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Security Sector Reform

Women, Security, South Asia: In Search of a New Paradigm


Faizal, Farah, and Swarna Rajagopalan. 2005. “Women, Security, South Asia: In Search of a New Paradigm.” In Women, Security, South Asia: A Clearing in the Thicket. London: Sage Publications.

Authors: Farah Faizal, Swarna Rajagopalan


"This book explores women's perspectives on matters of security and related policy, focusing on women in South Asia who are battling society, insecurity and violence in some form. The book makes three important contributions. First, it examines existing theories of security. Secondly, it goes beyond critique and narrative to seek concrete new agendas for empirical research in security studies. Finally, it brings together statistical, ethnographic and survey data" (SAGE publishing). 

Topics: Civil Society, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Security, Security Sector Reform, Violence Regions: Asia, South Asia

Year: 2005

The ‘War on Terror’ and Extremism: Assessing the Relevance of the Women, Peace and Security Agenda


Ní Aoláin, Fionnuala. 2016. “The ‘war on Terror’ and Extremism: Assessing the Relevance of the Women, Peace and Security Agenda.” International Affairs 92 (2): 275–91. doi:10.1111/1468-2346.12552.


Author: Fionnuala Ní Aoláin


Recognizing the critique of sexual essentialism in the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) agenda, this article moves beyond this familiar narrative to address the narrowness of conflict frames that have to date been engaged by the WPS agenda. The events of 11 September 2001 brought new urgency and vibrancy to state action in the realm of counterterrorism. This momentum was illustrated both by the response of national legal systems and by more concerted efforts to achieve multilateral and multilevel counterterrorism cooperation on the international level. Notably, terrorism and counterterrorism have long been of only marginal interest to mainstream feminist legal theorists. Until recently concerted analytical feminist scrutiny has been missing in the assessment of terrorism, radicalism and counterterrorism discourses. This article addresses the lack of attention to terrorism, counterterrorism and countering violent extremism (CVE) initiatives in the WPS mandate and its consequences for mainstreaming gender interests in foundational aspects of peace and security practice. Recent normative augmentations including UNSCR 2242 and the amplified mandate of the Counter-Terrorism Committee to include gender considerations are assessed. The article argues that these moves to include gender come late, and on the terms set by security-minded states. The late attention to gender in counterterrorism leaves little capacity to produce an inclusive and reimagined feminist agenda addressing the causes conducive to the production of terrorism and the costs to women of counterterrorism strategies. This pessimistic assessment warns of the pitfalls of exclusion and inclusion in the new security regimes that have been fashioned post 9/11 by states. 


Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gendered Discourses, International Organizations, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, Security Sector Reform, Terrorism

Year: 2016

A Bridge Too Far? The Gender Consequences of Linking Security and Development in SSR Discourse and Practice


Hudson, Heidi. 2012. ‘A Bridge Too Far? The Gender Consequences of Linking Security and Development in SSR Discourse and Practice.’ In Back to the Roots: Security Sector Reform and Development, edited by Albrecht Schnabel and Vanessa Farr. Geneva: DCAF. 

Author: Heidi Hudson

Topics: Development, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Security Sector Reform, Sexual Violence

Year: 2012

On the Frontlines: Gender, War, and the Post-Conflict Process


Ní Aoláin, Fionnuala, Dina Francesca Haynes and Naomi Cahn. 2011. On the Frontlines: Gender, War, and the Post-Conflict Process. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Authors: Fionnuala Ní Aoláin, Dina Francesca Haynes, Naomi Cahn


Gender oppression has been a feature of war and conflict throughout human history, yet until fairly recently, little attention was devoted to addressing the consequences of violence and discrimination experienced by women in post-conflict states. Thankfully, that is changing. Today, in a variety of post-conflict settings--the former Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, Colombia, Northern Ireland --international advocates for women's rights have focused bringing issues of sexual violence, discrimination and exclusion into peace-making processes. 
In On the Frontlines, Fionnuala Ní Aoláin, Dina Francesca Haynes, and Naomi Cahn consider such policies in a range of cases and assess the extent to which they have had success in improving women's lives. They argue that there has been too little success, and that this is in part a product of a focus on schematic policies like straightforward political incorporation rather than a broader and deeper attempt to alter the cultures and societies that are at the root of much of the violence and exclusions experienced by women. They contend that this broader approach would not just benefit women, however. Gender mainstreaming and increased gender equality has a direct correlation with state stability and functions to preclude further conflict. If we are to have any success in stabilizing failing states, gender needs to move to fore of our efforts. With this in mind, they examine the efforts of transnational organizations, states and civil society in multiple jurisdictions to place gender at the forefront of all post-conflict processes. They offer concrete analysis and practical solutions to ensuring gender centrality in all aspects of peace making and peace enforcement. (Summary from Oxford University Press) 

Topics: Armed Conflict, DDR, Democracy / Democratization, Development, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Peacekeeping, Post-Conflict, Rights, Security Sector Reform, Sexual Violence

Year: 2011

Addressing Sexual Violence in Internationally Mediated Peace Negotiations


Jenkins, Robert, and Anne Marie Goetz. 2010. "Addressing Sexual Violence in Internationally Mediated Peace Negotiations." International Peacekeeping 17 (2): 261–77.

Authors: Robert Jenkins , Anne Marie Goetz


Negotiated peace agreements rarely address the legacy of wartime sexual violence committed by state and non-state armed actors, even in cases where mass rape has been a prominent feature of the conflict. This article examines why this has been the case. It assesses the implications of UN Security Council resolution 1820 (June 2008), which calls for internationally mediated peace talks to address conflict-related sexual violence; advances reasons why doing so may contribute to more durable peace; and outlines where specific textual references to sexual violence in peace agreements could enhance the well-being of survivors and reduce the chances of brutal and widespread sexual violence persisting in the post-conflict period. The article focuses on five types (or elements) of peace agreement: (1) early-stage agreements covering humanitarian access and confidence-building measures; (2) ceasefires and ceasefire monitoring; (3) arrangements for demobilization, disarmament and reintegration (DDR) and longer-term security sector reform (SSR); (4) post-conflict justice institutions; and (5) provisions relating to reparations for victims of serious human rights abuses.


Topics: DDR, Economies, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender Roles, Gender-Based Violence, International Human Rights, Justice, Crimes against Humanity, International Tribunals & Special Courts, Reparations, Transitional Justice, War Crimes, Peacekeeping, Post-Conflict, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 1820, Security Sector Reform, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse

Year: 2010

'Cowboy' Policing versus 'the Softer Stuff;' Masculinities and Policekeeping


Bevan, Marianne and Megan H. MacKenzie. 2012. "'Cowboy' Policing versus 'the Softer Stuff;' Masculinities and Policekeeping." International Feminist Journal of Politics 14 (4): 508-528.

Authors: Marianne Bevan, Megan H. MacKenzie


This article examines masculinities in relation to the New Zealand police force Community Policing Pilot Program in Timor-Leste (East Timor). We find that despite calls for less militarized, more community-centered approaches to security sector reform, various forms of militarized masculinities persisted within the culture of the New Zealand Police during its international mission. In doing so, we not only complicate singular representations of militarized masculinity, but also challenge accounts that see masculinity as a monolithic negative, violent construct that is engaged with in only problematic ways.

Topics: Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Security Sector Reform, Violence Regions: Oceania Countries: New Zealand, Timor-Leste

Year: 2012

Disarming the Past: Transitional Justice and Ex-Combatants


Patel, Ana Cutter, Pablo de Greiff, and Lars Waldorf, eds. 2010. Disarming the Past: Transitional Justice and Ex-Combatants. Advancing Transitional Justice Series 4. New York: SSRC.

Authors: Ana Cutter Patel, Pablo de Greiff, Lars Waldorf


Over the past twenty years, international donors have invested in large-scale disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) programs. In the same period there has been a proliferation of transitional justice measures to help render truth, justice, and reparations in the aftermath of state violence and civil war. Yet DDR programs are seldom analyzed to consider justice-related aims, and transitional justice mechanisms rarely articulate strategies for coordinating with DDR. Disarming the Past: Transitional Justice and Ex-combatants examines how these two types of initiatives have connected—or failed to connect—in peacebuilding contexts and begins to articulate how future DDR programs ought to link with transitional justice aims. The book is the result of a research project of the International Center for Transitional Justice.

The fourth volume of the International Center for Transitional Justice's Advancing Transitional Justice Series. (SSRC)


Table of Contents:


Introduction: Linking DDR and Transitional Justice
Lars Waldorf

Chapter 1: Amnesties and DDR Programs
Mark Freeman

Chapter 2: Beyond "Peace vs. Justice": Understanding the Relationship Between DDR Programs and the Prosecution of International Crimes
Eric Witte

Chapter 3: Ex-Combatants and Truth Commissions
Lars Waldorf

Chapter 4: Establishing Links Between DDR and Reparations
Pablo de Greiff

Chapter 5: Transitional Justice and Female Ex-Combatants: Lessons Learned from International Experience
Luisa Maria Dietrich Ortega

Chapter 6: DDR, Transitional Justice, and the Reintegration of Former Child Combatants
Roger Duthie and Irma Specht

Chapter 7: Local Justice and Reintegration Processes as Complements to Transitional Justice and DDR
Roger Duthie

Chapter 8: Transitional Justice, DDR, and Security Sector Reform
Ana Cutter Patel

Topics: Combatants, Child Soldiers, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender, Justice, Reparations, Transitional Justice, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Security Sector Reform

Year: 2010

Poster Boys No More: Gender and Security Sector Reform in Timor-Leste


Myrttinen, Henri. 2010. Poster Boys No More: Gender and Security Sector Reform in Timor-Leste. 31. Geneva: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF). 

Author: Henri Myrttinen


Gender analysis of actual SSR processes is sorely lacking in the SSR literature. In ‘Poster Boys No More: Gender and Security Sector Reform in Timor-Leste’ Henri Myrttinen breaks new ground in examining the gender dimensions of the DDR and SSR processes in Timor-Leste, with a focus on the establishment of the police and armed forces. The paper explores issues such as: how men’s roles relate to gang violence and relationships of patronage that undermine the security services, how women have been incorporated into the new security services and how the security services are addressing gender-based violence. It shows how a gender perspective can add to our understanding of many of the social processes at work in Timor-Leste and help to find solutions to some of the main security issues in the country, making recommendations for Timor-Leste’s ongoing SSR processes. (The Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF)).

Topics: DDR, Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender-Based Violence, Security Sector Reform Regions: Oceania Countries: Timor-Leste

Year: 2010

Notes toward a Gendered Understanding of Mixed‐Population Movements and Security Sector Reform after Conflict


Farr, Vanessa A. 2007. “Notes toward a Gendered Understanding of Mixed‐Population Movements and Security Sector Reform after Conflict.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 32 (3): 591–96. doi:10.1086/510156.

Author: Vanessa A. Farr


Armed conflicts in Africa are increasingly characterized by the movements of mixed populations of combatants and civilians. These movements may take place across international borders but sometimes come about from displacement across internal or state boundaries, including cease-fire zones, into territories held by an opposing force. The status of such mixed populations—as refugees or internally displaced people, as mercenaries or prisoners of war—is often difficult to determine. Their movement has direct implications for postconflict security measures such as repatriation and disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) of combatants, their dependents, and most particularly, women and girls associated with armed groups in noncombatant roles. Not surprisingly, however, given the vagueness of current approaches to cross-border and internal movements by militarized groups and the ongoing indifference to using a gender lens as an analytical tool in understanding insecurity, the fact that the movement of armed groups and fighting forces is highly gendered tends to be invisible to policy makers and program planners. In this article, I present a preliminary and largely speculative set of observations and questions on how militarized crossborder and internal movement is affecting women and girls, especially in areas with large internally displaced and refugee communities, and propose some avenues for further research.

Topics: Armed Conflict, DDR, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women, Girls, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Security, Security Sector Reform

Year: 2007

Gender and Security Sector Reform: Engendering the Privatization of Security


Yeung, Christina. 2008. “Gender and Security Sector Reform: Engendering the Privatization of Security.” Paper presented at the International Studies Association 49th Annual Convention, San Francisco, March 26-29.

Author: Christina Yeung


The growing privatization of security and violence and its differing effects on men and women is an under-researched area of security sector reform. This paper will examine what international or regional instruments and laws mandate the integration of gender and human rights issues into the privatization of security. It will further provide the context of gender concerns in post-conflict situations, in developing and developed countries. We argue that mainstreaming gender concerns through targeted initiatives will increase operational effectiveness of private security companies and mitigate the negative impacts of these companies in the absence of regulation.

Topics: Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, International Law, International Organizations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Post-Conflict, Privatization, Rights, Human Rights, Security, Security Sector Reform, Violence

Year: 2008


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