Security

Community-Based Monitoring of Indigenous Food Security in a Changing Climate: Global Trends and Future Directions

Citation:

Lam, Steven, Warren Dodd, Kelly Skinner, Andrew Papadopoulos, Chloe Zivot, James Ford, Patricia J. Garcia, IHACC Research Team, and Sherilee L. Harper. 2019. “Community-Based Monitoring of Indigenous Food Security in a Changing Climate: Global Trends and Future Directions.” Environmental Research Letters 14 (7).

Authors: Steven Lam, Warren Dodd, Kelly Skinner, Andrew Papadopoulos, Chloe Zivot, James Ford, Patricia J. Garcia, IHACC Research Team, Sherilee L. Harper

Abstract:

Climate change is expected to exacerbate existing food security challenges, especially in Indigenous communities worldwide. Community-based monitoring (CBM) is considered a promising strategy to improve monitoring of, and local adaptation to climatic and environmental change. Yet, it is unclear how this approach can be applied in food security or Indigenous contexts. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) review and synthesize the published literature on CBM of Indigenous food security; and, (2) identify gaps and trends in these monitoring efforts in the context of climate change. Using a systematic search and screening process, we identified 86 published articles. To be included, articles had to be published in a journal, describe a CBM system, describe any aspect of food security, and explicitly mention an Indigenous community. Relevant articles were thematically analyzed to characterize elements of CBM in the context of climate change. Results show that the number of articles published over time was steady and increased more than two-fold within the last five years. The reviewed articles reported on monitoring mainly in North America (37%) and South America (28%). In general, monitoring was either collaborative (51%) or externally-driven (37%), and focused primarily on tracking wildlife (29%), followed by natural resources (16%), environmental change (15%), fisheries (13%), climate change (9%), or some combination of these topics (18%). This review provides an evidence-base on the uses, characteristics, and opportunities of CBM, to guide future food security monitoring efforts in the context of climate change. (Abstract from original source)

Keywords: community-based monitoring, climate change, adaptation, gender, food security, indigenous, systematic review methodology

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Indigenous, Security, Food Security Regions: Americas, North America, South America

Year: 2019

‘‘Si No Comemos Tortilla, No Vivimos:’’ Women, Climate Change, and Food Security in Central Mexico

Citation:

Bee, Beth A. 2014. "'Si No Comemos Tortilla, No Vivimos:' Women, Climate Change, and Food Security in Central Mexico." Agriculture & Human Values 30: 607–620.

Author: Beth A. Bee

Abstract:

In recent years, it has become clear that food security is intimately related to complex environmental, social, political, and economic issues. Even though several studies document the impact of climate on food production and agriculture, a growing segment of research examines how climate change impacts food systems and associated livelihoods. Furthermore, while women play a crucial role in providing food security for their families, little research exists that examines the nexus among gender relations, climate change, and household food security. This study investigates these relationships by asking: (1) how is the production and reproduction of knowledge about food security and climate change shaped by gender and lived experience, and (2) how does this knowledge influence attitudes and strategies for maintaining food security in a changing climate? Drawing on the results of research in two communities in central Mexico, I argue that women’s perceptions of and strategies for maintaining food security are derived from their socio-political, environmental, and economic contexts. This study contributes to both the growing literature on the gender dynamics of climate change, as well as debates about the role of bioengineered seeds in helping farmers to adapt to a changing climate.

Keywords: food security, gender, climate change, adaptive capacity, mexico, Knowledge

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Livelihoods, Security, Food Security Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2014

Introduction: Nutrition, Sustainable Agriculture, and Development Issues

Citation:

Deen-Swarray, Mariama, Gbadebo Odularu, and Bamidele Adekunle. 2020. “Introduction: Nutrition, Sustainable Agriculture, and Development Issues.” In Nutrition, Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change in Africa, edited by Gbadebo Odularu, 1-11. Berlin: Springer Nature.

Authors: Mariama Deen-Swarray, Gbadebo Odularu, Bamidele Adekunle

Abstract:

One of the reasons behind these nutrition-related institutional challenges is that most policy interventions tend to focus on agricultural production metrics, with limited focus on enhancing the quality of research towards improving nutrition outcomes. In order for African countries to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2 target, there must be a policy and paradigm shift from erratic political responses to actual malnutrition metrics focusing on access to healthy food, quality of food in terms of proteins, micronutrients and vitamins, access to land for crop production, access to water, access to relevant farming inputs, evidence-based commitment to Food and Nutrition Security (FNS), systematic assessment of progress towards achieving FNS and adequate investments in nutrition-related programmes. In alignment with one of the purposes of this book, this chapter will recommend informed policy interventions and improved nutrition programmes for African countries in a rapidly changing climatic space which is also increasingly being undermined by the Coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19). (Abstract from original source)

Topics: Agriculture, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa

Year: 2020

Examining Climate Change and Food Security in Ghana Through an Intersectional Framework

Citation:

Wood, Alexa L., Prince Ansah, Louie Rivers III and Arika Ligmann-Zielinska. 2019. “Examining Climate Change and Food Security in Ghana Through an Intersectional Framework.” The Journal of Peasant Studies 48 (2): 329-348.

Authors: Alexa Wood, Prince Ansah, Louie Rivers III, Arika Ligmann-Zielinska

Abstract:

As the effects of climate change intensify, subsistence farmers in Ghana are expected to face increased food insecurity, due to their reliance on rainfed agriculture. Within households, young women are expected to support all aspects of household food security, and will experience a more burdensome load of labor, as a dwindling stock of natural resources will make daily tasks more time consuming. The intersection of age, gender, and location inhibits young women's decision-making responsibilities and wage-earning potential. Climate change exacerbates this dynamic, which restricts opportunities to acquire sufficient food and places increased stress on household food systems. (Abstract from original source)

Keywords: climate change, food security, intersectionality, Ghana, farming

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2019

How Resilient are Farming Households and Communities to a Changing Climate in Africa

Citation:

Perez, C., E.M. Jones, P. Kristjanson, L. Cramer,  P.K. Thornton, W. Förch, and C. Barahona. 2015. “How Resilient are Farming Households and Communities to a Changing Climate in Africa? A Gender-based Perspective.” Global Environmental Change 34: 95–107.

Authors: C. Perez, E.M. Jones, P. Kristjanson, L. Cramer, P.K. Thornton, W. Förch, C. Barahona

Abstract:

Social, economic and institutional factors and driving forces enhance or hinder the adaptation capacity of agricultural and pastoral households and communities. The effectiveness of the resulting adaptation strategies influences the nature and extent of the impact of multiple stresses and shocks, including climate change’s, at the local-level. Using a 9-country dataset from sub-Saharan Africa, and integrating quantitative household-level analyses with qualitative work, we show evidence that adaptation is connected to population growth, dependence on cash to cover essential needs, and limited sources of employment other than exploitation of natural resources and sale of crop produce and animals. In some countries, government policies like privatization of community forests, rangelands and riparian areas, the settlement of pastoralists, and the provision of subsidies for food or agricultural inputs reduce adaptation capacity. Policies take away the traditional decision-making and collective action powers that communities had to regulate the use and sustainable management of natural resources. Gender relations also affect agricultural practices and adaptation. The women farmers in our sample control less land than men, the land they control is often of poorer quality, and their tenure is insecure. Women, more than men, are dependent on internal village groups, as opposed to organizations operating at regional or national levels. Hence, women have less access to extension and input services, and are less likely than men to use improved seeds, fertilizers, and pesticides. The adaptive capacity of individuals and communities depends on their differential access to resources, economic assets and social capital, which are mediated by their socially defined rights and responsibilities. Highlights include:
• Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change depend on opportunities governed by the varied and complex interplay of social relations, institutions, organizations, and policies.
• Climate is one of many influences that affect the producers’ coping and adaptation strategies.
• Women and men incorporate a wide range of technology and production management adjustments.
• The producers’ most frequently cited reasons for adjustments include decrease in productivity, fluctuation in prices, market opportunities, and frequency of drought.
(Abstract from original source)

Keywords: climate, agriculture, adaptation, Surveys, gender

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Gender Analysis, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, Southern Africa

Year: 2015

Gender, Agriculture and Water Insecurity

Citation:

Parker, Helen, Naomi Oates, Nathaniel Mason, Roger Calow. 2016. “Gender, Agriculture and Water Insecurity." ODI Insights.

Authors: Helen Parker, Naomi Oates, Nathaniel Mason, Roger Calow

Abstract:

Rural female farmers are becoming increasingly vulnerable to climate variability and water insecurity.
El Niño has already had devastating impacts on countries in Africa that primarily rely on agriculture. Drought, loss of livestock and failed harvests push poor households into food stress and result in children being removed from school or families migrating. 
Policy and programme implementation for water insecurity must consider social norms around gender and other drivers of inequality. Too often, policies and programmes on agricultural water management are gender blind and don't consider women's unique needs and experiences.
This paper explains how and why improved water management on the farm matters for women and girls, and what can be done to better support opportunities for them, as well as for men and boys, in the face of climate change.
The authors identify three areas where gender-focused programming needs to address the unique vulnerabilities of women to water (in)security:
• Women are often at the pinch point of water-related tasks in the home and on the farm, with pressure intensifying around seasonal periods of scarcity in many developing countries.
• Compared to men, women may have less access to or control of assets that can be used to buffer against the effects of rainfall variability.
• Women often have fewer opportunities to pursue off-farm work or migrate to urban areas as a temporary coping strategy for seasonal food and income shortages, or for shortages caused by droughts and floods.
(Abstract from original source)

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, Asia

Year: 2016

Climate Change and Drought: Impact of Food Insecurity on Gender Based Vulnerability in District Tharparkar

Citation:

Memon, Manzoor Hussain, Naveed Aamir, and Nadeem Ahmed. 2018. "Climate Change and Drought: Impact of Food Insecurity on Gender Based Vulnerability in District Tharparkar." The Pakistan Development Review 57 (3): 307-21.

Authors: Manzoor Hussain Memon, Naveed Aamir, Nadeem Ahmed

Abstract:

Climate change has now become a reality that has intensified the sufferings of people living in arid ecosystems. Decrease in rainfall, rise in temperature and increase in the frequency of extreme events are some of the changes observed in the semi-arid desert of district Tharparkar. For thousands of years, people of Tharparkar are coping with drought and aridity of the land by using indigenous knowledge. However, global changes in the climatic pattern and deterioration of social and economic conditions have pushed the inhabitants of this arid region into extreme vulnerable situation. This paper investigates the link between climate-induced natural disasters, particularly drought, from the perspective of changing climate patterns which have resulted in food insecurity and water scarcity. The paper analyses the rainfall pattern in the last 38 years—dividing it into two periods i.e. from 1975-1994 and 1995-2014. The findings of the paper have challenged the prevailing notions about aridity and rainfall patterns in Tharparkar district. The research found that there is an increase in average annual precipitation in the district with erratic patterns. Thus, the nature of drought in the district has changed from its historic pattern of less or no rainfall to more but erratic rainfall that is more threatening to livelihoods of the people that in turn have multiplier effect on water and food insecurity. In particularly, women are more vulnerable in the absence of social security and lack of basic necessities for their survival amidst drought. For instance, traditionally the burden of managing water resources falls on women, which leads to an increased work load during the time of drought and also water scarcity. (Abstract from original source)

Topics: Security, Food Security Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2018

Impact of Climate Change on Agricultural Production and Food Security: A Review on Coastal Regions of Bangladesh

Citation:

Hossain, M. S., and A. K. Majumder. 2018. "Impact of Climate Change on Agricultural Production and Food Security: A Review on Coastal Regions of Bangladesh." International Journal of Agricultural Research, Innovation and Technology 8 (1): 62-69.

Authors: Md Sahadat Hossain, Ahmad Kamruzzaman Majumder

Abstract:

Bangladesh is severely vulnerable to climate change and its devastation on coastal livelihood and food security has been substantiated. Climate induced hazards will lead to food insecurity directly and indirectly by affecting the coastal biophysical and socioeconomic states. This review article found the potential impacts on coastal agricultural, livestock and fisheries sectors those are the main source of livelihood and food security to coastal people. Furthermore, most of the rural coastal people are hard poor in which women are major in portion and contribute to ensure food security for the entire family. Scrutinizing on ‘vulnerability’ revealed that it is not gender neutral and socio-economically underprivileged groups and marginal people are invaded disproportionately in which women is ranking in the top of the order. Hence, existing gender-poverty nexus along with socio-economic and political aspects make women more endangered to climate vulnerability and food security. It also found that existing policies and adaptation mechanisms failed to address the influence of powers on marginalize women and growing trend of feminization of food insecurity. In addition, also found the necessity for immediate pertinent caucus before the onset of this imminent concernment by aggregating gender and identified vulnerable groups. (Abstract from original source)

Keywords: climate change, vulnerability, gender, agricultural production

Topics: Agriculture, Security, Food Security Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2018

Gender Implications of Farmers’ Indigenous Climate Change Adaptation Strategies Along Agriculture Value Chain in Nigeria

Citation:

Deji, Olanike F. 2020. “Gender Implications of Farmers’ Indigenous Climate Change Adaptation Strategies Along Agriculture Value Chain in Nigeria.” In African Handbook of Climate Change Adaptation, 1811–34. Springer.

Author: Olanike F Deji

Abstract:

Climate change contributes significantly to the looming food insecurity in the rain-fed agricultural countries of Africa, including Nigeria. There is a gender dimension in climate change impacts and adaptation strategies along Agriculture Value Chain (AVC) in Nigeria. The chapter gender analyzed the aspects of climate change impacts; identified the indigenous and expert-based artificial adaptation strategies; assessed the gender differences in the adaptation strategies; and provided the gender implications of the indigenous adaptation strategies among actors along the AVC. The chapter adopted a value chain-based exploratory design with gender analysis as the narrative framework with Gender Response Theory as the theoretical background. There were gender differences in the production, economic, and social dimensions of the climate change impacts along the AVC. The indigenous climate change adaptation strategies were avail- ability, low cost, and easily accessible; hence they were popularly adopted by male and female AVC actors. The adopted indigenous adaptation strategies challenged the social relations, influenced reordering of social and gender relations, participation, and power relation among the male and female actors along the AVC. (Abstract from original source)

 

Keywords: gender, farmers, indigenous, climate change, adaptation strategies, Gender Response Theory, Agriculture Value Chain

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2020

Food Security in Small Island States

Citation:

Connell, John, and Kristen Lowitt, eds. 2020. Food Security in Small Island States. Singapore: Springer Singapore. doi:10.1007/978-981-13-8256-7.

Authors: John Connell , Kristen Lowitt

Annotation:

Summary:
This book provides a contemporary overview of the social-ecological and economic vulnerabilities that produce food and nutrition insecurity in various small island contexts, including both high islands and atolls, from the Pacific to the Caribbean. It examines the historical and contemporary circumstances that have accompanied the shift from subsistence production to the consumption of imported, processed foods and drinks, and the impact of this transition on nutrition and the rise of non-communicable diseases. It also assesses the challenges involved in reversing this trend, and how more effective social and economic policies, agricultural and fisheries strategies, and governance arrangements could promote more resilient and sustainable small island food systems. It offers both theoretical and practical perspectives, and brings together a broad range of policy areas, e.g. agriculture, food, commerce, health, planning and socio-economic policy.

Given its scope, the book offers a valuable resource for a range of disciplines in a number of regional contexts, and for the growing number of scholars and practitioners working on and in small island states. It will be of particular value as the first book to examine the diversity and commonalities of island states around the globe as they confront issues of food security. (Abstract from original source)

 

Table of Contents:
1.Food Security and Sovereignty in Small Island Developing States: Contemporary Crises and Challenges

John Connell, Kristen Lowitt, Arlette Saint Wille, Gordon M. Hickey

2.Climate Change and Food Security in the Pacific Islands
Jon Barnett

3.Development, Global Change and Food Security in Pacific Island Countries
John R. Campbell

4.Lost Roots? Fading Food Security in Micronesia
John Connell

5.Modernisation, Traditional Food Resource Management and Food Security on Eauripik Atoll, Federated States of Micronesia
Andrew Scourse and Corinne Wilkins

6.Framing Food Security in the Pacific Islands: Resilience in Malo, Vanuatu
Matthew G. Allen

7.Postharvest Loss in Fruit and Vegetable Markets in Samoa
Steven J. R. Underhill, Shukrullah Sherzad, Yuchan Zhou, Seeseei Molimau-Samasoni, Semua Militini Tagoai

8.Can the Tropical Western and Central Pacific Tuna Purse Seine Fishery Contribute to Pacific Island Population Food Security?
Graham M. Pilling, Shelton J. Harley, Simon Nicol, Peter Williams, John Hampton

9.Addressing Food and Nutrition Insecurity in the Caribbean Through Domestic Smallholder Farming System Innovation
Arlette Saint Ville, Leroy E. Phillip, Gordon M. Hickey

10.Knowledge, Markets and Finance: Factors Affecting the Innovation Potential of Smallholder Farmers in the Caribbean Community
Kristen Lowitt, Gordon M. Hickey, Arlette Saint Ville, Kaywana Raeburn, Theresa Thompson-Colón, Sonia Laszlo et al.

11.Fisheries Governance and Food Security in the Eastern Caribbean
Patrick McConney, Shelly-Ann Cox, Kemraj Pasram

12.Food Security and Livelihood Vulnerability to Climate Change in Trinidad and Tobago
Kalim U. Shah, Hari Bansha Dulal, Mohammed T. Awojobi

13.The Role of Social Capital in Influencing Knowledge Flows and Innovation in St. Lucia
Arlette Saint Ville, Gordon M. Hickey, Uli Locher, Leroy E. Phillip

14.Eating Meat or Eating Money? Factors Influencing Animal-Source Food Consumption in Timor-Leste
Johanna T. Wong, Brigitte Bagnol, Heather Grieve, Joanita Bendita da Costa Jong, Mu Li, Robyn G. Alders

15.Wild Foods and Food Security: The Case of Timor-Leste
William Erskine, Anita Ximenes, Diana Glazebrook, Marcelino da Costa, Modesto Lopes, Luc Spyckerelle et al.

Topics: Security, Food Security Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries

Year: 2020

Pages

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