Resource Conflict

Decoding Gender Justice in Land Conflicts Resolution in Rwanda


Uwayezu, Ernest and John Mugisha. 2018. "Decoding Gender Justice in Land Conflicts Resolution in Rwanda." African Journal of Land Policy and Geospatial Sciences 1 (1): 1-20.

Authors: Ernest Uwayezu, John Mugisha


Rwanda has implemented a land tenure regularization program since 2008 that enabled the adjudication and registration of land rights for both men and women. However, Rwandan women are vulnerable to land conflicts because some men do not recognize or respect women’s rights in land. This study investigates the extent to which government institutions in Rwanda empower women in claiming and defending their land rights. Data sources include questionnaire survey, interviews, and the review of literature on land reform in Rwanda. Findings reveal that Rwandan women preferably lodge their land claims to local authorities or mediation committees because the process of land conflict resolution is fair, free of charge and faster. However, the most used land conflict resolution mechanisms cannot enforce its decisions when some men are against those decisions. There is a need to think of mechanisms to enforce those decisions.

Depuis l’an 2008, le Rwanda a lancé un programme de régularisation du system foncier ayant permis l'adjudication et l'enregistrement des droits fonciers pour les hommes et les femmes. Cependant, les femmes rwandaises sont vulnérables aux conflits fonciers parce que leurs droits fonciers ne sont ni reconnus, ni respectés par certains hommes. Cette étude explore comment les institutions gouvernementales au Rwanda appuient des femmes pour revendiquer leurs droits fonciers à travers le processus de résolution des conflits fonciers. L’étude se fonde sur des enquêtes par questionnaire, des entretiens et de la revue de la littérature sur le sujet. Elle révèle que les femmes rwandaises soumettent leurs plaintes auprès des autorités locales et des comités de médiation qui règlent ces plaintes d’une de façon juste, rapide et gratuitement. Comme ces autorités n’imposent pas leurs décisions, il faudrait instituer des mécanismes d’appliquer ces décisions quand certains hommes en sont contre.

Keywords: women's land rights, conflict resolution, mediation, Rwanda, droits fonciers des femmes, résolution des conflits

Topics: Conflict, Resource Conflict, Gender, Land Tenure, Governance, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2018

Women’s Experiences of Land Conflicts in the Context of the Land Tenure Reform Program in Rwanda


Bayisenge, Jeannette. 2015. "Women’s Experiences of Land Conflicts in the Context of the Land Tenure Reform Program in Rwanda." International Journal of Gender and Women's Studies 3 (1): 118-33.

Author: Jeannette Bayisenge


Land is a highly important and contested resource in developing countries, and despite measures taken to ensure gender equality in land-ownership, women experience more land-related conflicts than men. The purpose of this paper is to explore women's experiences of land-related conflicts in the context of the Land Tenure Reform Program in Rwanda. Theoretically, a bargaining approach to land conflicts guides the understanding of the findings and their analysis. Empirical data are mainly collected from 480 women in the Musanze District, using survey interviews, semi-structured interviews and Focus Group Discussions. Findings indicate that only a small number of women reported having encountered land conflicts, which may be related to the culture of not exposing family issues to the public. Land conflicts that women face are mostly related to inheritance, polygamy and the daily management of land and its produce. Women reported that challenges such as lack of legal knowledge, as well as rejection of their claims by their husbands, families and community affect their willingness to pursue claims for their rights. The challenges that women are confronted with while claiming their rights are mainly influenced by the power structure that are based on male supremacy. Consequently, reforms aiming at strengthening women's land rights must be based on a good understanding of social and cultural norms

Keywords: women, land conflicts, land tenure reform, Rwanda

Topics: Conflict, Resource Conflict, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Land Tenure, Households, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2015

Incidence and Impact of Land Conflict in Uganda


Deininger, Klaus, and Raffaella Castagnini. 2006. "Incidence and Impact of Land Conflict in Uganda." Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 60 (3): 321-45.

Authors: Klaus Deininger, Raffaella Castagnini


While there is a large, though inconclusive, literature on the impact of land titles in Africa, little attention has been devoted to the study of land conflict, despite evidence on increasing incidence of such conflicts. We use data from Uganda to explore who is affected by land conflicts, whether recent legal changes have helped to reduce their incidence, and to assess their impact on productivity. Results indicate that female-headed households and widows are particularly affected and that the passage of the 1998 Land Act has failed to reduce the number of pending land conflicts. We also find evidence of a significant and quantitatively large productivity-reducing impact of land conflicts. This suggests that, especially in Africa, attention to land-related conflicts and exploration of ways to prevent and speedily resolve them would be an important area for policy as well as research. 

Keywords: conflict, land, sustainable land use, agriculture, productivity, gender, nonparametrics

Topics: Economies, Conflict, Resource Conflict, Gender, Women, Households, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights, Security Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2006

Conflict Minerals and Sexual Violence in Central Africa: Troubling Research


Buss, Doris. 2018. "Conflict Minerals and Sexual Violence in Central Africa: Troubling Research." Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society 25 (4): 545-67.

Author: Doris Buss


This paper explores “conflict mining-related sexual violence” as a type of conflict sexual violence, tracing the dynamic process by which this category is defined in and through the production of research. Focusing on two “conflict minerals” initiatives, I explore how data on sexual violence are positioned as an indicator for assessing armed conflict and human rights abuses in mining areas in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. I trace the methodological decisions and epistemic claims that shape what is knowable about mining-related sexual violence and which erase the significant methodological challenges in researching sexual- and gender-based violence in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Conflict, Resource Conflict, Gender-Based Violence, Rights, Human Rights, Sexual Violence Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo

Year: 2018

O Papel da Mulher na Luta pela Terra. uma Questão de Gênero e/ou Classe?


Valenciano, Renata Cristiane, and Antonio Thomaz Júnior. 2002. "O Papel da Mulher na Luta pela Terra. uma Questão de Gênero e/ou Classe?" Scripta Nova, Revista Electrónica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales 6 119 (26). 

Authors: Renata Cristiane Valenciano, Antonio Thomaz Júnior


Pretendemos neste projeto de pesquisa, compreender a inserção e ação da mulher na luta pela terra, e priorizar a especificidade do embate existente entre as três dimensões que a mulher internaliza: enquanto provedora da força de trabalho e da família. Enquanto trabalhadora, no cotidiano da lavra, e na militância política. Mais especificamente põe-se a apreender as manifestações específicas que as mulheres estão apresentando, no raio organizativo do MST, através dos Coletivos de Gênero, das decisões e propostas de trabalho deliberadas, bem como seus desdobramentos, sendo que os Coletivos de Gênero ganham em abrangência e magnitude, tendo em vista privilegiar nas pautas de discussões, não somente a questão da exploração da mulher trabalhadora, os preconceitos, a violência, mas, sobretudo a emancipação de classe.

We intended in this research project, to understand the insert and the woman's action in the fight for the earth, and to prioritize the specific of the existent collision among the three dimensions that the woman internalize: while supplying of the manpower and of the family. While worker, in the daily of the plowing, and in the political militancy. More specifically he/she begins to apprehend the specific manifestations that the women are presenting, in the ray of organization of MST, through the Buses of Gender, of the decisions and work proposals deliberated, as well as your unfoldings, and the Buses of Gender win in inclusion and magnitude, tends in view to privilege in the lines of discussions, not only the subject of the hard-working woman's exploration, the prejudices, the violence, but, above all the class emancipation.

Keywords: trabalhadora rural, luta pela terra, gênero, classe, rural worker, land struggle, gender, class

Topics: Class, Conflict, Resource Conflict, Gender, Women, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2002

Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Guatemala: The Sepur Zarco Sexual Violence and Sexual Slavery Trial


Burt, Jo-Marie. 2019. "Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Guatemala: The Sepur Zarco Sexual Violence and Sexual Slavery Trial." Social Science Research Network. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.3444514.

Author: Jo-Marie Burt


Guatemala is breaking new ground with a series of high-impact war crimes prosecutions. The 2016 Sepur Zarco trial was one such landmark case: it was the first time that Guatemala prosecuted wartime sexual violence, and the first time that a domestic court prosecuted sexual slavery as a crime against humanity. This case also set important precedents in legal and evidentiary practice. Based on my direct observation of the Sepur Zarco case, this paper examines the legal practices that placed the womensurvivors, not the defendants, at the forefront of the proceedings, and which proved that the state of Guatemala systematically used sexual violence as a weapon of war against women and as a strategy to control the civilian population. It also examines the evidentiary practices in this case, which allowed not only for a conviction more than 30 years after the crimes, but for a broader understanding of the historical context, including land conflict, that led to the atrocities in Sepur Zarco. By piercing the veil of impunity surrounding wartime atrocities and making visible the faces of the victims —indigenous men and women who have historically been relegated to the margins of Guatemalan society— the Sepur Zarco trial is challenging entrenched narratives of denial that have sustained the power of military officials whose influence continues to shape present-day politics in the Central American nation.

Keywords: sexual violence, sexual slavery, Guatemala, human rights, war crimes

Topics: Conflict, Resource Conflict, Gender, Indigenous, International Law, International Criminal Law, Justice, Crimes against Humanity, War Crimes, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Rights, Human Rights, Indigenous Rights, Sexual Violence, Sexual Slavery, SV against Women Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Guatemala

Year: 2019

Women, Land, and Resource Conflicts: Policy Implications and Interventions in Kenya


Nyukuri, Elvin. 2006. "Women, Land, and Resource Conflicts: Policy Implications and Interventions in Kenya." Nairobi: Acts Press.

Author: Elvin Nyukuri


Environment and conflict research and policy interventions have focused primarily on the linkage between natural resources and acute violence but have paid less attention to the gender dimension of this correlation. Paradoxically women are more active in environmental and resource conservation activities especially land, which are widely documented. The overall objective of this study is to identify and asses the extent to which gender aspects can be of help in identifying the specific pathways involved and hence the entry points for intervention in resolving land and conflicts research and policy. (Summary from AfricaPortal)
Table of Contents:
1. Background to the Research Project
2. Grievances and Tensions over Land in Kenya
3. Gender, Land and Conflicts
4. Peace and Policy Interventions


Topics: Conflict, Resource Conflict, Environment, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Peace Processes, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2006


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