Sexual Exploitation and Abuse

"Sexual Violence and Women’s Health in War"

Citation:

Cohn, Carol, ed. 2012. "Sexual Violence and Women’s Health in War." Chap. 3 in Women and Wars. Malden, MA: Polity Press. 

Author: Pamela DeLargy

Abstract:

In chapter 3, “Sexual Violence and Women’s Health in War,” Pamela DeLargy discusses the incidence of rape in wartime, and other forms of sexual violence and exploitation. She addresses both the explanations for and consequences of sexual violence, looking at its short- and long-term implications not only for the women themselves, but also for their communities. As wartime sexual violence has lately been receiving increased global attention, DeLargy also looks at the development of response and prevention policies within the international health, human rights, and security communities, and at some of the unforeseen challenges and unintended consequences of their actions. The chapter then reviews some other important health risks for women in war, focusing particularly on reproductive health.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Health, Reproductive Health, International Law, International Human Rights, Rights, Human Rights, Security, Sexual Violence, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse

Year: 2012

A Comprehensive Strategy to Eliminate Future Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations

Citation:

Al-Hussein, Prince Zeid Ra’ad Zeid. 2005. ‘A Comprehensive Strategy to Eliminate Future Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations’. A/59/710. United Nations General Assembly. 

Author: Prince Zeid Ra'ad Zeid Al-Hussein

Keywords: peacekeeper misconduct, peacekeeping, sexual exploitation

Annotation:

The background of the problem of sexual exploitation and abuse in peacekeeping operations is described in section I of the present report. After the major causes and effects on victims are outlined, the difficulties involved in taking action against alleged perpetrators are described. It is stated that it is now time for the United Nations to take effective action to stop sexual exploitation and abuse.

The problem of sexual exploitation and abuse are dealt with under four main themes. The Organization’s rules on the subject are set out in section II and its investigative process is examined in section III. The civil accountability of the Organization and its managers and commanders with respect to taking effective measures to deal with sexual exploitation and abuse is reviewed in section IV, as is the personal accountability of those who violate the rules of the Organization. Criminal accountability is discussed in section V. 

 

Topics: Peacekeeping, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo

Year: 2005

Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by Peacekeepers: Understanding Variation

Citation:

Nordås, Ragnhild, and Siri C. A. Rustad. 2013. “Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by Peacekeepers: Understanding Variation." International Interactions: Empirical and Theoretical Research in International Relations 39 (4): 511–34.

Authors: Ragnhild Nordås, Siri C. A. Rustad

Abstract:

While the literature on peacekeeping has mostly focused on whether peacekeeping actually keeps the peace, few studies have systematically addressed the question of what explains variations in unintended consequences of peacekeeping, such as sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA). This study presents the Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by Peacekeepers data, a new dataset covering the 36 international peacekeeping missions by the UN, NATO, ECOWAS, and the African Union, active in the years 1999–2010. Using this dataset, it also presents the first statistical study that explores the issue of what can account for variations in reported SEA across peacekeeping operations. The systematic analysis of this data indicates that SEA was more frequently reported in situations with lower levels of battle-related deaths, in larger operations, in more recent operations, the less developed the country hosting the mission, and in operations where the conflict involved high levels of sexual violence. Our discussion and conclusion highlights data restrictions and identifies key challenges for future research.

Keywords: peacekeeping, military, sexual abuse, sexual exploitation

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Peacekeeping, Rights, Women's Rights, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse

Year: 2013

Whose Zero Tolerance Counts? Reassessing a Zero Tolerance Policy against Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by UN Peacekeepers

Citation:

Kanetake, Machiko. 2010. "Whose Zero Tolerance Counts? Reassessing a Zero Tolerance Policy against Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by UN Peacekeepers." International Peacekeeping 17 (2): 200–14.

Author: Machiko Kanetake

Abstract:

The UN's commitment to zero tolerance for sexual exploitation and abuse, which has been strengthened ever since the Secretary-General's 2003 ‘Bulletin’, must be understood against the general public's non-tolerance of sexual misconduct by peacekeepers. While the UN has devoted its energy to restoring the public's confidence, the implementation of the policy cannot be effective, due to the limits of the UN's command authority, without the adoption of the same policy in contingent-contributing countries, who assume even greater roles under the revised model memorandum of understanding in 2007. Furthermore, not all victims approve the UN's zero tolerance pledge, out of fear that they may lose their only recourse to making a living. While it will likely take time to alleviate existing obstacles to align all the actors involved, the general public may not be tolerant enough to allow a further moratorium.

Topics: International Organizations, Peacekeeping, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse

Year: 2010

Addressing Sexual Violence in Internationally Mediated Peace Negotiations

Citation:

Jenkins, Robert, and Anne Marie Goetz. 2010. "Addressing Sexual Violence in Internationally Mediated Peace Negotiations." International Peacekeeping 17 (2): 261–77.

Authors: Robert Jenkins , Anne Marie Goetz

Abstract:

Negotiated peace agreements rarely address the legacy of wartime sexual violence committed by state and non-state armed actors, even in cases where mass rape has been a prominent feature of the conflict. This article examines why this has been the case. It assesses the implications of UN Security Council resolution 1820 (June 2008), which calls for internationally mediated peace talks to address conflict-related sexual violence; advances reasons why doing so may contribute to more durable peace; and outlines where specific textual references to sexual violence in peace agreements could enhance the well-being of survivors and reduce the chances of brutal and widespread sexual violence persisting in the post-conflict period. The article focuses on five types (or elements) of peace agreement: (1) early-stage agreements covering humanitarian access and confidence-building measures; (2) ceasefires and ceasefire monitoring; (3) arrangements for demobilization, disarmament and reintegration (DDR) and longer-term security sector reform (SSR); (4) post-conflict justice institutions; and (5) provisions relating to reparations for victims of serious human rights abuses.
 

 

Topics: DDR, Economies, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender Roles, Gender-Based Violence, International Human Rights, Justice, Crimes against Humanity, International Tribunals & Special Courts, Reparations, Transitional Justice, War Crimes, Peacekeeping, Post-Conflict, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 1820, Security Sector Reform, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse

Year: 2010

Responding to the Syrian Crisis: The Needs of Women and Girls

Citation:

Sami, Samira, Holly A Williams, Sandra Krause, Monica A Onyango, Ann Burton, and Barbara Tomczyk. 2014. “Responding to the Syrian Crisis: The Needs of Women and Girls.” The Lancet 383 (9923): 1179–81.

Authors: Samira Sami, Holly A Williams, Sandra Krause, Monica A Onyango, Ann Burton, Barbara Tomczyk

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Urban Displacement, Education, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Health, HIV/AIDS, Reproductive Health, Humanitarian Assistance, Sexual Violence, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Syria

Year: 2014

Refugees, Race, and Gender: The Multiple Discrimination against Refugee Women

Citation:

Pittaway, Eileen, and Linda Bartolomei. 2001. “Refugees, Race, and Gender: The Multiple Discrimination against Refugee Women.” Refuge 19 (6): 21-32.

Authors: Eileen Pittaway, Linda Bartolomei

Abstract:

This paper examines the intersectionality of race and gender in refugee situations, and the multiple forms of discrimination experienced by refugee women. It explores the notion of racism as a root cause of refugee generation, and the gendered nature of the refugee experience. The manner in which racism and sexism intersect to compound the human rights violations that refugee women experience is explored in the treatment of sexual violence in international and domestic law and policy; during armed conflict; in refugee camps; in countries of first asylum; and in countries of resettlement. Using a case study of one strand of refugee policy in Australia, it illustrates the impact of this discrimination on refugee women. The forthcoming World Conference against Racism offers a unique opportunity for this phenomenon to be addressed by the international community.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Health, Mental Health, Trauma, International Law, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), International Organizations, Race, Rights, Human Rights, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, SV against Women, Torture, Sexual Torture, Violence Regions: Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Balkans, Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2001

A Narrative Study of Refugee Women Who Have Experienced Violence in the Context of War

Citation:

Berman, Helene, Estrella Rosa Irías Girón, and Antonia Ponce Marroquin. 2006. “A Narrative Study of Refugee Women Who Have Experienced Violence in the Context of War.” Canadian Journal of Nursing Research 38 (4): 32-53.

Authors: Helene Berman, Estrella Rosa Irías Girón, Antonia Ponce Marroquin

Abstract:

Although women are rarely on the frontlines of battle, as in many other realms of contemporary life they bear a disproportionate burden of the consequences of war. Many have experienced torture firsthand or been witnesses to the torture or killing of family, friends, and loved ones. The use of rape and other forms of sexual torture has been well documented. For those who are forced to flee their homes and countries, separation from spouses, children, and other family members is common. Because of the sheer magnitude of global conflict, the number of refugees and displaced persons throughout the world has risen exponentially. It has been estimated that women constitute more than half of the world’s refugee population. The purpose of this narrative study was to examine the experiences of refugee women who experienced violence in the context of war. Data analysis revealed 8 themes: lives forever changed, new notions of normality, a pervasive sense of fear, selves obscured, living among and between cultures, a woman’s place in Canada, bearing heavy burdens – the centrality of children, and an uncaring system of care. Implications for research and practice, including limitations associated with individualized Western approaches, are discussed.

Keywords: refugees, women, war, violence, trauma, narrative, health

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma, Sexual Violence, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, SV against Women, Torture, Sexual Torture, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America, North America, South America, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Canada, Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala

Year: 2006

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