contributed to providing guarantees of non-recurrence of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) against women in Cambodia. This paper examines how the transitional justice process addressed SGBV committed under the Khmer Rouge regime. It shows that transitional justice has not adequately recognized SGBV against women under the Khmer Rouge, that there has been lack of representation of women in the process and that an unfair redistribution of resources after the Khmer Rouge contributed to further discrimination. Drawing from the concept of guarantees of non-recurrence and feminist scholarship on gender justice, this paper highlights how a lack of gender-transformative policy and the government’s lack of capacity to comply with international legal standards has shaped women’s experiences after the Khmer Rouge. It argues that, in order to guarantee the non-repetition of SGBV against women, transitional justice initiatives should aim to address social and cultural injustice effectively; to subvert patriarchal and oppressive norms; and to promote women’s participation in social, economic and political development in Cambodia. It concludes with policy recommendations.

Keywords: Khmer Rouge, guarantee of non-recurrence, transformative reparation, transitional justice, Cambodia, sexual and gender-based violence

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Justice, Transitional Justice, Political Participation, Sexual Violence, SV against women Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia

Year: 2019

Pages

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