Sexual Exploitation and Abuse

Mapping Of Missing, Kidnapped And Trafficked Children And Women: Bangladesh Perspective

Citation:

Shamim, Ishrat. 2001. Mapping Of Missing, Kidnapped And Trafficked Children And Women: Bangladesh Perspective. Dhaka, Bangladesh: International Organization for Migration.

Author: Ishrat Shamim

Topics: Gender, Women, Girls, Boys, Sexual Violence, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2001

The ‘Natasha’ Trade: The Transnational Shadow Market of Trafficking in Women

Citation:

Hughes, Donna. 2000. “The ‘Natasha’ Trade: The Transnational Shadow Market of Trafficking in Women.” Journal of International Affairs 53 (2): 625–51.

Author: Donna Hughes

Topics: Corruption, Displacement & Migration, Gender, Women, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Europe, Eastern Europe Countries: Ukraine

Year: 2000

Smuggling and Trafficking in Human Beings: The Phenonmenon, the Markets That Drive It and the Organizations That Promote It

Citation:

Aronowitz, Alexis. 2001. “Smuggling and Trafficking in Human Beings: The Phenonmenon, the Markets That Drive It and the Organizations That Promote It.” European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 9: 163–95.

Author: Alexis Aronowitz

Abstract:

This article will define the concepts of smuggling and trafficking in human beings and discuss the difficulty in applying the definition. The magnitude and scope of the problem will be examined as well as its causes. Trafficking in human beings will be analysed as an illegal market, particularly with reference to its relationship with other illegal markets and the involvement of organised crime groups. The phenomenon will be discussed in more depth focusing on countries and regions where projects are currently being implemented under the auspices of the United Nations Global Programme against Trafficking in Human Beings. The discussion closes with an overview of situations which facilitate the practice, and current measures and recommendations to stem the tide of smuggling and trafficking.

Keywords: criminal organizations, illegal markets, migration, smuggling, Trafficking

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women, Girls, Livelihoods, Rights, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking

Year: 2001

Trafficking — a Demand Led Problem?

Citation:

Anderson, Bridget, and Julia O’Connell Davidson. 2003. Trafficking — a Demand Led Problem?. 15. IOM Migration Research Series. Geneva: International Organization for Migration.

Authors: Bridget Anderson, Julia O’Connell Davidson

Abstract:

The 2001 ASEM Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children stressed the need to encourage research on the demand for the most common forms of exploitation of trafficked women and children, in particular for commercial sex services, and recommended a multi-country study into the demand side of trafficking as one of its follow-up actions.

In response to this recommendation, the Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, SLDA and Save the Children Sweden, commissioned this pilot research study on the demand underlying two sectors where labour/services of trafficked persons are known to be subject to exploitation: prostitution and domestic work. This report sets out some of the findings of the pilot study and ongoing research concerning employer demand for domestic workers in private households, and consumer demand for commercial sexual services in selected European and Asian countries.

Topics: Gender, Women, Girls, Boys, Households, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe, Southern Europe Countries: India, Italy, Sweden, Thailand

Year: 2003

Treading along a Treacherous Trail: Research on Trafficking in Persons in South Asia

Citation:

Ali, A.K.M. Masud. 2005. “Treading along a Treacherous Trail: Research on Trafficking in Persons in South Asia.” International Migration 43 (1/2): 141–64.

Author: A.K.M. Masud Ali

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of research on trafficking in persons in South Asia. The trend of trafficking is on the rise, but the existing knowledge base is inadequate for a full understanding of the phenomenon at the regional level. The paper is based on secondary data and analysis of existing literature on trafficking in South Asia.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Asia, South Asia

Year: 2005

The Drayang Girls of Thimphu: sexual network formation, transactional sex and emerging modernities in Bhutan

Citation:

Lorway, Robert, Gampo Dorji, Janet Bradley, B.M. Ramesh, Shajy Isaac, and James Blanchard. 2011. "The Drayang Girls of Thimphu: sexual network formation, transactional sex and emerging modernities in Bhutan." Culture, Health & Sexuality 13 (S2): S293-S308.

Authors: Robert Lorway, Gampo Dorji, Janet Bradley, B.M. Ramesh, Shajy Isaac, James Blanchard

Abstract:

Bhutan’s sustained low HIV prevalence can be attributed to its political commitment to maintain isolation from foreign cultural influence. Recently, rising HIV prevalence has coincided with the increase in human traffic along Bhutan’s borders. The majority of infections, occurring primarily through sexual contact, have appeared in the urban environments that are situated along the main transport routes. This qualitative study explored the sexual networks that form at entertainment venues in the capital city of Thimphu. To more fully understand sexual network formation at theses venues, one must take into account an emerging modernity that reflects a convergence of cultural, economic and political influences emanating from Bhutan’s unique ‘middle-path’ modernisation scheme. The growing appearance of transactional sex in Thimphu not only points to an emergent form of exploitation wrought by larger economic transformations and widening social inequalities; the power inequalities that surround its practice are also significantly exacerbated by the local cultural politics and moral ideologies that arise as Bhutan proceeds along the path towards global capitalism. Discourses of Bhutanese sexual morality articulate with broader political economic transformations to forcefully position village women engaging in transactional sex within a field of power relations that leaves them open to various forms of subjugation.

Keywords: transactional sex, sex work, Bhutan, HIV/AIDS, modernization

Topics: Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, HIV/AIDS, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bhutan

Year: 2011

Child Brides, Global Consequences: How to End Child Marriage

Citation:

Lemmon, Gayle Tzemach, and Lynn S. ElHarake. 2014. Child Brides, Global Consequences: How to End Child Marriage. New York: Council on Foreign Relations.

Authors: Gayle Tzemach Lemmon, Lynn S. ElHarake

Abstract:

Child Brides, Global Consequences is a collection of two previously published CFR Working Papers on child marriage: "High Stakes for Young Lives" and "Fragile States, Fragile Lives."

In "High Stakes for Young Lives," Senior Fellow Gayle Tzemach Lemmon and Research Associate Lynn S. ElHarake examine the social, economic, and cultural factors driving child marriage in order to help policymakers and civil society leaders curb, and eventually eliminate, child marriage. Since no single strategy will end the practice, Lemmon and ElHarake argue for a combination of legal frameworks, education policies, enforcement standards, attitude shifts, and economic incentives.

"Fragile States, Fragile Lives" hones in on the correlation between child marriage and state fragility. Many of the countries with the highest rates of child marriage are found on the top of lists such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) list of fragile states and the Fund for Peace's Failed States Index, yet there is a wide gap in data that assesses the degree to which fragile contexts perpetuate child marriage.

Lemmon writes that closing this gap will help produce more effective and targeted interventions to assist the youngest and most at-risk members of communities in crisis, and improve the future prospects of all members of the next generation in some of the most challenging corners of the world.

This report was made possible thanks to generous support from the Ford Foundation, and is part of the Women and Foreign Policy program. (CFR)

Topics: Class, Economies, Education, Gender, Girls, Health, International Law, International Human Rights, International Organizations, Rights, Women's Rights, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse

Year: 2014

Peacexploitation? Interrogating Labor Hierarchies and Global Sisterhood Among Indian and Uruguayan Female Peacekeepers

Citation:

Henry, Marsha. 2012. “Peacexploitation? Interrogating Labor Hierarchies and Global Sisterhood Among Indian and Uruguayan Female Peacekeepers.” Globalizations 9 (1): 15–33. doi:10.1080/14747731.2012.627716.

Author: Marsha Henry

Abstract:

As a result of UNSCR 1325, the UN has been eager to decrease incidents of sexual exploitation and abuse in peacekeeping operations, improve local women's security, and balance out the number of women and men in the police and military at both local and international levels. As peacekeeping missions begin to include more female peacekeepers, questions are raised about what this means for women in national militaries, local women in peacekeeping missions, and soldiers or militarized laborers from the ‘developing’ world. While countries such as Uruguay have been sending increasing numbers of female peacekeepers to various UN missions, it was not until 2007 that an all-female contingent was first deployed from India to Liberia and hailed as a gendered success. But in altering the gendered landscape, will the UN merely continue to exploit the cheap military labor of the global South? Will countries like India and Uruguay (major troop-contributing countries to UN peacekeeping operations) continue to bear the burden of providing security? This article examines the limits of a conventional interest in gender and gender relations in thinking about peacekeepers and advocates for an intersectional approach to the issue of female peacekeepers, importantly including the role of geography (and therefore ‘race’, empire and colonialism) in the thinking through the social, cultural, and political effects of peacekeeping deployments.

Keywords: femininity, Gender, geopolitics, global south, Haiti, humanitarian intervention, India, Liberia, masculinity, peacekeeping, United Nations, Uruguay

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Women, Gender Balance, Globalization, International Organizations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Peacekeeping, Race, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Liberia, Uruguay

Year: 2012

Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by Peacekeeping Operations in Contemporary Africa

Citation:

Utas, Mats, and Fanny Ruden. 2009. Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by Peacekeeping Operations in Contemporary Africa. 2. Uppsala, SE: The Nordic Africa Institute.

Authors: Fanny Ruden, Mats Utas

Abstract:

In international peacekeeping operations (PKOs) some individuals are involved in sexual exploitation and abuse of the host country’s population, buying of sexual services and trafficking of prostitutes. Far from being a new phenomenon it goes back a long time, and reports on the issue have increased over the years. All too frequently we read about peacekeepers visiting prostitutes, committing rape, or in other ways sexually exploiting host populations. Some peacekeepers are taking advantage of the power their work gives them, and becoming abusers rather than protectors in situations where the host population is powerless and in dire need of protection. Peacekeepers’ abuse of their mandate is inflicting severe damage on host societies and often results in a number of unintended consequences such as human rights violations, rapid spread of HIV, decreased trust in the UN as well as other international aid agencies, and harmful changes to gender patterns. Women and children, both girls and boys, are especially exposed. Having already suffered from war and instability they risk becoming even more physically and mentally wounded. Peacekeeping operations risk doing more harm than good in African war zones, and if they cannot learn from previous mistakes maybe they ought to stay at home. We do not argue for the latter; rather, we point towards the urgent need to change explicit and implicit patterns and habits in international peacekeeping operations in relation to sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) in Africa. In this Policy Note we focus predominantly on military staff, but acknowledge that the civilian staff of PKOs, and international aid workers, are also implicated. On the other hand it should initially be pointed out that most PKO staff are not sexual exploiters and abusers.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Health, HIV/AIDS, Humanitarian Assistance, International Organizations, Livelihoods, Sexual Livelihoods, Peacekeeping, Rights, Human Rights, Sexual Violence, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Africa

Year: 2009

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