Race

Reshaping the Ear: Honorable Listening and Study of Ecowomanist and Ecofeminist Scholarship for Feminist Discourse

Citation:

Harris, Melanie L. 2017. “Reshaping the Ear: Honorable Listening and Study of Ecowomanist and Ecofeminist Scholarship for Feminist Discourse.” Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion 33 (2): 158–62.

Author: Melanie L. Harris

Abstract:

Harris utlilizes an ecowomanist approach to tackle the issue of climate change and its impact on women. Ecowomanism is an approach that centers the voices, theoretical, religious, and ecospiritual activism of women of African descent and other women of color. It uses race-class-gender intersectional analysis to highlight the impact environmental health disparities have on communities of color in the age of climate change. Rather than ignore the plight of thousands upon thousands of African American and Latino/a families living in food deserts and the historical connections this social injustice has to white supremacy and access to land rights and clean water, ecowomanist approaches raise awareness about environmental racism. It links a social justice agenda with earth justice recognizing the similar logic of domination at work in parallel oppressions suffered by women of color and the earth. 

Keywords: Alice Walker, Delores S. Williams, ecowomanism, sin of defilement, social justice, women of color

Topics: Class, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Health, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Race, Religion, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, Americas

Year: 2017

Ecowomanism and Ecological Reparations

Citation:

Harris, Melanie L. 2017. “Ecowomanism and Ecological Reparations.” In The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Religion and Ecology, edited by John Hart, 195–202. New York; UK: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated.

Author: Melanie L. Harris

Abstract:

This chapter examines the contributions that can be made to ecological justice from the templates of social justice that have emerged from the BlackLivesMatter movement. Specifically, an ecowomanist perspective is employed to explore anti-racist reparations paradigms that can be translated into ecological reparations work. 

Keywords: climate change, ecological reparation, ecowomanism, racial justice, white privilege, womanist religious thought

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Race Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2017

Ecowomanism: Black Women, Religion, and the Environment

Citation:

Harris, Melanie L. 2016. “Ecowomanism: Black Women, Religion, and the Environment.” The Black Scholar 46 (3): 27–39

Author: Melanie L. Harris

Annotation:

Summary:
“This essay is an introduction to ecowomanism, an interdisciplinary discourse in womanist thought that reflects upon black women’s religious orientations and connections with the earth. It serves as an overview and provides a survey of ecowomanist discourse. Ecowomanism centers the religious, theological, and spiritual perspectives of black women and women of color as they confront multilayered oppressions such as racism, classism, sexism, and environmental injustice. In the essay I explicate the theoretical foundations for ecowomanism, namely the womanist writings of Alice Walker, the environmental justice movement, and its relation to eco-feminism. I also describe the important roots of African American religious thought for an ecowomanist approach. In addition, I provide a brief survey of four important sources for ecowomanist research from the theological perspectives of Karen Baker Fletcher, Delores S. Williams, the ecological perspective of Shamara Shantu Riley, and the scholarly insights and personal reflection of African theologian, Mercy Amba Oduyoye" (Harris 2016, 27).

Topics: Class, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Race, Religion Regions: Africa, Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2016

Ecowomanism: An Introduction

Citation:

Harris, Melanie L. 2016. “Ecowomanism: An Introduction.” Worldviews 20 (1): 5–14.

Author: Melanie L. Harris

Abstract:

This essay provides a definition and theoretical frame for ecowomanism. The approach to environmental justice centers the perspectives of women of African descent and reflects upon these women's activist methods, religious practices, and theories on how to engage earth justice. As a part of the womanist tradition, methodologically ecowomanism features race, class, gender intersectional analysis to examine environmental injustice around the planet. Thus, it builds upon an environmental justice paradigm that also links social justice to environmental justice. Ecowomanism highlights the necessity for race-class-gender intersectional analysis when examining the logic of domination, and unjust public policies that result in environmental health disparities that historically disadvantage communities of color. As an aspect of third wave womanist religious thought, ecowomanism is also shaped by religious worldviews reflective of African cosmologies and uphold a moral imperative for earth justice. Noting the significance of African and Native American cosmologies that link divine, human and nature realms into an interconnected web of life, ecowomanism takes into account the religious practices and spiritual beliefs that are important tenets and points of inspiration for ecowomanist activism. 

Keywords: ecowomanism, gender analysis, environment, social justice, African women

Topics: Class, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Health, Race, Religion Regions: Africa, Americas, North America

Year: 2016

Sistah Vegan: Black Female Vegans Speak on Food, Identity, Health and Society

Citation:

Harper, A. Breeze, ed. 2010. Sistah Vegan: Black Female Vegans Speak on Food, Identity, Health and Society. Brooklyn, NY: Lantern Books.

Author: Breeze A. Harper

Annotation:

Summary:

Sistah Vegan is a series of narratives, critical essays, poems, and reflections from a diverse community of North American black-identified vegans. Collectively, these activists are de-colonizing their bodies and minds via whole-foods veganism. By kicking junk-food habits, the more than thirty contributors all show the way toward longer, stronger, and healthier lives. Suffering from type-2 diabetes, hypertension, high blood pressure, and overweight need not be the way women of color are doomed to be victimized and live out their mature lives. There are healthy alternatives. Sistah Vegan is not about preaching veganism or vegan fundamentalism. Rather, the book is about how a group of black-identified female vegans perceive nutrition, food, ecological sustainability, health and healing, animal rights, parenting, social justice, spirituality, hair care, race, gender-identification, womanism, and liberation that all go against the (refined and bleached) grain of our dysfunctional society. Thought-provoking for the identification and dismantling of environmental racism, ecological devastation, and other social injustices, Sistah Vegan is an in-your-face handbook for our time. It calls upon all of us to make radical changes for the betterment of ourselves, our planet, and--by extension--everyone. (Summary from WorldCat)

Table of Contents:

Preface
Dr. Psyche Williams-Forson

Introduction: The Birth of the Sistah Vegan Project
A. Breeze Harper

1. Thinking and Eating at the Same Time: Reflections of a Sistah Vegan
Michelle R. Loyd-Paige

2. Veganism and Ecowomanism
Layli Phillips

3. Social Justice Beliefs and Addiction to Uncompassionate Consumption: Food for Thought
A. Breeze Harper

4. On Being Black and Vegan
Delicia Dunham

5. Nutrition Liberation: Plant-based Diets as a Tool for Healing, Resistance, and Self-Reliance
Melissa Danielle

6. Young, Black, and Vegan
Joi Marie Probus

7. Veganism: Stepping Away from the Status Quo
Venus Taylor

8. Being a Sistah at PETA
Ain Drew

9. Hospital-Sponsored Junk Food at a "Healthy" Bike-Riding Event?
Robin Lee

10. Black-a-tarian
Ma'at Sincere Earth

11. Identity, Freedom, and Veganism
Melissa Santosa

12. Terror Tara
Sophia Bahna-James

13. Eyes of the Dead
Mary Spears

14. I Am Sistah Vegan
Tasha Edwards

15. Gourmet Chef at McD's
Olu Butterfly Woods

16. To Eat or Not to Eat
Thea Moore

17. Stop Feeding Me Your Bullsh*t
Tishana Joy Trainor

18. "What You Cooking, Grandma?"
Nia Yaa

19. The Food and Sex Link
Angelique Shofar

20. Journey to Veganism
Ajowa Nzinga Ifateyo

21. The Fulfillment of the Movement
Adama Maweja

22. Ma'at Diet
Iya Raet

23. Because They Matter
Tashee Meadows

24. Journey Toward Compassionate Choice: Integrating Vegan and Sistah Experience
Tara Sophia Bahna-James

25. Veganism and Misconceptions of Thinness as "Normal" and "Healthy": Sistah Vegans Break It Down in Cyberspace
A. Breeze Harper

Afterword: Liberation as Connection and the Decolonization of Desire
Pattrice Jones

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Health, Race Regions: Americas, North America

Year: 2010

New Directions for Ecofeminism: Toward a More Feminist Ecocriticism

Citation:

Gaard, Greta. 2010. “New Directions for Ecofeminism: Toward a More Feminist Ecocriticism.” ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment 17 (4): 643-65.

Author: Greta Gaard

Annotation:

Summary:
"In both Simon Estok’s provocative essay, “Theorizing in a Space of Ambivalent Openness: Ecocriticism and Ecophobia” (2009), as well as Joni Adamson and Scott Slovic’s “The Shoulders We Stand On: An Introduction to Ethnicity and Ecocriticism” (2009), we are offered two readings of ecocritical history, suggesting real or desired relations among various ecocritical perspectives. In these discussions, feminism is variously referenced—sometimes it is implied or addressed, other times it is backgrounded, omitted, or even distorted. Similarly, in the two book-length introductions to ecocriticism to date, Lawrence Buell’s The Future of Environmental Criticism (2005) and Greg Garrard’s Ecocriticism (2004), the retelling of ecocritical roots and developments marginalizes both feminist and ecofeminist literary perspectives. Such presentations (and misrepresentations) of feminist scholarship by collegial ecocritics warn of a larger potential for misreading or omission by broader audiences, hence the importance of both correcting the historical record and actively contributing to the future of ecocriticism. In this essay, I would like to suggest at least seven new directions, or continued developments, for ecofeminist and feminist ecocritics" (Gaard 2010, 643).

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Women, Race Regions: Americas Countries: United States of America

Year: 2010

Ecofeminism

Citation:

Gaard, Greta, ed. 1993. Ecofeminism. Philadelphia: Temple University Press

Author: Greta Gaard

Annotation:

Summary:
Drawing on the insights of ecology, feminism, and socialism, ecofeminism's basic premise is that the ideology that authorizes oppression based on race, class, gender, sexuality, physical abilities, and species is the same ideology that sanctions the oppression of nature. In this collection of essays, feminist scholars and activists discuss the relationships among human begins, the natural environment, and nonhuman animals. They reject the nature/culture dualism of patriarchal thought and locate animals and humans within nature. The goal of these twelve articles is to contribute to the evolving dialogue among feminists, ecofeminists, animal liberationists, deep ecologists, and social ecologists in an effort to create a sustainable lifestyle for all inhabitants of the earth. Among the issues addressed are the conflicts between Green politics and ecofeminism, various applications of ecofeminist theory, the relationship of animal liberation to ecofeminism, harmful implications of the romanticized woman-nature association in Western culture, and cultural limitations of ecofeminism. (Summary from Temple University Press)

Table of Contents:

  1. Living Interconnections with Animals and Nature
    Greta Gaard
  2. Ecofeminism: Linking Theory and Practice
    Janis Birkeland
  3. Dismantling Oppression: An Analysis of the Connection Between Women and Animals
    Lori Gruen
  4. Roots: Rejoining Natural and Social History
    Stephanie Lahar
  5. Ecofeminism and the Politics of Reality
    Linda Vance
  6. Questioning Sour Grapes: Ecofeminism and the United Farm Workers Grape Boycott
    Ellen O'Loughlin
  7. Animal Rights and Feminist Theory
    Josephine Donovan
  8. The Feminist Traffic in Animals
    Carol J. Adams
  9. For the Lover of Nature: Ecology and the Culture of the Romantic
    Chaia Heller
  10. From Heroic to Holistic Ethics: The Ecofeminist Challenge
    Marti Kheel
  11. A Cross-Cultural Critique of Ecofeminism
    Huey-li Li
  12. Ecofeminism and Native American Cultures – Pushing the Limits of Cultural Imperialism?
    Greta Gaard

Topics: Class, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Indigenous, Race, Rights Regions: Americas Countries: United States of America

Year: 1993

Marxist-Feminist Theories and Struggles Today: Essential Writings on Intersectionality, Labour and Ecofeminism

Citation:

Fakier, Khayaat, Diana Mulinari, and Nora Räthzel, eds. 2020. Marxist-Feminist Theories and Struggles Today: Essential Writings on Intersectionality, Labour and Ecofeminism. London: Zed Books.

Authors: Khayaat Fakier , Diana Mulinari, Nora Räthzel

Annotation:

Summary:

This vital new collection presents new Marxist-Feminist analyses of Capitalism as a gendered, racialized social formation that shapes and is shaped by specific nature-labour relationships. Leaving behind former overtly structuralist thinking, Marxist-Feminist Theories and Struggles Today interweaves strands of ecofeminism and intersectional analyses to develop an understanding of the relations of production and the production of nature through the interdependencies of gender, class, race and colonial relations. With contributions and analyses from scholars and theorists in both the global North and South, this volume offers a truly international lens that reveals the the vitality of contemporary global Marxist-Feminist thinking, as well as its continued relevance to feminist struggles across the globe (Summary from Zed Books).

Table of Contents:

Introduction
Khayaat Fakier, Diana Mulinari, Nora Räthzel

Part I – Conceptualising

1. Standpoint Theory
Cynthia Cockburn

2. Outside in the Funding Machine
Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak

3. Contradictions in Marxist Feminism
Frigga Haug

4. Ecofeminism as (Marxist) Sociology
Ariel Salleh

5. The ‘Flat Ontology’ of Neoliberal Feminism
Jennifer Cotter

6. The Byzantine Eunuch: Pre-capitalist Gender Category, ‘Tributary’ Modal Contradiction, and a Test for Materialist Feminism
Jules Gleeson

7. Reading Marx against the Grain: Rethinking the Exploitation of Care Work Beyond Profit-Seeking
Tine Haubner

Part II – Production

8. Marx and Social Reproduction Theory: Three Different Historical Strands
Ankica Čakardić

9. The Best Thing I Have Done Is to Give Birth; The Second Is to Strike
Paula Mulinari

10. Women in Small Scale Fishing in South Africa: An Ecofeminist Engagement with the ‘Blue Economy’
Natasha Solari and Khayaat Fakier

11. The ‘Crisis of Care’ and the Neoliberal Restructuring of the Public Sector – a Feminist Polanyian Analysis
Rebecca Selberg

12. Gender Regimes and Women’s Labour: Volvo Factories in Sweden, Mexico, and South Africa
Nora Räthzel, Diana Mulinari, Aina Tollefsen

Part III – Religions and Politics

13. Religious Resistance: A Flower on the Chain or a Tunnel towards Liberation?
Gabriele Dietrich

14. A Marxist-Feminist Perspective: From Former Yugoslavia to Turbo Fascism to Neoliberal Postmodern Fascist Europe
Marina Gržinić

15. Feminism, Antisemitism and the Question of Palestine/Israel
Nira Yuval Davis

Part IV – Solidarities

16. Women in Brazilian's Trade Union Movement
Patricia Vieira Trópia

17. Argentinean Feminist Movements: Debates from Praxis
Ana Isabel González Montes

18. Marxist Feminism for a Global Women’s Movement against Capitalism
Ligaya Lindio McGovern

19. Marxist/Socialist Feminist Theory and Practice in the USA Today
Nancy Holmstrom 

20. Solidarity in Troubled Times: Social Movements in the Face of Climate Change
Kathryn Russell

Topics: Class, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Care Economies, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Intersectionality, Race, Religion Regions: Africa, MENA, Southern Africa, Americas, North America, South America, Europe, Balkans, Nordic states Countries: Argentina, Brazil, Israel, Mexico, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, South Africa, Sweden, United States of America

Year: 2020

Reclaim the Earth: Women Speak Out for Life on Earth

Citation:

Caldecott, Léonie, and Stephanie Leland, eds. 1983. Reclaim the Earth: Women Speak Out for Life on Earth. London: Women’s Press.

Authors: Léonie Caldecott, Stephanie Leland

Annotation:

Summary:

Essays discuss nuclear proliferation, chemical pollution, land rights, childbirth, infanticide, ecology, and feminist activities around the world (Summary from Google Books).

Table of Contents:

1. The Eco-Feminist Imperative
Ynestra King

2. Unity Statement
Women’s​ Pentagon Action

3. Unholy Secrets: The Impact of the Nuclear Age on Public Health
Rosalie Bertell

4. The Long Death (poem)
Marge Piercy

5. Sveso Is Everywhere
Women’s Working Group, Geneva; translated and extracted from the French by Frances Howard-Gordon

6. The Politics of Women’s Health
Nancy Worcester

7. Feminism: Healing the Patriarchal Dis-Ease
Jill Raymond and Janice Wilson

8. Ask A Stupid Question (poem)
Susan Saxe

9. Feminism and Ecology: Theoretical Connections
Stephanie Leland

10. Roots: Black Ghetto Ecology
Wilmette Brown

11. Seeds That Bear Fruit: A Japanese Woman Speaks
Manami Suzuki

12. Another Country (poem)
Marge Piercy

13. Thought for Food
Liz Butterworth

14. The Power to Feed Ourselves : Women and Land Rights
Barbara Rogers

15.  The Land Is Our Life: A Pacific Experience
Léonie Caldecott

16. A Micronesian Woman (poem)
Rosalie Bertell

17.  Greening the Desert: Women of Kenya Reclaim Land
Maggie Jones and Wanagari Maathai

18.  Greening the Cities: Creating a Hospitable Environment for Women and Children
Penelope Leach

19.  Against Nuclearisation and Beyond
Statement of Sicilian women

20. For the Hiroshima Maidens (poem)
Léonie Caldecott

21. Gaea: The Earth as Our Spiritual Heritage
Jean Freer

22. He Wanine, He Whenau: Maori Women and the Environment
Ngahuia Te Awekotuku

23. All of One Flesh: The Rights of Animals
Norma Benney

24. The Mothers Do Not Disappear
Marta Zabaleta; translated by Jackie Rodick

25. Invisible Casualities: Women Servicing Militarism
Lesley Merryfinch

26. Alternative Technology: A Feminist Technology?
Chris Thomas

27. Safety and Survival
Margaret Wright

28. Birth: The Agony or the Ecstasy?
Caroline Wyndham

29. A New Form of Female Infanticide
Manushi Collective

30. Saving Trees, Saving Lives: Third World Women and the Issue of Survival
Anita Anand

31. Time for Women: New Patterns of Work
Sheila Rothwell

32. Personal, Political and Planetary Play

33. The Warp and the Weft: The Coming Synthesis of Eco-Philosophy and Eco-Feminism
Hazel Henderson

34. Prayer for Continuation (poem)
Susan Griffin

Topics: Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Health, Infrastructure, Urban Planning, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Political Participation, Race, Rights, Land Rights, Security, Food Security, Weapons /Arms, Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Regions: Africa, East Africa, Asia, East Asia, Oceania Countries: Japan, Kenya, Micronesia, New Zealand

Year: 1983

The Black Feminist Spatial Imagination and an Intersectional Environmental Justice

Citation:

Ducre, Kishi Animashaun. 2018. “The Black Feminist Spatial Imagination and an Intersectional Environmental Justice.” Environmental Sociology 4 (1): 22–35.

Author: Kishi Animashaun Ducre

Abstract:

Starting with seminal work from Katherine McKittrick and Katherine McKittrick and the late Clyde Woods, this paper compares and contrasts articulations of justice as espoused by Black feminism, ecofeminism, and the movement for environmental justice. The utilization of an intersectional genealogical approach allows for examination of the ways in which these movements might serve as the ideological bases for a Black feminist spatial imagination and an intersectional environmental justice. A Black feminist spatial imagination is an orientation that accounts for the merger of frames around race, gender, and ecology; it serves as a unique departure from conventional Black feminist analysis by its particular attention to the construct of space in Black feminist epistemology. Analysis reveals that manifestos engage similar strategies around boundedness, an identification among a collective identity and the subject of reproductive justice and liberation as wresting control and self-determination of physical bodies. The final task is an outline of essential tenets for a singular notion of justice of a Black feminist spatial imagination which incorporates the spirit of all of three manifestos and expands current environmental justice discourse to include those ‘who know no one knows’ while highlighting Black women’s agency in environmentally degraded environments.

Keywords: ecofeminism, environmental justice, intersectionality, geographies, Black feminism

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Gender Analysis, Justice, Race

Year: 2018

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