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Reparations

Enfoque de Género en la Implementación de la Ley de Víctimas y Restitución de Tierras: Una Propuesta para la Caracterización de las Mujeres y Niñas Víctimas del Conflicto Armado en Colombia

Citation:

Castrellón Pérez, Mariana, and Catherine Romero Cristancho. 2016. "Enfoque de Género en la Implementación de la Ley de Víctimas y Restitución de Tierras: Una Propuesta para la Caracterización de las Mujeres y Niñas Víctimas del Conflicto Armado en Colombia." Revista CS 19: 69-113. doi: 10.18046/recs.i19.2166.

Authors: Mariana Castrellón Pérez, Catherine Romero Cristancho

Abstract:

SPANISH ABSTRACT:
El objetivo de este artículo es hacer una propuesta metodológica para incorporar la perspectiva de género en las herramientas de planeación de la Ley de Víctimas y Restitución de Tierras a nivel territorial. Las medidas de reparación integral a favor de las mujeres deben reconocer que las violencias producto del conflicto superan el episodio mismo y agudizan las brechas de inequidad y goce efectivo de derechos entre hombres y mujeres. Por lo tanto, todo intento de caracterización de las mujeres sobrevivientes del conflicto debe tener en cuenta: la situación de las mujeres en los diferentes ámbitos de exclusión como el acceso a la vivienda y tierra; el nivel de educación; la autonomía económica, entre otras; y los diferentes tipos de discriminación que viven en tiempos de paz, como puntos de partida para la formulación de políticas de prevención y reparación integral de las mujeres en los territorios.
ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
The purpose of this article is to present a methodological proposal to be included by local governments in their planning tools to implement the Victims and Land Restitution Law. Integral reparation measures on behalf of women who have been victimized by the armed actors have to recognize that the victimization oversees the violent episode and exacerbates inequality gaps and the effective enjoyment of rights between men and women. Hence, any attempt to characterize women survivors of the conflict must consider women's situation in different areas of exclusion such as access to land and housing, educational level, economic independence, among others; as well as the different types of discrimination that women face during peace times. All this to formulate public policy that aims at preventing violence and repairing women in local territories.

Keywords: gênero, entidades territoriales, Ley de Victimas y Restitución de Tierras, caracterización, Planes de Acción Territorial, Conflicto Armado, gender, local governments, Victims and Land Restitution Law, characterization, Local Action Plans, armed conflict

Topics: Armed Conflict, Conflict, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Justice, Reparations, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2016

Aportes desde Iniciativas Colectivas de Mujeres Negras para Consolidar los Procesos de Afro-reparación en la Transición Política en Colombia

Citation:

Cruz, Alba Luca, and Diana Baracaldo. 2019. “Aportes desde Iniciativas Colectivas de Mujeres Negras para Consolidar los Procesos de Afro-reparación en la Transición Política en Colombia.” Revista Kavilando 11 (2): 370-88. 

Authors: Alba Luca Cruz, Diana Baracaldo

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This document focuses on the initiatives of women victims’ groups around the generation of proposals within the framework of collective reparation within the current Law 1448 on Victims and Land Restitution of 2011, which is currently in force. The state of the art manages to measure that the proposals of the women victims have placed special emphasis on stating that the damage and the cultural fabric of the Afro-Colombian community, and in particular, the use of ancestral knowledge in life and the meaning of everyday life, must be valued, made visible, and politicized. This is the case because this is a scenario of popular knowledge, which in turn, is a field of political formation from the ethnic, which provides symbolic, substantive, and operational dimensions from Afro-Colombian communities in order to reaffirm their identity processes.
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
En este documento se ubican las iniciativas de colectivos de mujeres víctimas en torno a la generación de propuestas en el marco de la reparación colectiva dentro de la actual Ley 1448 de Víctimas y Restitución de tierra de 2011 que en la actualidad está en vigencia. El estado del arte logra dimensionar que las propuestas de las mujeres víctimas han hecho especial énfasis en afirmar que debe ser valorado, visibilizado y politizado el daño al entramado cultural de la comunidad afrocolombiana, en especial al uso de los saberes ancestrales en la vida y significado de la vida cotidiana, siendo este un escenario de conocimiento popular que a la vez es un campo de formación política desde lo étnico, de dimensiones simbólicas, sustantivas y operativas en las comunidades afrocolombianas, reafirmando sus procesos identitarios.

Keywords: Afro-reparación, reparación colectiva, mujer, afrocolombianos, Afro-reparation, collective redress, woman, Afro-Colombians

Topics: Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Justice, Reparations Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2019

Response to and Reparations for Conflict-Related Sexual Violence in Iraq: The Case of Shi'a Turkmen Survivors in Tel Afar

Citation:

Bor, Güley. 2019. Response to and Reparations for Conflict-Related Sexual Violence in Iraq: The Case of Shi'a Turkmen Survivors in Tel Afar. London: London School of Economics Middle East Centre.

Author: Güley Bor

Abstract:

Conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) has been widespread in Iraq during the most recent Islamic State conflict. Thousands of Yazidi and hundreds of Shiʿa Turkmen women and girls were subjected to various forms of CRSV, including sexual slavery and forced marriages. Survivors need, demand and have a right to emergency responses as well as reparations. However, an overview of the situation of Shiʿa Turkmen survivors who returned to Tel Afar demonstrates how the Government of Iraq’s inaction, together with its discriminatory laws and practices, continue to fail women, and survivors in particular. Shiʿa Turkmen survivors must be provided with timely, comprehensive and survivor-centric medical, legal, economic services and mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS), while community-oriented programmes must address the high levels of stigma to which survivors are subjected. To address the medical, psychological and social harms arising from CRSV, complex reparation programmes (both urgent and comprehensive) should be designed and implemented through effective survivor consultation, by ensuring that all survivors are included in their scope. While the recent reparations bill is a step in the right direction, Iraq is in urgent need for wider reform in addressing sexual violence and ensuring its non-repetition.

Topics: Conflict, Gender, Women, Girls, Governance, Health, Mental Health, Justice, Reparations, Sexual Violence, Sexual Slavery, SV against women Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Iraq

Year: 2019

Mujeres, Polifonías y Justicia Transicional en Colombia: Narrativas Afrocéntricas de la(s) Violencia(s) en el Conflicto Armado

Citation:

Garcia, Paula Medina. 2018. "Mujeres, Polifonías y Justicia Transicional en Colombia: Narrativas Afrocéntricas de la(s) Violencia(s) en el Conflicto Armado." Investigaciones Feministas 9 (2): 309-26.

Author: Paula Medina Garcia

Abstract:

SPANISH ABSTRACT:
A través de una lectura feminista interseccional del escenario de “postconflicto”/post-acuerdo en Colombia, este trabajo analiza: i) la violencia contra las mujeres en contextos de guerra como poder exhibido e instrumental; ii) el impacto de las violencias contra las mujeres afrodescendientes en el conflicto armado –para lo cual se ha utilizado tanto la información disponible del Registro Único de Víctimas (RUV) como los relatos de las víctimas; iii) las múltiples violencias superpuestas que sufren las mujeres afrodescendientes, como parte de un continuum, entendiendo la guerra como un escenario en el que éstas se encarnan y letalizan de forma pública; y iv) la justicia transicional como arena en disputa, especialmente a raíz de la firma de los Acuerdos de Paz. Para ello, se parte de las propias narrativas de las mujeres afrodescendientes como sujetos políticos activos en el proceso de justicia transicional –verdad, reparación y garantías de no repetición–. En esta línea, se parte de una revisión de la víctima qua víctima, adoptando una mirada constructivista de esta categoría –en un intento por superar concepciones esencialistas y paternalistas de la misma–, y abogando por la resignificación de la capacidad de agencia de dichas mujeres para retejer y disputar al Estado el control sobre los procesos de justicia, verdad, reparación y memoria. 
 
 
ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Through a feminist and intersectional reading of the “post-conflict”/post-agreement context, this study analyses: i) the violence against women as an instrumental and displayed power in war contexts; ii) the impact of violences against afrodescendant women during the armed conflict, drawn from Official Victims’ Registries as well as from their own narratives; iii) the multiple overlapped violences that afrodescendant women suffer, as part of a continuum, understanding war as the setting where the violences are embodied and become more lethal publicly; iv) the transitional justice as contested arena, specially with the signing of the Peace Agreements. For that purpose, the work focuses in the narratives of afrodescendant women as political and active subjects in the transitional justice process, in order to provide truth, reparation and guarantees of non-repetition to victims. In this regard, it reads through the victim qua victim, assuming a constructivist approach to understand this category –as well as we try to overcome essentialist and patronizing perspectives. Finally, this research proposes the resignification of agency ability of these women to redefine and dispute over the State’s control of justice, truth, reparation, and memory processes.

Keywords: afrodescendant women, continuum of violences, transitional justice, Colombia, mujeres afrodescendientes, continuum de violencias, justicia transitional

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Justice, Reparations, Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict, Race, Peace Processes, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2018

Perceptions of Justice and Hierarchies of Rape: Rethinking Approaches to Sexual Violence in Eastern Congo from the Ground Up

Citation:

Aroussi, Sahla. 2018. "Perceptions of Justice and Hierarchies of Rape: Rethinking Approaches to Sexual Violence in Eastern Congo from the Ground Up." The International Journal of Transitional Justice 12 (2): 277-95.

Author: Sahla Aroussi

Abstract:

Based on extensive fieldwork in South Kivu in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), this article considers the question of justice for survivors of sexual violence from the ground up. It argues that survivors of rape by armed groups or civilians in the DRC primarily conceive of justice as economic assistance and have limited interest in the prosecution of perpetrators. Such emphasis on economic assistance cannot be separated from the reality of poverty in which survivors live and local perceptions and practices of justice that are rooted in the concept of reparation. At the same time, survivors’ reluctance to pursue formal justice must be understood in the light of the inaccessibility of the Congolese criminal justice system and its failure to play a positive role in society. The article concludes by offering some recommendations for actors and scholars in this area.

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Justice, Reparations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Sexual Violence, Rape Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo

Year: 2018

Conflicto Armado, Impacto Psicosocial Y Reparación en Colombia: La Voz de Las Mujeres

Citation:

Martinez, Maitane Arnoso, Manuel Cárdenas Castro, Carlos M. Beristain, and Carla Afonso. 2017. "Conflicto Armado, Impacto Psicosocial Y Reparación en Colombia: La Voz de Las Mujeres." Universitas Psychologica 16 (3): 1-12.

Authors: Maitane Arnoso Martinez, Manuel Cardenas Castro, Carlos M. Beristain, Carla Afonso

Abstract:

SPANISH ABSTRACT:
El conflicto armado en Colombia ha durado cincuenta años y ha producido numerosas víctimas. Las mujeres constituyen un colectivo que ha sido especialmente afectado e invisibilizado por la violencia. A partir de 935 entrevistas a mujeres colombianas (17-83 años) pertenecientes a diferentes comunidades étnicas (que se identificaron como mestizas, afroamericanas, indígenas o blancas), el presente estudio explora las violaciones a los derechos humanos que sufrieron, el impacto psicosocial de las mismas, las estrategias utilizadas por las mujeres para hacer frente a la violencia y las medidas que consideran relevantes para reparar los daños que les fueron ocasionados. Utilizando una perspectiva metodológica feminista (Harding, 1987), la recolección de datos fue realizada por mujeres entrevistando a otras mujeres que querían compartir experiencias de violencia a menudo invisibilizadas y, a través de ellas, poder generar un aprendizaje colectivo y proceso de empoderamiento mutuo a partir de una resignificación colectiva de los hechos acontecidos. El instrumento utilizado incluyó una metodología ya contrastada en otros contextos donde se han producidoe violaciones a los derechos humanos (Arnoso et al., 2014; Beristain, 2009). Las respuestas fueron codificadas para un tratamiento adicional cuantitativo y cualitativo. Se encontró una relación entre los diferentes tipos de violencia y las regiones de origen de las participantes, siendo las mujeres indígenas y afroamericanas quienes más negativamente afectadas se mostraron por el conflicto. Los resultados indican que los grupos paramilitares fueron los agentes con mayor frecuencia identificados como autores de la violencia.
 
ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
The armed conflict in Colombia has gone on for fifty years and produced numerous victims. Women make up a collective that has been especially affected and made invisible by the violence. Based on 935 interviews of Colombian women (17-83 years) belonging to different ethnic communities (who had identified themselves as mixed-race, AfroAmericans, indigenous, or white), the present study explores the Human Rights violations they experienced, the psychosocial impact of these violations, the strategies these women used to cope with the violence, and the measures they consider valuable to redress the damage inflicted. Using a feminist methodological perspective (Harding, 1987), data collection was carried out by women interviewing other women who wanted to bring back often invisibilized experiences of violence and thus contribute to their collective learning and empowerment process. They were to do this based on a shared redefinition of the facts. The instrument used included study methods used in other contexts of human rights violations (Arnoso, Beristain & González Hidalgo, 2014; Beristain, 2009) and the answers were coded for further quantitative and qualitative treatment. A relationship was found between the different types of violence and the regions the sample came from, with indigenous and Afro-American women affected more negatively by the conflict. The results indicate that the paramilitary groups were the agents identified most often as the perpetrators of the violence.

Keywords: Colombia, armed conflict, psychosocial consequences, coping strategies, reparation, women, Conflicto Armado, consecuencias psicosociales, estrategias de afrontamiento, reparación, Mujeres

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Justice, Reparations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Paramilitaries, Rights, Human Rights, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2017

The Colombian Transitional Process: Comparative Perspectives on Violence against Indigenous Women

Citation:

Acosta, Monica, Angela Castaneda, Daniela Garcia, Fallon Hernandez, Dunen Muelas, and Angela Santamaria. 2018. "The Colombian Transitional Process: Comparative Perspectives on Violence against Indigenous Women." International Journal of Transitional Justice 12 (1): 108-25.

Authors: Monica Acosta, Angela Castaneda, Daniela Garcia, Fallon Hernandez, Dunen Muelas, Angela Santamaria

Abstract:

Colombia has a comprehensive system of truth, justice and reparation stemming from its history with the justice and peace process and its most recent peace agreement. Although indigenous women are the most affected before, during and after conflict, their participation is marginalized within this political context. This article discusses how Colombian transitional justice can be reconfigured when indigenous women's practices and knowledge travel 'from the margins' to the center. We seek to demonstrate how these practices legitimize gender and other types of violence in the name of tradition and also how indigenous women's experiences go beyond the gendered perspective of violence as a 'weapon of war.' Working within the context of the peace process, we gathered data through learning and teaching techniques with indigenous women in three indigenous contexts (Sierra, Pan-Amazon region and Chocó). Our focus is on the interaction between local transitional justice practices and the violence against indigenous women, their resistance practices and the peacebuilding agendas used to implement transitional justice in Colombia.

Keywords: Colombia, indigenous women, intersectionality, transitional justice 'from below'

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Intersectionality, Justice, Reparations, Transitional Justice, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2018

Frictions in Transitional Justice Processes: Colombia's Victims Law, Integral Reparation and the Temporality of Multiple Victimization in Displaced Women

Citation:

Rahme, Sophie. 2018. "Frictions in Transitional Justice Processes: Colombia's Victims Law, Integral Reparation and the Temporality of Multiple Victimization in Displaced Women." Gobernar: The Journal of Latin American Public Policy and Governance 2 (1): 33-56.

Author: Sophie Rahme

Abstract:

This article addresses the challenges that integral reparation programs meet when aiming to respond to multiple victimization experienced by displaced women. By adopting the ethnographic concept of “frictions” (Tsing, 2005), I analyze four dimensions of discursive frictions that occur surrounding reparative practice backed by the Law on Victims and Land Restitution and its multiple local encounters and dis-encounters when compensating multiple victimization in the post-conflict of Medellín. Like other studies have identified shortcomings of the idealistic and innovative Colombian reparation program, it becomes evident that the integral reparation efforts fall short in addressing the real complexity of interrelated and multiples victimizations in the urban context. Respectively the paper addresses the question of how experiences of compound victimization are considered within their temporal beginnings, continuities and endings. Derived from field research and problem-centred interviews conducted in 2017 the paper draws on a perspective of compound harm to understand the complexity of multiple victimization experienced by forcibly displaced women.

Keywords: transitional justice, integral reparations, transformative reparations, Colombia's Victims Law, displaced women

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Gender, Women, Justice, Reparations, Post-Conflict Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2018

Reparation for Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in the (Post) Conflict Context: the Need to Address Abuses by Peacekeepers and Humanitarian Aid Workers

Citation:

Ferstman, Carla. 2020. "Reparation for Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in the (Post) Conflict Context: the Need to Address Abuses by Peacekeepers and Humanitarian Aid Workers." In Reparations for Victims of Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity, edited by Carla Ferstman and Mariana Goetz, 271-97. Leiden: Brill Nijhoff.

Author: Carla Ferstman

Annotation:

Summary:
"This chapter focuses on remedies and reparation for sexual exploitation and abuse perpetrated in conflict and post-conflict settings by those with a specific mandate to help: peacekeepers and associated personnel and the staff of humanitarian aid agencies." (Ferstman 2020, 271)

Topics: Conflict, Humanitarian Assistance, Justice, Reparations, Peacekeeping, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse

Year: 2020

Skirts as Flags: Transitional Justice, Gender and Everyday Nationalism in Kosovo

Citation:

Krasniqi, Vjollca, Ivor Sokolic, and Denisa Kostovicova. 2020. "Skirts as Flags: Transitional Justice, Gender and Everyday Nationalism in Kosovo." Nations and Nationalism 26 (2): 461-76.

Authors: Vjollca Krasniqi, Ivor Sokolic, Denisa Kostovicova

Keywords: art, gender, nationalism, transitional justice, Kosovo

Annotation:

Summary: 
"In this article, we bring the perspective of everyday nationalism to the feminist theorizing in the field of transitional justice and investigate gendered dimensions of post‐conflict nation building. Our aim is to understand possibilities for achieving gender‐just peace characterized by the transformation of gender relations, as well as their obstacles. Feminist scholarship has captured complex, contested, and ambiguous dynamics of shifting gender relations in conflict and post‐conflict settings in the everyday domain. Despite increasing understanding of women's agency and its limits, the entrenchment of dominant hierarchical norms at the intersection of gender and the nation remains puzzling. Everyday nationalism directs attention to mundane aspects of nationhood. It also offers a bottom–up perspective on top–down processes of “formal” nationalism and their interplay with everyday constructions of nationhood. The alignment between these bottom–up and top–down processes reveals how national ideologies are legitimized and hierarchical gender relations entrenched. We ask, does the public recognition of wartime sexual violence and women's suffering challenge the norms and habits of masculine nationhood and pave the way for a new start free of patriarchal hierarchies? Or does it entrench a gendered war “metanarrative” (Björkdahl & Mannergren Selimovic, 2015, p. 172) and with it, unequal gender relations? We study a public art installation about wartime sexual violence in Kosovo aimed at tackling the stigma and silence about wartime rape. The analysis is focused on how this artistic practice, as a symbol, discourse, and performance, as well as an intervention in the everyday domain, offers recognition of wartime sexual violence, and how this recognition responds to, or interacts with, existing gendered dynamics of nationhood. Drawing on Malešević (2013, p. 14), we argue that nationalism and nationhood transcend the public/private dichotomy by connecting institutions and organizations, such as public art installations, to everyday microinteractions. We show that the public endorsement of the art project and the acceptance of wartime sexual violence result in the recognition of the war crime but not the victim. Dynamics of everyday nationalism reinforce gender asymmetries and women's marginalization in a nation‐building process even while their suffering is being acknowledged publicly. Twenty years after the war in Kosovo ended, justice for ethnic Albanian women victims of sexual violence is still largely elusive. Their suffering has been sidelined both in international criminal prosecutions as well as in hybrid domestic war crime trials. The recent adoption by Kosovo's parliament of a reparations law for wartime sexual and gender‐based violence marks formal progress. But, its impact on actual redress for this wartime harm has been limited. One of the major obstacles for women coming forward to claim the reparations is the stigma surrounding wartime sexual violence. The stigma is steeped in gendered patriarchal mores playing themselves out in the politics of postwar peacebuilding within the victims' national community, and it pervades everyday life. By focusing on how an artistic intervention can promote justice for victims of wartime rape, we explore an avenue for supporting gender‐just peacebuilding that is an alternative to women's activism, legal responses, and formal gender equality policies. Despite the “context‐specific natures of claims of justice” (Murphy, 2017, p. 6), the case study of Kosovo reflects the typical pattern of gender‐based harm and the challenges of building gender‐just peace after a civil war. Therefore, our findings reveal everyday dynamics of gendering nation building and contribute to the wider understanding of how the redress for wartime sexual violence perpetuates gender‐insensitive peace (Chinkin & Kaldor, 2013). Empirical research in this article draws on a range of sources. These include the analysis of the Thinking of You art installation, published interviews with the artist, reports of domestic and international media outlets (in Albanian and English), a documentary film about the installation with the same title (Mendoj Për Ty|Thinking of You–Documentary), and speeches by former president of Kosovo, Atifete Jahjaga. We first outline feminist perspectives on transitional justice and present the analytical gains of applying an everyday nationalism perspective to the study of gendered construction of nationhood. This is followed by a background section on the war, sexual and gender‐based violence, and postwar stigma in Kosovo, as well as an overview of the art installation. The analysis is organized around three conceptual dimensions of everyday nationalism: symbols, discourse, and performance." (Krasniqi et al 2020, 461-2)

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Justice, International Tribunals & Special Courts, Reparations, Transitional Justice, War Crimes, Nationalism, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, Rape Regions: Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Kosovo

Year: 2020

Pages

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