Sexual Exploitation and Abuse

Must Boys be Boys? Ending Sexual Exploitation & Abuse in UN Peacekeeping Missions

Citation:

Martin, Sarah. 2005. Must Boys Be Boys? Ending Sexual Exploitation & Abuse in UN Peacekeeping Missions. Washington DC: Refugees International.

Author: Sarah Martin

Topics: Gender, Men, Boys, Masculinity/ies, Peacekeeping, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries Countries: Haiti, Liberia

Year: 2005

The Girl Child and Armed Conflict: Recognizing and Addressing Grave Violations of Girls’ Human Rights

Citation:

Mazurana, Dyan, and Khristopher Carlson. 2006. "The Girl Child and Armed Conflict: Recognizing and Addressing Grave Violations of Girls’ Human Rights." UN Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) Expert Group Meeting, Florence, September 25-28.

Authors: Dyan Mazurana, Khristopher Carlson

Abstract:

During armed conflict, girls are subject to widespread and, at times, systematic forms of human rights violations that have mental, emotional, spiritual, physical and material repercussions. These violations include illegal detention with or without family members, abduction and forced removal from families and homes, disappearances, torture and other inhuman treatment, amputation and mutilation, forced recruitment into fighting forces and groups, slavery, sexual exploitation, increased exposure to HIV/AIDS, and a wide range of physical and sexual violations, including rape, enforced pregnancy, forced prostitution, forced marriage and forced child-bearing. There is urgent need for better documentation, monitoring and reporting on the extreme suffering that armed conflict inflicts on girls, as well as on the many roles girls play during conflict and its aftermath. Such information and response mechanisms are needed for the purpose of strengthening and developing policy and programs to prevent and or address these grave rights violations. This paper documents and analyses the grave human rights violations girls endure during situations of armed conflict and offers recommendations on preventing and or addressing those harms. The paper begins by offering a concise overview of current trends in armed conflict and the impact of armed conflict on children. It discusses existing international initiatives that identify grave and systematic violations against girls during armed conflict and reviews the most pertinent international legal standards relating to these violations. To better understand the gender dimensions, the paper describes and analyzes the experiences of girls during armed conflicts, noting gendered patterns to the grave rights violations committed against them. The paper offers examples of some best practices to address these violations. The paper concludes with concrete recommendations to governments, the United Nations and NGOs.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Girls, Health, HIV/AIDS, Households, International Law, International Organizations, Livelihoods, Sexual Livelihoods, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, NGOs, Rights, Human Rights, Sexual Violence, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, Torture, Sexual Torture

Year: 2006

Peacekeepers, Masculinities, and Sexual Exploitation

Citation:

Higate, Paul. 2007. “Peacekeepers, Masculinities, and Sexual Exploitation.” Men and Masculinities 10 (1): 99–119. doi:10.1177/1097184X06291896.

Author: Paul Higate

Abstract:

My aim in this article is to analyze a set of gendered power relations played out in two postconflict settings. Based on interviews with peacekeepers and others, I argue that sexual exploitation of local women by male peacekeepers continues to be documented. I then turn to scholarly considerations of peacekeeper sexual exploitation, some of which accord excessive explanatory power to a crude form of military masculinity. This is underlined by similarly exploitative activities perpetrated by humanitarian workers and so-called "sex tourists." In conclusion, I argue that a form of exploitative social masculinities shaped by socioeconomic structure, impunity, and privilege offers a more appropriate way to capture the activities of some male peacekeepers during peacekeeping missions. Finally, in underlining the conflation of military masculinities with exploitation, I pose the question of how to explain those military men who do not exploit local women while deployed on missions.

Keywords: gendered power relations, male peacekeepers, military masculinities, exploitative social masculinities

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Humanitarian Assistance, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Peacekeeping, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, SV against Women Regions: Africa, Central Africa, West Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sierra Leone

Year: 2007

Peacekeepers and Gender: DRC and Sierra Leone

Citation:

Higate, Paul. 2004. “Peacekeepers and Gender: DRC and Sierra Leone.” Pambazuka News, no. 164, 4.

Author: Paul Higate

Abstract:

While sexual exploitation and violence has become a common feature in peacekeeping contexts among state and non-state actors, this monograph focuses on peacekeepers and the alleged abuse of power that they exert over the local population. Many of the findings are anecdotal and based on short visits in mission areas. Recommendations are based on extant UN policies and do not comprehensively reflect the views of civil society organisations, the host governments or local women leaders. The monograph does, nevertheless, represent an insight into the challenges faced by women in conflict and post-conflict environments, and highlights best practices aimed at stemming the on-going exploitation and abuse being committed by those with the responsibility to protect. (AfricaPortal)

Topics: Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Humanitarian Assistance, Justice, Peacekeeping, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, SV against Women Regions: Africa, Central Africa, West Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sierra Leone

Year: 2004

Peacekeeping and Prostitution in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo

Citation:

Harrington, Carol. 2003. “Peacekeeping and Prostitution in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo.” Paper presented at the 5th European Feminist Research Conference, Lund, August 20-23.

Author: Carol Harrington

Abstract:

This paper compares the organisation of sexual violence in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo during UN operations to the sexual violence associated with US military bases in the Republic of Korea (ROK) during the 1970s, while also drawing some comparisons with the way sexual violence was organised in wartime Yugoslavia. I argue that in all of these cases military men agree that soldiers are entitled to heterosexual encounters, and thus provide women for soldiers to have sex with, treating the women concerned as people whose well- being, dignity and bodily integrity is of no relevance at all. Such sexual violence appears to be institutionalised across contemporary militaries. However, the political logic that categorises women as people to be protected or as people who have no rights to bodily integrity differs across sites. My enquiry is based in a sociology of the body that treats sexual violence as political violence, thus I expect that the sexual categorisation and organisation of women for soldiers will reveal important aspects of the political order the militaries involved are defending. I will elaborate on this theoretical perspective in relation to the three cases in the course of my discussion. Through comparing these three military contexts I seek to understand how military thinkers in the case of Bosnia and Kosovo divided people in relation to physical security and rights to bodily integrity, and thus to uncover the logic of the political order these peacekeeping operations defended. (Intro)

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarization, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, SV against Women, Trafficking, Sex Trafficking, Violence Regions: Asia, East Asia, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Kosovo, North Korea, South Korea

Year: 2003

Conduct and Discipline in UN Peacekeeping Operations: Culture, Political Economy and Gender

Citation:

Lutz, Catherine, Matthew Gutmann, and Keith Brown. 2009. Conduct and Discipline in UN Peacekeeping Operations: Culture, Political Economy and Gender. Providence, RI: Watson Institute for International Studies.

Authors: Catherine Lutz, Matthew Gutmann, Keith Brown

Abstract:

Systematic patterns of sexual exploitation and abuse have emerged around UN peacekeeping missions over the course of many years. These include, most egregiously, peacekeepers’ exchange of UN food supplies or money for sex with young girls and sometimes boys as well as sexual assault. This paper examines the cultural and political economic roots of the problem, focusing on the relationship between ideas and attitudes about culture, gender, sexuality, and peacekeeping as those influence the nature and extent of SEA. It offers a political economic and cultural framework for understanding the problem, which is proposed to replace frameworks currently in broad if often tacit use in the UN.

Topics: Economies, Gender, Girls, Boys, International Organizations, Peacekeeping, Political Economies, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexuality

Year: 2009

UN Peacekeeping Economies and Local Sex Industries: Connections and Implications

Citation:

Jennings, Kathleen M., and Vesna Nikolić-Ristanović. 2009. “UN Peacekeeping Economies and Local Sex Industries: Connections and Implications.” MICROCON Working Paper 17, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton.

Authors: Kathleen M. Jennings, Vesna Nikolić-Ristanović

Abstract:

“Peacekeeping economies” have not been subject to much analysis of either their economic or socio-cultural and political impacts. This paper uses a gendered lens to explore some ramifications and lasting implications of peacekeeping economies, drawing on examples from four post-conflict countries with past or ongoing United Nations peacekeeping missions: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, Liberia, and Haiti. The paper is particularly concerned with the interplay between the peacekeeping economy and the sex industry. It examines some of the characteristics and impacts of peacekeeping economies, arguing that these are highly gendered – but that the “normalization” of peacekeeping economies allows these effects to be overlooked or obscured. It also contends that these gendered characteristics and impacts have (or are likely have) broad and lasting consequences. Finally, the paper considers the initial impacts of UN efforts to tackle negative impacts of peacekeeping economies, particularly the zero-tolerance policy against sexual exploitation and the effort to “mainstream” gender and promote gender equality in and through peacekeeping. The paper suggests that the existence and potential long- term perpetuation of a highly gendered peacekeeping economy threatens to undermine the gender goals and objectives that are a component of most peace operations. 

Topics: Economies, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, International Organizations, Peacekeeping, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Haiti, Kosovo, Liberia

Year: 2009

Gender, Peace and Peacekeeping: Lessons from Southern Africa

Citation:

Pillay, Anu. 2006. Gender, Peace and Peacekeeping: Lessons from Southern Africa. 128. Pretoria, South Africa: Institute for Security Studies.

Author: Anu Pillay

Abstract:

This paper reflects on the intersection between gender, peace and peacekeeping. The author draws on evidence from two Southern African peacekeeping experiences (UNOMSA in South Africa and MONUC in the DRC) to contend that having a critical mass of women in peacekeeping missions can make the mission more effective, but also changes gender stereotypes and rigid patriarchal gender roles. The author views conflict as, amongst other things, a motor of transformation. Conflict, though certainly fraught with gender-based violence, presents an opportunity for women to seek to change existing gendered power relations. (ISS Africa).

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Sexual Violence, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, SV against Women Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 2006

Globalizing Sexual Humiliation

Citation:

Myerson, Marilyn, and Susan S. Northcutt. 2005. "Globalizing Sexual Humiliation". Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Honolulu, March 1-5.

Authors: Marilyn Myerson, Susan S. Northcutt

Abstract:

The article addresses important questions about sexuality and war bearing on the revelations of sexual humiliation at Abu Ghraib prison and Iraq. It argues that sexual humiliation and sexual violence are not an aberration in war in as much as rape of girls and women is commonplace. It presents a discursive study of sexual humiliation as manifested in the images from Abu Ghraib prison. It also discusses the concept of sexual humiliation.

Topics: Gender, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Sexual Violence, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Regions: Asia, Middle East Countries: Iraq

Year: 2005

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