Rape as a Weapon of War(riors): The Militarisation of Sexual Violence in the United States, 1990-2000


Cerretti, Josh. 2016. “Rape as a Weapon of War(riors): The Militarisation of Sexual Violence in the United States, 1990-2000.” Gender & History 28 (3): 794-812. 

Author: Josh Cerretti

Topics: Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, SV against Men, Sexuality Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2016

Honor Thy Sister: Selfhood, Gender, and Agency in Palestinian Culture


Baxter, Diane. 2007. “Honor Thy Sister: Selfhood, Gender, and Agency in Palestinian Culture.” Anthropological Quarterly 80 (3): 737-75.

Author: Diane Baxter


In this article, I examine the ideology of honor among West Bank Palestinians most particularly as it relates to sexuality and gender relations within families. I contend that the iconic Arab and Palestinian subject of the ideal, gendered, connected self—a central concept that undergirds most representations of honor—elides the significance of the individual and obscures the rights and strengths of women and the obligations, vulnerabilities, and anxieties of men. Beyond a critique of representations of honor, subjectivities, and patriarchy, I suggest that ideological-culturally-based explanatory models of behavior favor coherency over ambivalence and untidiness. In terms of honor and the subjectivities that inform it, such explanations have led to an over-reliance on resistance as a method of analyzing "anomalies." I argue that for Palestinian women and men, subjectivity and agency are achieved within and are a reflection of structural, ideological, and experiential configurations, rather than as resistances to them.

Topics: Gender, Gender Analysis, Rights, Women's Rights, Sexuality Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2007

Integrating Sexuality into Gender and Human Rights Frameworks: A Case Study from Turkey


Ilkkaracan, Pinar, and Karin Ronge. 2008. “Integrating Sexuality into Gender and Human Rights Frameworks: A Case Study from Turkey.” In Development with a Body: Sexuality, Human Rights and Development, edited by Sonia Corrêa, 225–41. Zed Books.

Authors: Pinar Ilkkaracan, Karin Ronge


Offers insights into contemporary challenges and transformative possibilities of the struggle for sexual rights. This book combines the conceptual with the political, and offering examples of practical interventions and campaigns that emphasize the positive dimensions of sexuality (WorldCat)


Development with a body: making the connections between sexuality, human rights, and development / Andrea Cornwall, Sonia Corrêa and Susie Jolly --

Development's encounter with sexuality: essentialism and beyond / Sonia Corrêa and Susan Jolly --

Sexual rights/human rights ---

Sexual rights are human rights / Kate Sheill --

Sex work, trafficking and HIV: how development is compromising sex workers' human rights / Melissa Ditmore --

The language of rights / Jaya Sharma --

Children's sexual rights in an era of HIV/AIDS / Deevia Bhana --

The rights of man / Alan Greig --

Human rights interrupted: an illustration from India / Sumit Baudh --

Gender and sex orders -- Discrimination against lesbians in the workplace / Alejandra Sardá --

Ruling masculinities in post-apartheid South Africa / Kopano Ratele --

Gender, identity and travesti rights in Peru / Giuseppe Campuzano --

Small powers, little choice: reproductive and sexual rights in slums in Bangladesh / Sabina Faiz Rashid --

Social and political inclusion of sex workers as preventive measure against trafficking: Serbian experiences / Jelena Djordjevic --

Confronting our prejudices: women's movement experiences in Bangladesh / Shireen Huq --

Sexuality education as a human right: lessons from Nigeria / Adenike O. Esiet --

Terms of contact and touching change: investigating pleasure in an HIV epidemic / Jill Lewis and Gill Gordon --

A democracy of sexuality: linkages and strategies for sexual rights, participation, and development / Henry Armas --

Integrating sexuality into gender and human rights frameworks: a case study from Turkey / Pinar Ilkkarancan and Karin Ronge.

Topics: Gender, Rights, Human Rights, Sexuality Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Turkey

Year: 2008

Why is Development Work so Straight? Heteronormativity in the International Development Industry


Jolly, Susie. 2011. “Why Is Development Work so Straight? Heteronormativity in the International Development Industry.” Development in Practice 21 (1): 18–28. doi:10.1080/09614524.2011.530233.

Author: Susie Jolly



International development work has both reinforced and challenged inequalities related to sexuality and gender. The concept of heteronormativity is a promising frame for understanding these dynamics. This article starts with a description of the history of the concept and an exploration of its possible applications. It goes on to consider heteronormativity in development work, in relation to three areas in which struggles based on sex and gender orders have been most visible: in household models and family forms; HIV/AIDS; and efforts to combat violence against women.


Le travail international de développement a à la fois renforcé et mis en cause les inégalités liées à la sexualité et au genre. Le concept d’hétéronormativité constitue un cadre prometteur pour comprendre cette dynamique. Cet article commence par une description de l’histoire du concept et une étude de ses applications possibles. Il traite ensuite de l’hétéronormativité dans le travail de développement, par rapport à trois domaines dans lesquels les luttes basées sur les ordres du sexe et du genre ont été les plus visibles: dans les modèles de ménages et les formes familiales; le VIH/le sida; et les efforts en vue de lutter contre la violence à l’encontre des femmes.


O trabalho de desenvolvimento internacional tem ao mesmo tempo reforc¸ado e desafiado as desigualdades relativas a` sexualidade e ao geˆnero. O conceito de heteronormatividade e´ uma estrutura promissora para se compreender essas dinaˆmicas. Este artigo inicia com uma descric ¸a˜o da histo´ria do conceito e uma explorac¸a˜o de suas possı´veis aplicac¸o˜es. Em seguida ele avalia a heteronormatividade no trabalho de desenvolvimento em relac¸a˜o a treˆs a´reas nas quais as lutas baseadas nas a´reas de sexo e geˆnero teˆm sido mais visı´veis: em modelos familiares e formas de famı´lia; HIV/AIDS; e nas esforc¸os para combater a violeˆncia contra as mulheres.


El trabajo en desarrollo internacional ha incrementado las inequidades relacionadas con la sexualidad y el ge´nero a la vez que las ha combatido. El concepto de heteronormatividadpuede ser u´til como marco analı´tico para comprender esta dina´mica. Este ensayo comienza describiendo la historia del concepto y analizando sus posibles aplicaciones. Tambie´n analiza la heteronormatividad en el trabajo de desarrollo en las tres a´reas donde las luchas basadas en el sexo y en las jerarquı´as de ge´nero son ma´s visibles: los modelos de hogares y las normas familiares; VIH/SIDA; y las luchas contra la violencia hacia las mujeres.


Keywords: aid, gender, diversity, Rights, East Asia

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender Mainstreaming, Health, LGBTQ, Sexuality, Violence

Year: 2011

‘I Think a Woman Who Travels a Lot Is Befriending Other Men and That’s Why She Travels’: Mobility Constraints and Their Implications for Rural Women and Girls in Sub-Saharan Africa


Porter, Gina. 2011. “‘I Think a Woman Who Travels a Lot Is Befriending Other Men and That’s Why She Travels’: Mobility Constraints and Their Implications for Rural Women and Girls in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Gender, Place & Culture 18 (1): 65–81. doi:10.1080/0966369X.2011.535304.

Author: GIna Porter


This article is concerned with the implications of practices, politics and meanings of mobility for women and girl children in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Women and girls commonly face severe mobility constraints which affect their livelihoods and their life chances. The article reflects on their experiences in rural areas where patriarchal institutions (including the gender division of labour, which places great emphasis on female labour contributions to household production and reproduction), and a patriarchal discourse concerning linkages between women's mobility, vulnerability and sexual appetite, shape everyday social practices and material inequalities. This compounds the physical constraints imposed by poor accessibility (to services and markets) associated with poor roads and inadequate transport in both direct and more complex ways. The article draws on field research conducted in diverse socio-cultural and agro-ecological contexts in western and southern Africa (principally southern Ghana, southern Malawi and northern and central Nigeria) to explore the impacts of relative immobility and poor service access on women and girls. Three (interconnected) issues are examined in some detail: access to markets, access to education and access to health services. Possible interventions to initiate positive change are considered. (Abstract from original source)

Keywords: gender, mobility, markets, education, health, promiscuity, transport

Topics: Civil Society, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Health, Infrastructure, Transportation, Sexuality Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria

Year: 2011

Service Is Not Servitude: Links Between Capitalism and Feminist Liberal Conceptions of Pleasure - Case Studies from Nicaragua


Portocarrero Lacayo, Ana Victoria. 2014. “Service Is Not Servitude: Links Between Capitalism and Feminist Liberal Conceptions of Pleasure — Case Studies from Nicaragua.” International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society 27 (2): 221–39. doi:10.1007/s10767-013-9158-3.

Author: Lacayo Portocarrero


This paper describes how the way in which women learn to serve others (children, the elderly, partners) influences their possibilities of accessing material and symbolic resources, which have been instrumental for the deployment of neoliberal capitalism in Nicaragua. Through the exploration of the work of two feminist organisations, La Corriente and Grupo Venancia, and of the interviews with the women they work with, I trace the direct and more subtle links between sex and neoliberal capitalism, identifiable in the discourse on sexual pleasure that these organisations use when working with women. Building on the work of scholars coming from disciplines as varied as political economy, sociology, feminist economics, gender and sexuality and postcolonial studies, I argue that while this discourse on sexual pleasure does challenge certain elements of the neoliberal capitalist system and brings positive changes to women, it also contains several risks due to its modern and individualistic imperatives, which can actually reinforce capitalist relations and inequalities. These include the risk of validating and universalising certain sexual knowledge, the risk of diminishing and depoliticising the value of service, and that of building the freedom of some women at the expense of others. The paper advocates for a review of the discourse on pleasure and the reclaiming of the concept of ‘service’ as a political stance against neoliberal capitalism

Keywords: service, pleasure, capitalism, feminism, Nicaragua

Topics: Civil Society, Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods, Sexual Livelihoods, Political Economies, Sexuality Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Nicaragua

Year: 2014

Introduction: Special Issue on "Gender, Sexuality and Political Economy"


Jacobs, Susie, and Christian Klesse. 2014. “Introduction: Special Issue on ‘Gender, Sexuality and Political Economy.’” International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society 27 (2): 129–52. doi:10.1007/s10767-013-9151-x.

Authors: Christian Klesse, Susie Jacobs

Topics: Gender, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Political Economies, Sexuality

Year: 2014

Reproductive Governance in Latin America


Morgan, Lynn M., and Elizabeth F.S. Roberts. 2012. “Reproductive Governance in Latin America.” Anthropology & Medicine 19 (2): 241–54. doi:10.1080/13648470.2012.675046.

Authors: Lynn M. Morgan, Elizabeth F.S. Roberts


This paper develops the concept of reproductive governance as an analytic tool for tracing the shifting political rationalities of population and reproduction. As advanced here, the concept of reproductive governance refers to the mechanisms through which different historical configurations of actors – such as state, religious, and international financial institutions, NGOs, and social movements – use legislative controls, economic inducements, moral injunctions, direct coercion, and ethical incitements to produce, monitor, and control reproductive behaviours and population practices. Examples are drawn from Latin America, where reproductive governance is undergoing a dramatic transformation as public policy conversations are coalescing around new moral regimes and rights-based actors through debates about abortion, emergency contraception, sterilisation, migration, and assisted reproductive technologies. Reproductive discourses are increasingly framed through morality and contestations over ‘rights’, where rights-bearing citizens are pitted against each other in claiming reproductive, sexual, indigenous, and natural rights, as well as the ‘right to life’ of the unborn. The concept of reproductive governance can be applied to other settings in order to understand shifting political rationalities within the domain of reproduction.

Keywords: reproduction, governance, human rights, neoliberalism, Latin America

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Health, Reproductive Health, Indigenous, NGOs, Rights, Women's Rights, Sexuality Regions: Americas, Central America, South America

Year: 2012

Tanzanian Women’s Move into Wage Labour: Conceptualizing Deference, Sexuality and Respectability as Criteria for Workplace Suitability.


Fischer, Gundula. 2014. “Tanzanian Women’s Move into Wage Labour: Conceptualizing Deference, Sexuality and Respectability as Criteria for Workplace Suitability.” Gender, Work & Organization 21 (2): 135–48. doi:10.1111/gwao.12026.

Author: Gundula Fischer


Although female labour force participation in Tanzania is growing, little is known about how hiring authorities fill job positions with respect to gender. Qualitative interviews with hospitality and manufacturing managers in Mwanza (Tanzania's second largest city) reveal that female deference, sexuality, domesticity and respectability constitute important recruitment and job placement criteria. This article examines the various notions behind these criteria and how they serve to include or exclude women in the workforce. It is shown that when the interaction of these criteria is conceptualized, deference and domesticity emerge as essential elements of female respectability, supporting each other in the control of women's sexuality.

Topics: Civil Society, Economies, Gender, Women, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Sexuality Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2014

For Richer, for Poorer: Marriage and Casualized Sex in East African Artisanal Mining Settlements


Bryceson, Deborah Fahy, Jesper Bosse Jønsson, and Hannelore Verbrugge. 2014. “For Richer, for Poorer: Marriage and Casualized Sex in East African Artisanal Mining Settlements.” Development and Change 45 (1): 79–104. doi:10.1111/dech.12067.

Authors: Deborah Fahy Bryceson, Jesper Bosse Jønsson, Hannelore Verbrugge


Migrants to Tanzania’s artisanal gold mining sites seek mineral wealth, which is accompanied by high risks of occupational hazards, economic failure, AIDS and social censure from their home communities. Male miners in these settlements compete to attract newly arrived young women who are perceived to be diverting male material support from older women and children’s economic survival. This article explores the dynamics of monogamy, polygamy and promiscuity in the context of rapid occupational change. It shows how a wide spectrum of productive and welfare outcomes is generated through sexual experimentation, which calls into question conventional concepts of prostitution, marriage and gender power relations.

Topics: Economies, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Men, Health, Sexuality Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2014


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