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Reproductive Health

"Women Have No Tribe": Connecting Carework, Gender, and Migration in an Era of HIV/AIDS in Botswana

Citation:

Upton, Rebecca L. 2003. “‘Women Have No Tribe’: Connecting Carework, Gender, and Migration in an Era of HIV/AIDS in Botswana.” Gender and Society 17 (2): 314–22.

Author: Rebecca L. Upton

Abstract:

The country of Botswana currently has one of the highest HIV infection rates in the world. Government and international aid agencies have undertaken initiatives to address the rapidly growing epidemic, but few measures address the current crisis of care as a key element in that process. In this article, the author uses case study data to highlight how women in Northern Botswana are affected by the increasing burden of caregiving to children who are orphaned as a result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. In particular, she describes how the role of women as caregivers in communities has been transformed as a result of the HIV/AIDS crisis. She suggests that the intersecting cultural patterns of migration and reproduction are central to understanding the spread of the disease in the current emerging crisis of care.

Keywords: Botswana, HIV/AIDS, fosterage, migration, reproduction

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Women, Health, HIV/AIDS, Reproductive Health, Households Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Botswana

Year: 2003

The Implications of Oil Pollution for the Enjoyment of Sexual and Reproductive Rights of Women in Niger Delta Area of Nigeria

Citation:

Oluduro, Olubayo, and Ebenezer Durojaye. 2013. “The Implications of Oil Pollution for the Enjoyment of Sexual and Reproductive Rights of Women in Niger Delta Area of Nigeria.” The International Journal of Human Rights 17 (7-8): 772–95. doi:10.1080/13642987.2013.835911.

Authors: Olubayo Oluduro, Ebenezer Durojaye

Abstract:

Oil is a major source of income for Nigeria and it is the mainstay of the country’s economy. Nigeria’s intensive oil sector accounts for nearly 40% of its gross domestic product, but declined steadily to an average of 14.71% of the country’s total export between 2006 and 2011; and contributed about 80% of budgetary revenues that all tiers of government heavily depend on. Oil spills and gas flaring are some of the effects of the unregulated exploratory activities of the oil multinational companies that have contributed immensely to the physical and mental illness of the local inhabitants of the Niger Delta region and violated most of their rights as guaranteed under international and regional human rights instruments and the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 (as amended) 1999. In view of the growing threats to human health and the environment (posed by human activities), the international community has agreed to a number of treaties to respond to the health and human rights challenges posed by environmental degradation. Although Nigeria is a party to most of these instruments, it has done little or nothing to regulate the conduct of the oil companies that negatively impact on the health of the Niger Delta people. While the impact of oil extraction affects both men and women, the article focuses on its implications for women’s reproductive well-being. This is because women are a disadvantaged and marginalised group and have continued to experience discriminatory practices in many parts of the country, including the Niger Delta area. The article discusses the health challenges associated with oil exploitation in the Niger Delta, paying attention to the position of women. It then proffers suggestions on measures and steps that could be taken by the Nigerian government and other stakeholders in ensuring the adequate protection of the health rights of local inhabitants.

Keywords: oil, exploitation, health, Niger Delta, women

Topics: Development, Economies, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Governance, Health, Mental Health, Reproductive Health, Livelihoods, Multi-national Corporations, Political Economies, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2013

Oil, Sex, and Temporary Migration: The Case of Vienna City, Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana

Citation:

Obeng-Odoom, Franklin. 2014. “Oil, Sex, and Temporary Migration: The Case of Vienna City, Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana.” The Extractive Industries and Society 1 (1): 69–74. doi:10.1016/j.exis.2013.12.003.

Author: Franklin Obeng-Odoom

Abstract:

Does the presence of temporary sex migrants trailing a resource boom cause crime, lead to a breakdown of morality, trigger a crisis of sexually transmitted diseases, and depress property values? While popular representations suggest that the answer to each of these questions is an emphatic ‘yes’, and hence the ‘right to the city’ of sex workers should be revoked, preliminary primary data unobtrusively and indirectly collected from sex workers trailing a resource boom in a West African port city suggest that the posited direct connection between prostitution and socio-economic ‘bads’ is not always definitive. Further research is required to probe popular characterisations of temporary sex migrants, the effect of sex work on resource-rich cities, and how they vary at different stages of the oil industry. For now, however, the evidence suggests that there is the need for alternative urbanism that recognises sex workers’ ‘right to the city’ in ways that can make the state use its powers to support rather than exclude such minority groups.

Keywords: oil, migration, economic development, Ghana, africa

Topics: Development, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Extractive Industries, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Health, Reproductive Health, Livelihoods, Sexual livelihoods Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2014

‘Period Problems’ at the Coalface

Citation:

Lahiri-Dutt, Kuntala, and Kathryn Robinson. 2008. “‘Period Problems’ at the Coalface.” Feminist Review 89 (January): 102–21. doi:10.2307/40663963.

Authors: Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt, Kathryn Robinson

Abstract:

Menstruation leave for women workers brings into the public domain of mining ongoing debates around protective legislation for women. It brings into focus the presumed tensions between gender equity and gender difference with regard to women's economic citizenship. Large-scale mining in East Kalimantan in Indonesia has offered some opportunities to poor and unskilled rural women to find formal jobs in the mines as truck and heavy equipment operators. This paper presents a case study of women in mining occupations, considers the implications of current menstruation leave provisions on the employment of women in the mines and raises serious issues related to gender equity in the workplace. The involvement of women in a non-conventional workplace such as the mine pits, providing a novel site for contestation over the rights of women workers, illuminates a less-debated area in feminist studies, especially in view of the significant ongoing changes in the Indonesian framework for industrial relations.

Topics: Economies, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Governance, Health, Reproductive Health, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2008

Gender and Gold Mining: The Case of the Maroons of Suriname

Citation:

Heemskerk, Marieke. 2000. Gender and Gold Mining: The Case of the Maroons of Suriname. Working Paper 269, Women in International Development, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.

Author: Marieke Heemskerk

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the relations between gender and gold mining among the Ndjuka Maroons, forest peoples in Suriname, South America. Today, gold mining has become the primary source of subsistence for many Ndjuka families. Yet in contrast to other parts of the world, few Ndjuka women participate in mining. The researcher examines how the gender system in Ndjuka society accounts for the male domination of gold mining, and how some women have negotiated traditional gender roles. Quantitative and qualitative data support the conclusion that the limited participation of Ndjuka women in gold mining is a product their limited access to critical resources and mobility. The internalization of gender ideology, and the dependence of women on men, prevents women from challenging existing gender roles and power structures in society. The women who engage in mining are typically poor single mothers who have adopted urban gender beliefs. Poverty and prior market experience inform their choice to become gold miners. On a theoretical level, it is argued that gender systems are changing continuously, under the influences of time, space, political process, and economic development. It appears that when the economic contribution of women becomes indispensable to household survival, cultural restrictions to the mobility and economic power of women necessarily weaken. The researcher emphasizes that the heterogeneity among women differentiates the options and constraints of individual women who make livelihood decisions. The conclusion is drawn that development efforts will only be effective when such efforts fully recognize the dynamism of gender systems and the heterogeneity among women.

Annotation:

Quotes:

“…the limited participation of Ndjuka women in gold mining is a product [of] their limited access to critical resources and mobility. The internalization of gender ideology, and the dependence of women on men, prevents women from challenging existing gender roles and power structures in society.” (1)

“Western researchers, she argues, have misread matriliny as matriarchy. They have misinterpreted the relative indepdence of Maroon women as their deliberate choice for Western-style feminism (1988: 127). My experience in Suriname support Price’s argument that gender inequality is present below the surface of Maroon society. Inequality between Maroon women and men limits the access of women to political power, money, capital assets and contacts with the outside world.” (7)

“Mining for gold used to be a temporary activity, performed when people needed cash. At present, gold mining has become the primary source of subsistence for many Ndjuka households. Now gold mining has increased in importance, it has become less of a family enterprise. Wives of today’s gold miners occasionally pay visits to their husbands, but they have been excluded from the mining process… mineral extraction became a male dominated activity with increased modernization and market orientation.” (12)

“Ndjuka women in the forest face significant gender-based barriers to entry into gold mining… many women blamed their lack of mobility on the refusal of male kin or husband to provide transport… women mentioned they could not go to the mining area because they needed to take care of the household and children, or because husbands objected. Women themselves may perpetuate some of these restrictions by internalizing the belief that women should be mothers and farmers…” (14)

“Most serious is the damage of small-scale gold mining to human and ecosystem health. Recent research in Suriname revealed a relationship between the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the presence of sex work in and around mining camps… Gold mining also enhances the spread of malaria and other tropical diseases, and prevents their control.” (15)

“The invisibility of the health impacts of gold mining, and the clear economic benefits, explain the positive view of Ndjuka women hold of gold mining.” (15)

“Few women find that the economic opportunities offered in the mining camps make up for the hardships they experience. Only a lack of alternatives keep them going…Travel to and in the Sella Creek area is exhausting and expensive, as is the transport of merchandise. In Addition, women frequently confront malaria and sexual harassment. Traveling women also regret having the leave their children in the care of others for long periods.” (17)

Topics: Economies, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Health, Reproductive Health, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Suriname

Year: 2000

Assessment of Reproductive Health and Violence against Women among Displaced Syrians in Lebanon

Citation:

Reese Masterson, Amelia, Jinan Usta, Jhumka Gupta, and Adrienne S. Ettinger. 2014. “Assessment of Reproductive Health and Violence against Women among Displaced Syrians in Lebanon.” BMC Women’s Health 14 (25): 1-8.

Authors: Amelia Reese Masterson, Jinan Usta, Jhumka Gupta, Adrienne S. Ettinger

Abstract:

The current conflict in Syria continues to displace thousands to neighboring countries, including Lebanon. Information is needed to provide adequate health and related services particularly to women in this displaced population.

Keywords: Violence against women, stress, refugee, reproductive health, Syria

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Health, Reproductive Health Regions: Asia, Middle East Countries: Lebanon, Syria

Year: 2014

The MOM Project: Delivering Maternal Health Services among Internally Displaced Populations in Eastern Burma

Citation:

Mullany, Luke C., Catherine I. Lee, Palae Paw, Eh Kalu Shwe Oo, Cynthia Maung, Heather Kuiper, Nicole Mansenior, Chris Beyrer, and Thomas J. Lee. 2008. “The MOM Project: Delivering Maternal Health Services among Internally Displaced Populations in Eastern Burma.” Reproductive Health Matters 16 (31): 44–56.

Authors: Luke C. Mullany, Catherine I. Lee, Palae Paw, Eh Kalu Shwe Oo, Cynthia Maung, Heather Kuiper, Nicole Mansenior, Chris Beyrer, Thomas J. Lee

Abstract:

Alternative strategies to increase access to reproductive health services among internally displaced populations are urgently needed. In eastern Burma, continuing conflict and lack of functioning health systems render the emphasis on facility-based delivery with skilled attendants unfeasible. Along the Thailand-Burma border, local organisations have implemented an innovative pilot, the Mobile Obstetric Maternal Health Workers (MOM) Project, establishing a three-tiered collaborative network of community-based reproductive health workers. Health workers from local organisations received practical training in basic emergency obstetric care plus blood transfusion, antenatal care and family planning at a central facility. After returning to their target communities inside Burma, these first-tier maternal health workers trained a second tier of local health workers and a third tier of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to provide a limited subset of these interventions, depending on their level of training. In this ongoing project, close communication between health workers and TBAs promotes acceptance and coverage of maternity services throughout the community. We describe the rationale, design and implementation of the project and a parallel monitoring plan for evaluation of the project. This innovative obstetric health care delivery strategy may serve as a model for the delivery of other essential health services in this population and for increasing access to care in other conflict settings.

Keywords: antenatal care, childbirth, emergency obstetric care, misoprostol, internal displacement, Burma

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Women, Health, Reproductive Health Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Myanmar

Year: 2008

The Need for Priority Reproductive Health Services for Displaced Iraqi Women and Girls

Citation:

Chynoweth, Sarah K. 2008. “The Need for Priority Reproductive Health Services for Displaced Iraqi Women and Girls.” Reproductive Health Matters 16 (31): 93–102.

Author: Sarah K Chynoweth

Abstract:

Disregarding reproductive health in situations of conflict or natural disaster has serious consequences, particularly for women and girls affected by the emergency. In an effort to protect the health and save the lives of women and girls in crises, international standards for five priority reproductive health activities that must be implemented at the onset of an emergency have been established for humanitarian actors: humanitarian coordination, prevention of and response to sexual violence, minimisation of HIV transmission, reduction of maternal and neonatal death and disability, and planning for comprehensive reproductive health services. The extent of implementation of these essential activities is explored in this paper in the context of refugees in Jordan fleeing the war in Iraq. Significant gaps in each area exist, particularly coordination and prevention of sexual violence and care for survivors. Recommendations for those responding to this crisis include designating a focal point to coordinate implementation of priority reproductive health services, preventing sexual exploitation and providing clinical care for survivors of sexual violence, providing emergency obstetric care for all refugees, including a 24-hour referral system, ensuring adherence to standards to prevent HIV transmission, making condoms free and available, and planning for comprehensive reproductive health services.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Girls, Health, HIV/AIDS, Reproductive Health, Humanitarian Assistance, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, SV against women Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Iraq, Jordan

Year: 2008

Transportation for Maternal Emergencies in Tanzania: Empowering Communities through Participatory Problem Solving

Citation:

Schmid, Thomas, Omari Kanenda, Indu Ahluwalia, and Michelle Kouletio. 2001. “Transportation for Maternal Emergencies in Tanzania: Empowering Communities through Participatory Problem Solving.” American Journal of Public Health 91 (10): 1589–90.

Authors: Thomas Schmid, Omari Kanenda, Indu Ahluwalia, Michelle Kouletio.

Abstract:

Inadequate health care and long delays in obtaining care during obstetric emergencies are major contributors to high maternal death rates in Tanzania. Formative research conducted in the Mwanza region identified several transportation-related reasons for delays in receiving assistance. In 1996, the Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere (CARE) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began an effort to build community capacity for problem-solving through participatory development of community-based plans for emergency transportation in 50 villages. An April 2001 assessment showed that 19 villages had begun collecting funds for transportation systems; of 13 villages with systems available, 10 had used the system within the last 3 months. Increased support for village health workers and greater participation of women in decision making were also observed.

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Health, Reproductive Health, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2001

Maternal Mortality in the Rural Gambia, a Qualitative Study on Access to Emergency Obstetric Care

Citation:

Cham, Mamady, Johanne Sundby, and Siri Vangen. 2005. “Maternal Mortality in the Rural Gambia, a Qualitative Study on Access to Emergency Obstetric Care.” Reproductive Health 2 (3): online. doi:10.1186/1742-4755-2-3.

Authors: Mamady Cham, Johanne Sundby, Siri Vangen

Abstract:

Background: Maternal mortality is the vital indicator with the greatest disparity between developed and developing countries. The challenging nature of measuring maternal mortality has made it necessary to perform an action-oriented means of gathering information on where, how and why deaths are occurring; what kinds of action are needed and have been taken. A maternal death review is an in-depth investigation of the causes and circumstances surrounding maternal deaths. The objectives of the present study were to describe the socio-cultural and health service factors associated with maternal deaths in rural Gambia.

Methods: We reviewed the cases of 42 maternal deaths of women who actually tried to reach or have reached health care services. A verbal autopsy technique was applied for 32 of the cases. Key people who had witnessed any stage during the process leading to death were interviewed. Health care staff who participated in the provision of care to the deceased was also interviewed. All interviews were tape recorded and analyzed by using a grounded theory approach. The standard WHO definition of maternal deaths was used.

Results: The length of time in delay within each phase of the model was estimated from the moment the woman, her family or health care providers realized that there was a complication until the decision to seeking or implementing care was made. The following items evolved as important: underestimation of the severity of the complication, bad experience with the health care system, delay in reaching an appropriate medical facility, lack of transportation, prolonged transportation, seeking care at more than one medical facility and delay in receiving prompt and appropriate care after reaching the hospital.

Conclusion: Women do seek access to care for obstetric emergencies, but because of a variety of problems encountered, appropriate care is often delayed. Disorganized health care with lack of prompt response to emergencies is a major factor contributing to a continued high mortality rate.

Topics: Gender, Women, Health, Reproductive Health Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Gambia

Year: 2005

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