Mujeres, Polifonías y Justicia Transicional en Colombia: Narrativas Afrocéntricas de la(s) Violencia(s) en el Conflicto Armado


Garcia, Paula Medina. 2018. "Mujeres, Polifonías y Justicia Transicional en Colombia: Narrativas Afrocéntricas de la(s) Violencia(s) en el Conflicto Armado." Investigaciones Feministas 9 (2): 309-26.

Author: Paula Medina Garcia


A través de una lectura feminista interseccional del escenario de “postconflicto”/post-acuerdo en Colombia, este trabajo analiza: i) la violencia contra las mujeres en contextos de guerra como poder exhibido e instrumental; ii) el impacto de las violencias contra las mujeres afrodescendientes en el conflicto armado –para lo cual se ha utilizado tanto la información disponible del Registro Único de Víctimas (RUV) como los relatos de las víctimas; iii) las múltiples violencias superpuestas que sufren las mujeres afrodescendientes, como parte de un continuum, entendiendo la guerra como un escenario en el que éstas se encarnan y letalizan de forma pública; y iv) la justicia transicional como arena en disputa, especialmente a raíz de la firma de los Acuerdos de Paz. Para ello, se parte de las propias narrativas de las mujeres afrodescendientes como sujetos políticos activos en el proceso de justicia transicional –verdad, reparación y garantías de no repetición–. En esta línea, se parte de una revisión de la víctima qua víctima, adoptando una mirada constructivista de esta categoría –en un intento por superar concepciones esencialistas y paternalistas de la misma–, y abogando por la resignificación de la capacidad de agencia de dichas mujeres para retejer y disputar al Estado el control sobre los procesos de justicia, verdad, reparación y memoria. 
Through a feminist and intersectional reading of the “post-conflict”/post-agreement context, this study analyses: i) the violence against women as an instrumental and displayed power in war contexts; ii) the impact of violences against afrodescendant women during the armed conflict, drawn from Official Victims’ Registries as well as from their own narratives; iii) the multiple overlapped violences that afrodescendant women suffer, as part of a continuum, understanding war as the setting where the violences are embodied and become more lethal publicly; iv) the transitional justice as contested arena, specially with the signing of the Peace Agreements. For that purpose, the work focuses in the narratives of afrodescendant women as political and active subjects in the transitional justice process, in order to provide truth, reparation and guarantees of non-repetition to victims. In this regard, it reads through the victim qua victim, assuming a constructivist approach to understand this category –as well as we try to overcome essentialist and patronizing perspectives. Finally, this research proposes the resignification of agency ability of these women to redefine and dispute over the State’s control of justice, truth, reparation, and memory processes.

Keywords: afrodescendant women, continuum of violences, transitional justice, Colombia, mujeres afrodescendientes, continuum de violencias, justicia transitional

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Justice, Reparations, Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict, Race, Peace Processes, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2018

Subverting Economic Empowerment: Towards a Postcolonial-Feminist Framework on Gender (In)Securities in Post-War Settings


Martin de Almagro, Maria, and Caitlin Ryan. 2019. "Subverting Economic Empowerment: Towards a Postcolonial-Feminist Framework on Gender (In)Securities in Post-War Settings." European Journal of International Relations 25 (4): 1059-79.

Authors: Maria Martin De Almagro, Caitlin Ryan


This article demonstrates that the inability of the United Nations Women, Peace and Security agenda to realize greater peace and security for women in post-war states stems to a great extent from its failure to engage deeply with the materiality of women’s lives under economic empowerment projects. We argue that the Women, Peace and Security agenda reproduces a neoliberal understanding of economic empowerment that inadequately captures the reality of women’s lives in post-war settings for two reasons: first, it views formal and informal economic activities as dichotomous and separate, rather than as intertwined and constitutive of each other; and, second, it conceptualizes agency as individual, disembodied, abstract, universalizing and conforming to the requirements of the competitive pressures of the market. The article then offers a three-pronged postcolonial-feminist framework to analyse international interventions in which representation, materiality and agency are interconnected. We argue that such a framework helps understand better who is empowered in post-war economies and how they are empowered. This, in turn, makes visible how post-war economies produce gendered and racialized (in)securities that need to be addressed by the Women, Peace and Security agenda. With this, we also hope to reflect on broader international political economy concerns about the problems of making conceptual distinctions between politics and economics, and to challenge the constructed borders between materiality and discourse that have pervaded peace and conflict studies.

Keywords: discourse, feminist political economy, feminist security studies, Gender, materiality, postcolonialism

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Feminisms, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Women, Feminist Foreign Policy, Peace and Security, Political Economies, Post-Conflict, Race, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS

Year: 2019

Landscapes of Impunity and the Deaths of Americans LaVena Johnson and Sandra Bland


Dowler, Lorraine, and Jenna Christian. 2019. "Landscapes of Impunity and the Deaths of Americans LaVena Johnson and Sandra Bland." Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography 26 (6): 813-29.

Authors: Lorraine Dowler, Jenna Christian


On July 19th, 2005, American Army Private First Class LaVena Johnson died in Balad, Iraq, just 8 days shy of her 20th birthday. On July 13th, 2015, almost 10 years later, 28-year-old Sandra Bland’s life came to an abrupt end in a jail cell in Waller County, Texas. Both women’s deaths were ruled suicides, and both women’s families and friends reject these judgments. Instead, they insinuate foul play by the state, which directly governed the militarized spaces within which the women both died. At first glance, these women appear to have had very different life trajectories, one a United States soldier and the other a Black Lives Matter activist. However, in both of their cases, the ruling of the suspicious deaths as suicides illustrates the state’s attempt to render their deaths banal, and thereby diminish the state’s own culpability. In understanding the unremitting acts of violence, on women’s bodies, especially women of color, this paper focuses on how a Black feminist praxis extends feminist notions of an ethics of care.

Keywords: care, Gender, military violence, police violence, race

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, Feminisms, Justice, Impunity, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Race, Violence Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2019

The Palgrave International Handbook of Gender and the Military


Woodward, Rachel, and Claire Duncanson, eds. 2017. The Palgrave International Handbook of Gender and the Military. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Authors: Rachel Woodward, Claire Duncanson


The Palgrave International Handbook of Gender and the Military provides a comprehensive overview of the multiple ways in which gender and militaries connect.  International and multi-disciplinary in scope, this edited volume provides authoritative accounts of the many intersections through which militaries issues and military forces are shaped by gender.  The chapters provide detailed accounts of key issues, informed by examples from original research in a wealth of different national contexts.  This Handbook includes coverage of conceptual approaches to the study of gender and militaries, gender and the organisation of state military forces, gender as it pertains to military forces in action, transitions and transgressions within militaries, gender and non-state military forces, and gender in representations of military personnel and practices.  With contributions from a range of both established and early career scholars, The Palgrave International Handbook of Gender and the Military is an essential guide to current debates on gender and contemporary military issues. (Summary from Springer)
Table of Contents 
1. An Introduction to Gender and the Military
Rachel Woodward and Claire Duncanson
2. Liberal Feminists, Militaries and War 
Caroline Kennedy-Pipe
3. Anti-Militarist Feminist Approaches to Researching Gender and the Military 
Claire Duncanson
4. Critical Military Studies as Method: An Approach to Studying Gender and the Military 
Victoria M. Basham and Sarah Bulmer
5. Quantitative Approaches to Researching Gender and Militaries 
Lana Obradovic
6. Qualitative Approaches to Researching Gender and the Military 
Lauren Greenwood
7. Gendered Organizational Dynamics in Military Contexts 
Helena Carreiras
8. Ethnicity and Gender in Militaries: An Intersectional Analysis 
Orna Sasson-Levy
9. Theorizing Military Masculinities and National Identities: The Norwegian Experience 
Nina Rones and Kari Fasting
10. Sexualities in State Militaries 
Sarah Bulmer
11. Transgender Military Service: A Snapshot in Time 
M. Sheridan Embser-Herbert
12. The Civilian Wives of Military Personnel: Mobile Subjects or Agents of Militarisation? 
Alexandra Hyde
13. Military Families: Life, Social Organization and Remote Basing Experiences for Brazilian Military Families 
Cristina Rodrigues da Silva
14. Domestic Abuse and the Reproduction of the Idealised ‘Military Wife’ 
Harriet Gray
15. Violence in the Military and Relations Among Men: Military Masculinities and ‘Rape Prone Cultures’ 
Ben Wadham
16. Female Military Veterans with Disabilities 
Rachel Dekel and Miriam Goldberg
17. Gender, Mental Health and the Military 
Hilary Cornish
18. Gendered Military Identities: Army Deserters in Exile 
Godfrey Maringira
19. Gender and Close Combat Roles 
Anthony King
20. Gender and Counterinsurgency 
Synne L. Dyvik
21. Gender, Humanitarianism and the Military 
Ryerson Christie
22. Transitions and Transformation in Gender Relations in the South African Military: From Support in Warfare to Valued Peacekeepers 
Lindy Heinecken
23. Military Markets, Masculinities and the Global Political Economy of the Everyday: Understanding Military Outsourcing as Gendered and Racialised 
Amanda Chisholm and Saskia Stachowitsch
24. Gender, Militaries and Security Sector Reform 
Megan Bastick
25. Gender Mainstreaming and Integration in the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation 
Matthew Hurley
26. Gender and Terrorist Movements 
Katherine E. Brown
27. Gender Dynamics in Rebel Groups 
Zoe Marks
28. Women in Non-State Armed Groups after War: The (Non)Evolution of Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration 
Christopher Hills and Megan MacKenzie
29. Gender and Visual Representations of Women Combatants 
Chava Brownfield-Stein
30. Military Women in Cinema: War Stories and Future Worlds 
Yvonne Tasker
31. (Re)Producing an (Anti)Military Masculinity: Popular Culture Representations of Gender and Military Dissent in the Figure of Ron Kovic 
Joanna Tidy
32. Gender and Military Memoirs 
Rachel Woodward, Claire Duncanson and K. Neil Jenkings
33. Gendered Representations of Soldier Deaths 
Katharine M. Millar

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, DDR, Domestic Violence, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Mainstreaming, Health, Mental Health, International Organizations, Intersectionality, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarism, Militarization, Non-State Armed Groups, Political Economies, Race, Peacekeeping, Security Sector Reform, Sexuality, Sexual Violence, Rape

Year: 2017

Smart Peacekeeping: Deploying Canadian Women for a Better Peace?


Biskupski-Mujanovic, Sandra. 2019. "Smart Peacekeeping: Deploying Canadian Women for a Better Peace?" International Journal: Canada's Journal of Global Policy Analysis 74 (3): 405-21.

Author: Sandra Biskupski-Mujanovic


Canada announced its renewed commitment to United Nations peacekeeping with a special mission to increase the representation of women through the Elsie Initiative. That announcement marks a crucial time to examine peacekeeping as a gendered project that requires reflection on power and inequality between states and peacekeepers through an intersectional analysis that pays attention to gender and race. The major justification for increasing the number of women in peacekeeping operations has remained instrumental: deploying more women will lead to kinder, gentler, less abusive, and more efficient missions. However, there is little empirical evidence to support these claims. This paper looks at Canadian peacekeeping and arguments for women’s increased representation in peacekeeping operations for improved operational effectiveness as a “smart” peacekeeping strategy. It looks at the contradictions and controversies in Canadian peacekeeping and gender and smart peacekeeping that includes the Women, Peace, and Security agenda in general and within Canada, operational effectiveness claims, militarized masculinity, and militarized femininity. Without qualitative empirical data from Canadian women peacekeepers themselves, smart peacekeeping claims, which “add women and stir,” are largely anecdotal and do not adequately facilitate meaningful change.

Keywords: peacekeeping, Gender, Canada, inequality, race

Topics: Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Peacekeeping, Race, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2019

Amputated Men, Colonial Bureaucracy, and Masculinity in Post-World War I Colonial Nigeria


Njung, George N. 2020. “Amputated Men, Colonial Bureaucracy, and Masculinity in Post-World War I Colonial Nigeria.” Journal of Social History 53 (3): 620-43.

Author: George N, Njung


Since the 1980s, several aspects of masculinity in relation to the First World War, including the image of the citizen-soldier, have been well studied. Other aspects, however, such as the experience of combat and its impact on peacetime masculinities lag well behind. Though wartime and postwar experiences in Africa provide a repertoire for gender and masculinity research, the continent has been neglected in this realm of studies. British colonial Nigeria contributed tens of thousands of combat men to the war with thousands becoming disabled and facing challenges to their masculine identities, yet there is no serious research on this topic for Nigeria. This paper contributes to this long-neglected aspect of African history. Known in colonial archival documents only as “amputated men,” war- disabled Nigerian men struggled to navigate colonial bureaucracy in order to ob- tain artificial limbs and redeem what they considered their lost manhood. Employing data collected from the Nigerian and British archives, the article’s objectives are twofold: it analyzes the diminishment of the masculine identities of war-disabled men in Nigeria following the First World War, and it explains how such diminishment was accentuated by an inefficiently structured British colonial bureaucracy, paired with British colonial racism. The article contributes to schol- arship on WWI, disability studies, gender studies, and colonial studies, through examination of the protracted legacies of the global conflict on the African continent.



Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Peacekeeping, Post-Conflict, Race Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2020

Rethinking Homonationalism


Puar, Jasbir. 2013. "Rethinking Homonationalism." International Journal of Middle East Studies 45 (2): 336-39. 

Author: Jasbir Puar


"In my 2007 monograph Terrorist Assemblages: Homonationalism in Queer Times (hereafter TA), I develop the conceptual frame of "homonationalism" for understanding the complexities of how "acceptance" and "tolerance" for gay and lesbian subjects have become a barometer by which the right to and capacity for national sovereignty is evaluated. I had become increasingly frustrated with the standard refrain of transnational feminist discourse as well as queer theories that unequivocally stated, quite vociferously throughout the 1990s, that the nation is heteronormative and that the queer is inherently an outlaw to the nation-state. While the discourse of American exceptionalism has always served a vital role in U.S. nation-state formation, TA examines how sexuality has become a crucial formation in the articulation of proper U.S. citizens across other registers like gender, class, and race, both nationally and transnationally. In this sense, homonationalism is an analytic category deployed to understand and historicize how and why a nation's status as "gay-friendly" has become desirable in the first place. Like modernity, homonationalism can be resisted and re-signified, but not opted out of: we are all conditioned by it and through it." (Puar 2013, 336)


Topics: Citizenship, Class, Feminisms, Gender, LGBTQ, Nationalism, Race Regions: Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2013

Women's Struggles Against Extractivism in Latin America and the Caribbean


Muñoz, Enara Echart and Maria del Carmen Villarreal. 2019. “Women's Struggles Against Extractivism in Latin America and the Caribbean.” Contexto Internacional, 41 (2): 303–25.

Authors: Enara Echart Muñoz, Maria del Carmen Villarreal


Since Cynthia Enloe asked, ‘Where are the women?’ in 1989, studies about the place of women in International Relations have increased. However, most of the analyses since then have focused on the participation of women in international organisations, events and institutional spaces, making invisible other practices and places occupied by black or indigenous women from the South. This article aims to highlight the role of women at the international level, analysing their performance in disputes over the meanings of development in Latin America and the Caribbean, based on struggles against extractivism. In addition to denouncing the impacts of this development model, these struggles seek to construct alternatives that, although they could be essentially local, have been multiplied and articulated throughout the Latin American and the Caribbean territory, as part of a broader resistance to the dominant extractivism in the region. These struggles will be mapped using a database of 259 conflicts around mining activities, developed by the Research Group on International Relations and Global South (GRISUL).
Desde que Cynthia Enloe perguntou, “Onde estão as mulheres?”, em 1989, os estudos sobre o lugar das mulheres nas Relações Internacionais aumentaram. Contudo, a maioria das análises desde então tem focado na participação das mulheres nas organizações internacionais, eventos e espaços institucionais, tornando invisíveis outras práticas e lugares ocupados por mulheres negras ou indígenas do Sul. Este artigo tem como objetivo destacar o papel das mulheres no nível internacional, analisando seu desempenho nas disputas sobre os significados do desenvolvimento na América Latina e Caribe, a partir de lutas contra o extrativismo. Além de denunciar os impactos desse modelo de desenvolvimento, essas lutas visam construir alternativas que, embora possam ser essencialmente locais, têm se multiplicado e articulado em todo o território Latino Americano e Caribenho, como parte de uma resistência mais ampla ao extrativismo na região. Essas lutas serão mapeadas usando um banco de dados de 259 conflitos acerca de atividades de mineração, desenvolvido pelo Grupo de Pesquisa em Relações Internacionais e Sul Global (GRISUL).

Keywords: women's struggles, social movements, development, extractivism, Latin America, Caribbean, luta das mulheres, movimentos sociais, desenvolvimento, extrativismo, América Latina e Caribe

Topics: Development, Conflict, Environment, Ethnicity, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Race Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, South America

Year: 2019

Don’t Mention the War! International Financial Institutions and the Gendered Circuits of Violence in Post-Conflict


True, Jacqui, and Aida A. Hozić. 2020. “Don’t Mention the War! International Financial Institutions and the Gendered Circuits of Violence in Post-Conflict.” Review of International Political Economy, April, 1–21. doi: 10.1080/09692290.2020.1732443.

Authors: Jacqui True, Aida A. Hozić


This paper provides a framework for explicitly linking feminist analysis of global political economy and feminist analysis of war/peace through the concept of ‘gendered circuits of violence.’ The framework connects the gendered economics of peace and war through analyses of standard policy mechanisms promoted by International Financial Institutions and International Organizations—from general debt servicing and lending in post-war recovery to microfinance programmes, extractive resource economics, taxation, budgeting and austerity in the state sector. With gendered circuits of violence as the core concept, feminist political economy analysis transgresses security-IPE-development divides. Gendered circuits of violence are manifest through bodies that are carriers of violence from war zones to areas of alleged peace; through IFIs as distributors of harm and comfort to transnational households; and in the interstitial post-conflict spaces created by remittances, care and debt. Feminist analysis reveals the imbrication of capitalist systems with the intersectional politics of gender and race, and the (re)production and diffusion of violent conflict.

Keywords: critical feminist IPE, post-conflict, international financial institutions, gendered violence, war, households

Topics: Armed Conflict, Economies, Feminist Economics, Feminisms, Feminist Political Economy, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Households, International Financial Institutions, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Race, Violence

Year: 2020

Three Waves of Gender Integration: The Causes, Consequences, and Implications for the South African Armed Forces


Heinecken, Lindy. 2019. "Three Waves of Gender Integration: The Causes, Consequences, and Implications for the South African Armed Forces." In Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military: An International Comparison, edited by Robert Egnell and Mayesha Alam, 207-24. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Author: Lindy Heinecken


“South Africa has a long history of women’s involvement in war. Although many of the South African debates resonate with those of other countries in terms of gender integration, few countries have adopted such an assertive process of gender reform. Not only do women now serve in combat roles, but they represent more than a quarter of the fulltime forces. Added to this is the intersectionality of race, culture, and politics that plays out alongside and influences attitudes toward gender integration. The aim of this chapter is to discuss the systemic conditions that have facilitated women’s exclusion and inclusion during the three waves of gender integration and the tensions this has created over the past fifty years. To place the discussion in context, a brief outline of the unique security, political, and social contexts is provided for each wave of gender reforms. Hereafter how gender-equality and gender-mainstreaming initiatives have been implemented is described and reflected on. The last section evaluates what tensions gender integration has evoked and whether women’s increased numbers have shifted gender binaries” (Heinecken 2019, 207-9).

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Intersectionality, Race, Security Sector Reform Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 2019


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