Sexual Slavery

Gender Violence or Violence Against Women? The Treatment of Forced Marriage in the Special Court for Sierra Leone

Citation:

Slater, Rachel. 2012. “Gender Violence or Violence Against Women? The Treatment of Forced Marriage in the Special Court for Sierra Leone.” Melbourne Journal of International Law 13 (2):  732.

Author: Rachel Slater

Abstract:

The article considers the case for viewing forced marriage, a prevalent form of violence suffered by women during the Sierra Leone conflict, as a gender crime. The article begins with a brief examination of the Special Court for Sierra Leone trials, commonly known as the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council Trial, the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council Appeal, the Revolutionary United Front Trial and the Charles Taylor Trial. Part IV then puts forward a conceptualisation of forced marriage as a gender crime and not purely violence suffered by women. It is argued that in order to fully reflect the nature of the harm suffered, the gender element of the violence must be foregrounded. This argument rejects calls for forced marriage to be viewed as enslavement or sexual slavery and emphasises the specific harm stemming from the label ‘wife’ as demonstrative of the force of socially assigned gender roles; these roles are integral to the crime rather than just forming the broader social context. This suggests that forced marriage as a gender crime should be seen as a stand-alone crime separate from other instances of forced marriage. In Part V and Part VI, it will be argued that the categorisation of forced marriage as a gender crime is a vital step towards the recognition of this type of gender violence as being within the scope of international law. Specifically, this article considers the characterisation of forced marriage under international criminal law in light of its interest to international refugee law, where similar violence might be raised as ‘persecution’ under the definition in art 1A(2) of the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender-Based Violence, International Law, International Criminal Law, Justice, International Tribunals & Special Courts, War Crimes, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Sexual Violence, Sexual Slavery, SV against Women Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2012

‘Forced Marriage’ in Conflict Situations: Researching and Prosecuting Old Harms and New Crimes

Citation:

Bunting, Annie. 2012. “‘Forced Marriage’ in Conflict Situations: Researching and Prosecuting Old Harms and New Crimes.” Canadian Journal of Human Rights 1 (1): 165-185.

Author: Annie Bunting

Abstract:

In 2008, the Appeals Chamber of the Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL) found “forced marriage” to be a new crime against humanity, distinct from the crime of sexual slavery. With expert evidence on the abduction and forced labour of women and girls during the extended conflict in Sierra Leone, the SCSL found such forced conjugal association to be part of the widespread or systematic attack on the civilian population in Sierra Leone. This article examines the Court’s decision in the context of developments of international criminal law and with comparisons to similar gender violence in Liberia, Rwanda, Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The author argues that practices described as “forced marriage” in these conflict situations ought to be charged as “enslavement” and not a new crime against humanity – the other inhumane act of forced marriage.

Topics: Gender, Women, Girls, Gender-Based Violence, International Law, International Criminal Law, Justice, Crimes against Humanity, International Tribunals & Special Courts, Livelihoods, Sexual Violence, Sexual Slavery Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2012

Peacekeeping and Prostitution in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo

Citation:

Harrington, Carol. 2003. “Peacekeeping and Prostitution in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo.” Paper presented at the 5th European Feminist Research Conference, Lund, August 20-23.

Author: Carol Harrington

Abstract:

This paper compares the organisation of sexual violence in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo during UN operations to the sexual violence associated with US military bases in the Republic of Korea (ROK) during the 1970s, while also drawing some comparisons with the way sexual violence was organised in wartime Yugoslavia. I argue that in all of these cases military men agree that soldiers are entitled to heterosexual encounters, and thus provide women for soldiers to have sex with, treating the women concerned as people whose well- being, dignity and bodily integrity is of no relevance at all. Such sexual violence appears to be institutionalised across contemporary militaries. However, the political logic that categorises women as people to be protected or as people who have no rights to bodily integrity differs across sites. My enquiry is based in a sociology of the body that treats sexual violence as political violence, thus I expect that the sexual categorisation and organisation of women for soldiers will reveal important aspects of the political order the militaries involved are defending. I will elaborate on this theoretical perspective in relation to the three cases in the course of my discussion. Through comparing these three military contexts I seek to understand how military thinkers in the case of Bosnia and Kosovo divided people in relation to physical security and rights to bodily integrity, and thus to uncover the logic of the political order these peacekeeping operations defended. (Intro)

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarization, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, SV against Women, Trafficking, Sex Trafficking, Violence Regions: Asia, East Asia, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Kosovo, North Korea, South Korea

Year: 2003

Rape as a Weapon of War

Citation:

Card, Claudia. 1996. "Rape as a Weapon of War." Hypatia 11 (4): 5-18.

Author: Claudia Card

Abstract:

This essay examines how rape of women and girls by male soldiers works as a martial weapon. Continuities with other torture and terrorism and with civilian rape are suggested. The inadequacy of past philosophical treatments of the enslavement of war captives is briefly discussed. Social strategies are suggested for responding and a concluding fantasy offered, not entirely social, of a strategy to change the meanings of rape to undermine its use as a martial weapon.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, Rape, Sexual Slavery, SV against Women, Terrorism, Torture, Sexual Torture

Year: 1996

Sex in the Shadow of Rome: Sexual Violence and Theological Lament in Talmudic Disaster Tales

Citation:

Belser, Julia Watts. 2014. “Sex in the Shadow of Rome: Sexual Violence and Theological Lament in Talmudic Disaster Tales.” Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion 30 (1): 5–24.

Author: Julia Watts Belser

Abstract:

This article analyzes the representation of rape in three narratives from the Babylonian Talmud’s account of the Roman destruction of Jerusalem and discusses the connection between sexual violence, enslavement, and colonial domination. These narratives mimic pervasive Roman symbolism of imperial dominance as a form of “sexual conquest,” using that symbolism to express rabbinic lament and violation at the hands of Rome. These stories express elements of rabbinic resistance to imperial domination, emphasizing Jewish resilience even in the midst of intense suffering. Yet the symbolic and theological significance afforded to rape in these narratives also reinscribes the vulnerability and invisibility of women and enslaved people in both rabbinic and Roman cultures. By using rape to conceptualize divine woundedness and rabbinic lament, these narratives privilege the theological significance of Roman violation over the brutal body cost of imperial conquest.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Religion, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, SV against Women, Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East

Year: 2014

Understanding and Improving Law Enforcement Responses to Human Trafficking: Final Report

Citation:

Farrell, Amy, Jack McDevitt, Stephanie Fahy, Scott Decker, Vince Webb, and Nikos Passas. 2008. Understanding and Improving Law Enforcement Responses to Human Trafficking: Final Report. Boston: Northeastern University: Institute on Race and Justice.

Authors: Amy Farrell, Jack McDevitt, Stephanie Fahy, Scott Decker, Vince Webb, Nikos Passas

Topics: Civil Society, Gender, Globalization, Health, International Law, International Human Rights, International Organizations, NGOs, Sexual Violence, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2008

Trafficking in Human Beings and the 2006 World Cup in Germany

Citation:

Hennig, Jana, Sarah Craggs, Frank Laczko, and Fred Larsson. 2007. Trafficking in Human Beings and the 2006 World Cup in Germany. 29. Geneva: International Organization for Migration.

Authors: Jana Hennig, Sarah Craggs, Frank Laczko, Fred Larsson

Abstract:

The trafficking of women for the purpose of sexual exploitation received considerable attention prior to the 2006 World Cup in Germany. It was widely suggested that this sporting event would contribute to an increase in prostitution and a sharp increase in the number of women trafficked to Germany for sexual exploitation.

This report investigates whether there is any evidence to suggest an increase in the number of women trafficked to Germany for the purpose of sexual exploitation during the 2006 World Cup. It further examines the measures taken by the authorities and non-governmental organizations to counter trafficking in Germany during the event.

Recommendations are provided to help combat the trafficking in persons during similar major events and to provide a tool for future event organizers, policymakers and relevant authorities and NGOS.

Topics: Gender, Women, Governance, Health, International Organizations, NGOs, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Europe, Central Europe Countries: Germany

Year: 2007

Power, Gender and Human Trafficking

Citation:

Hart, Amanda. 2007. “Power, Gender and Human Trafficking.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, New York, August 11.

Author: Amanda Hart

Abstract:

The purpose of this meta-analytic research was to determine the gender and power influences at play within the phenomenon of international human trafficking. Utilizing a lens of Gender Relations Theory and an array of previously conducted research, the push, pull, and facilitating factors influencing these migrant's immigration are examined. The emotional and physical stresses of the trafficked persons (primarily women and children) as well as trafficking techniques are presented through a variety of cases. The concepts of gender and power relations tie together to form a startling conclusion: many times underprivileged and susceptible men, women, and children are trafficked simply because they can be. Unfortunately, the government's response to human trafficking has not been extremely successful, with only 46 trafficked migrants having been served and rehabilitated as of September 2005 under the Trafficking Victims Protection Act. This research concludes that merely rehabilitating trafficked persons will not solve the root of the problem: the deep-seeded gender and power inequality still existing between men and women.

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Girls, Boys, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, International Law, International Human Rights, International Organizations, NGOs, Rights, Human Rights, Sexual Violence, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking

Year: 2007

Data and Research on Human Trafficking: A Global Survey

Citation:

Gozdziak, Elzbieta, and Frank Laczko, eds. 2005. Data and Research on Human Trafficking: A Global Survey. Offprint of the Special Issues of International Migration 43 (1/2). Geneva: International Organization for Migration.

Authors: Elzbieta Gozdziak, Frank Laczko

Abstract:

Human trafficking has become a global business, reaping huge profits for traffickers and organized crime syndicates, generating massive human rights violations, and causing serious problems for governments. Despite the magnitude of the problem, however, it has only recently seized policy makers’ attention.

During the last decade there has been a considerable increase in the number of studies about human trafficking. This review of research and data on trafficking shows that despite the growing literature on trafficking around the world, relatively few studies are based on extensive or empirical research, and information on the actual numbers of people trafficked remains very sketchy. The book, which includes 9 regional chapters, and 3 chapters dealing with methodological issues, suggests a number of ways in which to enhance research and data on human trafficking.

The study includes papers from more than a dozen experts. These papers were first discussed at an international conference sponsored by the Italian government which was held in Rome in May 2004. The volume is edited by Dr. Frank Laczko, Head of Research, IOM Geneva, and Dr. Elzbieta Gozdziak, Research Director, Institute for the Study of International Migration, Washington.

Topics: Gender, Health, International Law, International Human Rights, International Organizations, NGOs, Rights, Human Rights, Sexual Violence, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Africa, MENA, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, North America, Asia, Middle East, Southeast Asia, Europe, Oceania

Year: 2005

Combating Human Trafficking: Transnational Advocacy Networks between Thailand and the United States

Citation:

Bertone, Andrea. 2008. “Combating Human Trafficking: Transnational Advocacy Networks between Thailand and the United States.” Paper presented at 49th Annual International Studies Association Convention, San Francisco, March 24 – March 28.

Author: Andrea Bertone

Topics: Gender, International Law, International Human Rights, International Organizations, NGOs, Sexual Violence, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Thailand, United States of America

Year: 2008

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