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Reproductive Health

Effects of Rural-Urban Return Migration on Women's Family Planning and Reproductive Health Attitudes and Behavior in Rural China

Citation:

Chen, Jiajian, Hongyan Liu, and Zhenming Xie. 2010. “Effects of Rural-Urban Return Migration on Women’s Family Planning and Reproductive Health Attitudes and Behavior in Rural China.” Studies in Family Planning 41 (1): 31-44.

Authors: Jiajian Chen , Hongyan Liu, Zhenming Xie

Abstract:

This study examines the effects of rural-urban return migration on women's family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behavior in the sending areas of rural China. Based on data from a survey of rural women aged 16-40 in Sichuan and Anhui Provinces in 2000, our study finds that migrant women returning from cities to the countryside, especially those who have been living in a large city, are more likely than nonmigrant women to adopt positive family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behavior in their rural communities of origin. We find, moreover, that living in a rural community where the prevalence of such return migrant women is higher is positively associated with new fertility and gender attitudes and with knowledge of self-controllable contraceptives. The findings of significant rural-urban return-migration effects have important policy implications for shaping family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behaviors in rural China.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Women, Gendered Discourses, Health, Reproductive Health Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: China

Year: 2010

Women’s Well-Being and Reproductive Health in Indian Mining Community: Need for Empowerment

Citation:

D’Souza, Melba Sheila, Subrahmanya Nairy Karkada, Ganesha Somayaji, and Ramesh Venkatesaperumal. 2013. “Women’s Well-Being and Reproductive Health in Indian Mining Community: Need for Empowerment.” Reproductive Health Matters 10 (1): 24.

Authors: Melba Sheila D’Souza, Subrahmanya Nairy Karkada, Ganesha Somayaji, Ramesh Venkatesaperumal

Abstract:

This paper is a qualitative study of women’s well-being and reproductive health status among married women in mining communities in India. An exploratory qualitative research design was conducted using purposive sampling among 40 selected married women in a rural Indian mining community. Ethical permission was obtained from Goa University. A semi-structured indepth interview guide was used to gather women’s experiences and perceptions regarding well-being and reproductive health in 2010. These interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, verified, coded and then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Early marriage, increased fertility, less birth intervals, son preference and lack of decision-making regarding reproductive health choices were found to affect women’s reproductive health. Domestic violence, gender preference, husbands drinking behaviors, and low spousal communication were common experiences considered by women as factors leading to poor quality of marital relationship. Four main themes in confronting women’s well-being are poor literacy and mobility, low employment and income generating opportunities, poor reproductive health choices and preferences and poor quality of martial relationships and communication. These determinants of physical, psychological and cultural well-being should be an essential part of nursing assessment in the primary care settings for informed actions. Nursing interventions should be directed towards participatory approach, informed decision making and empowering women towards better health and well-being in the mining community.

Keywords: well-being, reproductive health status, gender preference, domestic violence, marital relationship, qualitative design, nursing

Topics: Domestic Violence, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Mental Health, Reproductive Health, Households Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2013

Middle East and Central Asia: A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts

Citation:

Kolovich, Lisa, and Sakina Shibuya. 2016. “Middle East and Central Asia: A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts.” IMF Working Paper No. 16/151. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund.

Authors: Lisa Kolovich , Sakina Shibuya

Abstract:

Gender budgeting uses fiscal policies to promote gender equality and women's advancement, but is struggling to take hold in the Middle East and Central Asia. We provide an overview of two gender budgeting efforts in the region--Morocco and Afghanistan. Achievements in these two countries include increasing female primary and secondary education enrollment rates and reducing maternal mortality. But the region not only needs to use fiscal policies for women's advancement, but also reform tax and financial laws, enforce laws that assure women's safety in public, and change laws that prevent women from taking advantage of employment opportunities.

Keywords: gender budgeting, Fiscal Policy & Administration, gender inequality, middle east, Central Asia

Topics: Education, Gender, Women, Gender Budgeting, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Reproductive Health Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Asia, Central Asia, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Morocco

Year: 2016

Gender Relations, Livelihood Security And Reproductive Health Among Women Refugees In Uganda: The Case Of Sudanese Women In Rhino Camp And Kiryandongo Refugee Settlements

Citation:

Mulumba, Deborah. 2005. Gender Relations, Livelihood Security and Reproductive Health Among Women Refugees in Uganda: The Case of Sudanese Women in Rhino Camp and Kiryandongo Refugee Settlements. PhD thesis, Wageningen University.

Author: Deborah Mulumba

Abstract:

Armed conflict and civil wars are the main cause of refugees in the Great Lakes Region of Eastern Africa. Forced migration into alien refugee settings exacerbates gender inequalities and increases the vulnerability of women and girls. The main objective of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of gender relations, livelihood security and reproductive health among refugees in Uganda with a particular focus on women. The research design was descriptive and exploratory in nature and the methodology was primarily qualitative. The main findings were that refugee policies and gender relations have an immense influence on human reproduction, reproductive health and livelihood security. Although UNHCR has formulated gender sensitive policies, their implementation in rural settlements remains gender neutral. In addition, the strategic needs of women refugees are not catered for. The study concludes that there is a discrepancy between the international and national policies and what is on the ground. (ResearchGate)

Annotation:

Table of Contents:

1. Background and Rationale for the Study
2. Theoretical and Conceptual Perspectives
3. Research Questions and Methodology
4. The History and Management of Refugees and Displacement in Uganda
5. The International and National Health Policies
6. Ministries, Organizations and Programmes Dealing in Reproductive Health Issues
7. The Study Area and ‘Host Environment’
8. Gender Relations, Livelihood Security and Reproductive Health: Discussion of Findings and Experiences from Rhino Camp Refugee Settlement 
9. Gender Relations, Livelihood Security and Reproductive Health: Discussion of Findings and Experiences from Kiryandongo Refugee Settlement
10. Conclusions

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Women, Girls, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Reproductive Health, International Organizations, Livelihoods, Security Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Sudan, Uganda

Year: 2005

Maternal Health Care Seeking Behavior in a Post-Conflict HIPC: The Case of Rwanda

Citation:

Chandrasekhar, S., Tesfayi Gebreselassie, and Anuja Jayaraman. 2011. “Maternal Health Care Seeking Behavior in a Post-Conflict HIPC: The Case of Rwanda” Population Research and Policy Review 30 (1):25-41

Authors: S. Chandrasekhar, Tesfayi Gebreselassie, Anuja Jayaraman

Abstract:

Rwanda is one of nine post-conflict heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) of the world. There was a worsening of health indicators since the early nineties on account of conflict. In light of this, we examine factors affecting maternal health care seeking behavior in Rwanda using three rounds of Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey (RDHS) data (1992, 2000, and 2005). We find that progress towards increasing the share of assisted deliveries has been slow. There has been no significant increase in the proportion of women seeking antenatal care. This could partially explain why a large proportion of women continue to deliver at home without professional assistance. Further, women who gave birth in the 5 years preceding the 2000 RDHS are less likely to deliver in a health facility than those who gave birth in the 5 years preceding the 1992 RDHS. We do not find such a result for the year 2005. We also find that women are more likely to deliver at home with professional assistance in 2000 and 2005 compared to 1992.

Keywords: Rwanda, maternal health, place of delivery, conflict

Topics: Development, Poverty, Women, Health, Reproductive Health, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2011

Body and Soul: Forced Sterilization and Other Assaults on Roma Reproductive Freedom in Slovakia

Citation:

Zampas, Christina, et al. “Body and Soul: Forced Sterilization and Other Assaults on Roma Reproductive Freedom in Slovakia.” 2003. New York: Center for Reproductive Rights.

Authors: Christina Zampas, Ina Zoon, Sneha Barot, Barbora Bukovska

Annotation: “In late 2002, the Center for Reproductive Rights in collaboration with Poradňa pre občianske a I’udské práva (Centre for Civil and Human Rights, hereinafter Poradňa), a Slovak human rights organization, and Ina Zoon, an expert consultant on minority rights issues, conducted a human rights fact-finding mission involving in-depth private interviews with more than 230 women in almost 40 Romani settlements throughout eastern Slovakia, the region with the highest concentration of Roma, on topics including sterilization practices, treatment by health-care professionals in maternal health-care facilities and access to reproductive health-care information. We also interviewed Slovak hospital directors, doctors, nurses, patients, government officials, activists, and non-governmental organizations regarding these same issues. Our research has uncovered widespread violations of Romani women’s human rights, specifically reproductive rights, in eastern Slovakia that include the following: • coerced and forced sterilization; • misinformation in reproductive health matters; • racially discriminatory access to health-care resources and treatment; • physical and verbal abuse by medical providers; and • denial of access to medical records. Slovakia is scheduled to become a member state of the European Union (EU) in 2004. This membership confers economic benefits as well as political and social responsibilities on members in accordance with the aquis, the EU’s legal framework. Overshadowing this historic moment, however, is the Slovak government’s continued denial of the human rights of minority Romani women. Discrimination against the Roma is historically based, stretching back several centuries. In modern times, persecution of the Roma was enforced under the Nazi regime through, among other things, a policy of forced sterilization. This practice was continued during communist times in Czechoslovakia, when Romani women were specifically targeted for sterilization through government laws and programs that provided monetary incentives and condoned misinformation and coercion. The Slovak government claims these programs were dismantled following the fall of communism in 1989. However, our fact-finding reveals that serious human rights violations continue despite the official change in the most obviously problematic law. Indeed, our fact-finding clearly indicates that discrimination against Romani women remains deeply and disturbingly entrenched in Slovak society. Government officials and health-care providers today openly condone attitudes and practices that violate the bodily integrity, health rights and human dignity of Romani women in need of reproductive health-care services. Romani women are particularly vulnerable to multiple forms of discrimination because they bear the double burden of both race and gender stereotypes.” (Zampas et al. 2003, 14)

Topics: Gender, Women, Health, Reproductive Health, Humanitarian Assistance, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Europe, Central Europe Countries: Slovakia

Year: 2003

Reproductive Governance in Latin America

Citation:

Morgan, Lynn M., and Elizabeth F.S. Roberts. 2012. “Reproductive Governance in Latin America.” Anthropology & Medicine 19 (2): 241–54. doi:10.1080/13648470.2012.675046.

Authors: Lynn M. Morgan, Elizabeth F.S. Roberts

Abstract:

This paper develops the concept of reproductive governance as an analytic tool for tracing the shifting political rationalities of population and reproduction. As advanced here, the concept of reproductive governance refers to the mechanisms through which different historical configurations of actors – such as state, religious, and international financial institutions, NGOs, and social movements – use legislative controls, economic inducements, moral injunctions, direct coercion, and ethical incitements to produce, monitor, and control reproductive behaviours and population practices. Examples are drawn from Latin America, where reproductive governance is undergoing a dramatic transformation as public policy conversations are coalescing around new moral regimes and rights-based actors through debates about abortion, emergency contraception, sterilisation, migration, and assisted reproductive technologies. Reproductive discourses are increasingly framed through morality and contestations over ‘rights’, where rights-bearing citizens are pitted against each other in claiming reproductive, sexual, indigenous, and natural rights, as well as the ‘right to life’ of the unborn. The concept of reproductive governance can be applied to other settings in order to understand shifting political rationalities within the domain of reproduction.

Keywords: reproduction, governance, human rights, neoliberalism, Latin America

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Health, Reproductive Health, NGOs, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America

Year: 2012

The Post-Disaster Negative Health Legacy: Pregnancy Outcomes in Louisiana after Hurricane Andrew

Citation:

Antipova, Anzhelika, and Andrew Curtis. 2015. “The Post-Disaster Negative Health Legacy: Pregnancy Outcomes in Louisiana after Hurricane Andrew.” Disasters 39 (4): 665–86. doi:10.1111/disa.12125.

Authors: Anzhelika Antipova, Andrew Curtis

Abstract:

Disasters and displacement increasingly affect and challenge urban settings. How do pregnant women fare in the aftermath of a major disaster? This paper investigates the effect of pregnancies in disaster situations. The study tests a hypothesis that pregnant women residing in hurricane-prone areas suffer higher health risks. The setting is Louisiana in the Gulf Coast, United States, a state that continually experiences hurricane impacts. The time period for the analysis is three years following the landfall of Hurricane Andrew in 1992. We analysed low birth weight and preterm deliveries before and after landfall, as a whole and by race. Findings support an association between hazards and health of a community and indicate that pregnant women in the affected area, irrespective of race, are more likely to experience preterm deliveries compared to pre-event births. Results suggest there is a negative health legacy impact in Louisiana as a result of hurricane landfall.

Keywords: disaster, Hurricane Andrew, Louisiana, pregnancy outcomes, public health

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Health, Reproductive Health Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2015

Dignity and the Right of Internally Displaced Adolescents in Colombia to Sexual and Reproductive Health

Citation:

Bosmans, Marleen, Fernando Gonzalez, Eva Brems, and Marleen Temmerman. 2012. “Dignity and the Right of Internally Displaced Adolescents in Colombia to Sexual and Reproductive Health.” Disasters 36 (4): 617–34. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7717.2012.01273.x.

Authors: Marleen Bosmans, Fernando Gonzalez, Eva Brems, Marleen Temmerman

Abstract:

In Colombia, national policies and laws on the protection of vulnerable populations pay specific attention to the sexual and reproductive health needs and rights of internally displaced adolescents. This paper describes how a United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)-supported programme (September 2000–August 2004) on the sexual and reproductive health of internally displaced adolescents contributed to restoring their dignity as a precursor to promoting their sexual and reproductive health rights. Different forms of the arts were used as basic techniques to discover their body and to provide sexual and reproductive health information and education. The arts were found to play a key role in restoring their dignity. Although dignity appeared to be a determinant of greater awareness of rights, it did not lead to increased empowerment with regard to rights. The availability of and access to sexual and reproductive health services remains a problem and displaced populations continue to have little or no power to hold their authorities accountable.

Keywords: adolescents, Colombia, dignity, internally displaced persons, sexual and reproductive health, sexual and reproductive health rights

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Girls, Boys, Health, Reproductive Health, Humanitarian Assistance Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2012

Forced Pregnancy: Codification in the Rome Statute and its Prospect as Implicit Genocide

Citation:

Jessie, Soh Sie Eng. 2006. “Forced Pregnancy: Codification in the Rome Statute and Its Prospect as Implicit Genocide.” New Zealand Journal of Public and International Law 4 (2): 311.

Author: Soh Sie Eng Jessie

Abstract:

The Bosnia–Herzegovina political conflict between 1992 and 1995 shone international light on the use of forced pregnancy campaigns as tools in ethnic conflicts. The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court is the first international treaty to explicitly define the crime of forced pregnancy, but its enactment was controversial. This article discusses the intensive opposition to its inclusion in the Rome Statute, from religious, cultural and political perspectives. It also suggests that domestic antiabortion laws and control over women's reproductive rights raise different issues from a forced pregnancy provision, and that there was a need for the express codification of forced pregnancy as a separate offence, given that it is neither novel nor rare. The Rome Statute lists forced pregnancy as a separate offence, but it is not expressly criminalised as genocide. However, this article argues that forced pregnancy is implicit genocide. It involves attacking women in the targeted group for the purpose of their impregnation through rape, and their detention to facilitate the birth of resulting babies. Forced pregnancy campaigns infiltrate the targeted community through gene pool pollution and manipulation of cultural beliefs.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Genocide, Health, Reproductive Health, International Law, Justice, Crimes against Humanity, Sexual Violence Regions: Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina

Year: 2006

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