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Property Rights

Women's Land and Property Rights in Situations of Armed Conflict: Towards A Human Rights Approach

Citation:

Farha, Leilani. 1999. “Women’s Land and Property Rights in Situations of Armed Conflict: Towards a Human Rights Approach.” Women’s Human Rights in Conflict Situations Newsletter 3 (1).

Author: Leilani Farha

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Rights, Human Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 1999

Luanda's Post-War Land Markets: Reducing Poverty by Promoting Inclusion

Citation:

Cain, Allan. 2013. Luanda's Post-War Land Markets: Reducing Poverty by Promoting Inclusion. Urban Forum 24 (1) (03): 11-31.

Author: Cain Allan

Abstract:

Almost 40 years of war in Angola forced millions of people fleeing rural areas to seek a safe haven in the capital and to settle in informal slum settlements ( musseques) on the periphery of Luanda. The new urban migrants created homes and settlements on landthat they purchased in good faith but for which they could get no legal title. Now, they face eviction threats due to commercial interests and government infrastructure expansion. With a population today approaching of over six million, Luanda is Africa's fastest growing and fifth largest city. A decade of post-war rapid economic growth, fuelled by rising commodity prices, has seen GDP per capita grow eightfold, but poverty reduction has not kept apace. The poor, representing over 50 % of the population, have benefited little from the 'peace dividend'. The Angolan Government has promised to build one million homes country-wide before the 2012 elections and aims to eliminate much of the musseque in the process. However, the government's urban plans remain hindered by a weak administration and little national implementation capacity. Despite the government's assertion as the unique owner and manager of all land, there exists a thriving real-estate market for both formal (titled) and informally occupied land. Most urban residents with weak or non-existent tenure rights benefit little from increasing land values and are susceptible to being forcibly removed and increasingly obliged to occupy environmentally risky flood-prone areas. This paper presents the results of work on property markets in Luanda that permit a better understanding of the nature and economic value of land and identify the problems and potentials the market has to offer. The paper argues for a major reform in public land policy, recognising the legitimacy of common practices inland acquisition and long-term occupation in good faith. Inclusive land management, adapting to both formal and existing informal markets, can contribute to the improvement of urban settlement conditions and economic wellbeing of the poor in post-war Luanda.

Keywords: Angola, land markets, post-conflict, slum, urban, tenure

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Economies, Land Tenure, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Infrastructure, Post-Conflict, Peace Processes, Rights, Property Rights, Religion Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Angola

Year: 2013

Gender, Property and Land Rights: Bridging a Critical Gap in Economic Analysis and Policy

Citation:

Agarwal, Bina. 1995. “Gender, Property and Land Rights: Bridging a Critical Gap in Economic Analysis and Policy.” In Out of the Margin: Feminist Perspectives on Economics, edited by Edith Kuiper and Jolande Sap, 192–214. London: Routledge.

Author: Bina Agarwal

Abstract:

In “Gender, Property, and Land Rights” Bina Agarwal discusses the connection between gender inequalities and command over landed property. Her analysis highlights an important lacuna in feminist analyses and economic (development) policies which mainly focus on wage labor. Agarwal argues that land ownership and control is central to the development of rural women’s economic autonomy. Recognizing the need to support politically women’s claims to land she urges feminists to discuss strategies and institutional arrangements which promote women’s access to land (Abstract from Out of the Margin: Feminist Perspectives on Economics, 7).

Topics: Gender, Land grabbing, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights

Year: 1995

Situating Sexual Violence in Rwanda (1990-2001): Sexual Agency, Sexual Consent, and the Political Economy of War

Citation:

Bumet, Jennie E. 2012. “Situating Sexual Violence in Rwanda (1990–2001): Sexual Agency, Sexual Consent, and the Political Economy of War.” African Studies Review 55 (2): 97–118. doi:10.1353/arw.2012.0034.

 

Author: Jennie E. Bumet

Abstract:

This article situates the sexual violence associated with the Rwandan civil war and 1994 genocide within a local cultural history and political economy in which institutionalized gender violence shaped the choices of Rwandan women and girls. Based on ethnographic research, it argues that Western notions of sexual consent are not applicable to a culture in which colonialism, government policy, war, and scarcity of resources have limited women's access to land ownership, economic security, and other means of survival. It examines emic cultural models of sexual consent and female sexual agency and proposes that sexual slavery, forced marriage, prostitution, transactional sex, nonmarital sex, informal marriage or cohabitation, and customary (bridewealth) marriages exist on a continuum on which female sexual agency becomes more and more constrained by material circumstance. Even when women's choices are limited, women still exercise their agency to survive. Conflating all forms of sex in conflict zones under the rubric of harm undermines women's and children's rights because it reinforces gendered hierarchies and diverts attention from the structural conditions of poverty in postconflict societies.

Topics: Gender, Women, Girls, Gender Analysis, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Livelihoods, Political Economies, Post-Conflict, Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights, Sexual Violence, SV against women Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2012

Who Owns the Land? Perspectives from Rural Ugandans and Implications for Large-Scale Land Acquisitions

Citation:

Doss, Cheryl, Ruth Meinzen-Dick, and Allan Bomuhangi. 2014. “Who Owns the Land? Perspectives from Rural Ugandans and Implications for Large-Scale Land Acquisitions.” Feminist Economics 20 (1): 76–100.

Authors: Cheryl Doss, Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Allan Bomuhangi

Abstract:

Rapidly growing demand for agricultural land is putting pressure on property-rights systems, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, where customary tenure systems have provided secure land access. Rapid and large-scale demands from outsiders are challenging patterns of gradual, endogenous change toward formalization. Little attention has focused on the gender dimensions of this transformation. However this contribution, based on a 2008–09 study of land tenure in Uganda, analyzes how different definitions of land ownership – including household reports, existence of ownership documents, and rights over the land – provide very different indications of the gendered patterns of land ownership and rights. While many households report husbands and wives as joint owners of the land, women are less likely to be listed on ownership documents, and have fewer rights. A simplistic focus on “title” to land misses much of the reality regarding land tenure and could have an adverse impact on women's land rights.

Keywords: gender, land aquisition, land ownership, tenure security, land tenure, Uganda

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Land Tenure, Households, Land grabbing, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2013

Land Governance and Women’s Rights in Large-Scale Land Acquisitions in Cameroon

Citation:

Fonjong, Lotsmart, Irene Sama-Lang, Lawrence Fombe, and Christiana Abonge. 2016. “Land Governance and Women’s Rights in Large-Scale Land Acquisitions in Cameroon.” Development in Practice 26 (4): 420–30. doi:10.1080/09614524.2016.1162285.

Authors: Lotsmart Fonjong, Irene Sama-Lang, Lawrence Fombe, Christiana Abonge

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT
This article identifies and examines the role of actors involved in the process of large-scale land acquisitions in Cameroon. It is based on primary data from interviews conducted among principal actors. Findings reveal that government, chiefs, and to some extent elites, play key roles in formal and informal processes that grant land to investors. However, both processes neglect women and affected communities because there are no mechanisms to hold actors accountable to them, especially to women who depend on land for their livelihood. The article concludes that a legal framework that makes the process transparent and promotes accountability and gender inclusiveness is indispensable.
 
FRENCH ABSTRACT
Cet article identifie et examine le rôle des acteurs intervenant dans le processus des acquisitions de terres à grande échelle au Cameroun. Il se base sur des données primaires tirées d'entretiens menés parmi les acteurs principaux. Les conclusions révèlent que le gouvernement, les chefs et, dans une certaine mesure, les élites, jouent des rôles clés dans les processus formels et informels qui garantissent des terres aux investisseurs. Cependant, les deux processus négligent les femmes et les communautés touchées, parce qu'il n'y a pas de mécanismes conçus pour exiger des comptes aux acteurs, en particulier pour les femmes qui sont tributaires des terres pour gagner leur vie. Cet article conclut qu'un cadre juridique rendant le processus transparent et promouvant la redevabilité et l'inclusivité de genre est indispensable.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT
El presente artículo identifica y examina el papel desempeñado por los actores implicados en el proceso de adquisición de latifundios en Camerún, basándose en datos primarios surgidos de entrevistas efectuadas con los actores principales. En este sentido, los hallazgos revelan que el gobierno, los caciques y, en cierta medida, las élites, juegan un rol importante en los procesos formales e informales a partir de los cuales se dota de tierras a los inversores. Tales procesos carecen de mecanismos que obliguen a los actores a rendir cuentas, especialmente a aquellas mujeres para quienes sus tierras son su medio de vida. Por esta razón, tanto éstas como las comunidades afectadas son ignoradas y pasadas por alto. El artículo concluye señalando que resulta indispensable crear un marco legal que dé transparencia al proceso, promoviendo la rendición de cuentas e integrando el enfoque de género.

Keywords: aid, accountability, gender, diversity, governace, public policy, Rights, Sub-Saharan Africa

Topics: Gender, Women, Land grabbing, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Cameroon

Year: 2016

Property Ownership & Inheritance Rights of Women for Social Protection - The South Asia Experience

Citation:

“Property Ownership & Inheritance Rights of Women for Social Protection - The South Asia Experience.” 2006. Synthesis. International Center for Research on Women. http://www.icrw.org/files/publications/Property-Ownership-and-Inheritance-Rights-of-Women-for-Social-Protection-The-South-Asia-Experience.pdf.

 

Author: International Center for Research on Women

Topics: Domestic Violence, Economies, Gender, Women, Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights, Security Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Sri Lanka

Year: 2006

Clamor for Justice: Sexual Violence, Armed Conflict and Violent Land Dispossession

Citation:

Méndez Gutiérrez, Luz and Amanda Carrera Guerra. 2015. Clamor for Justice: Sexual Violence, Armed Conflict, and Violent Land Dispossession. Equipo de Estudios Comunitarios y Acción Psicosocial - ECAP.

 

Authors: Luz Méndez Gutiérrez, Amanda Carrera Guerra

Annotation:

Table of Contents:
I. The Social Context
The current context
Historical contexts of the two episodes of sexual violence analyzed in this book
 
II. Indigenous women: oppression and emancipation
Land dispossession-rape: a recurring dyad throughout history
Resistance and rebellion
 
III. The women protagonists of this study in their space and time
 
IV. The Women of Sepur Zarco
Human Rights Violations
The consequences
The Sepur Zarco women’s struggles for justice
 
V. The Women of Lote Ocho
Human rights violations
The Lote Ocho women’s struggle for justice 
 
VI. Q’eqchí women’s perceptions of community justice
Comparing community justice with state justice
Community justice: affected by unequal gender relations
 
VII. Conclusions

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Civil Society, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Globalization, Health, Rights, Indigenous Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights, Security, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, SV against women Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Guatemala

Year: 2015

Breaking Ground: Present and Future Perspective for Women in Agriculture

Citation:

Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2005. Breaking Ground: Present and Future Perspective for Women in Agriculture. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).

Author: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

Topics: Agriculture, Civil Society, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights, Security, Violence Regions: Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Europe

Year: 2005

Land Rights and the Rush for Land

Citation:

Anseeuw, Ward, Liz Alden Wily, Lorenzo Cotula, and M. Taylor. 2012. Land Rights and the Rush for Land. Rome, Italy: International Land Coalition (ILC).

Authors: Ward Anseeuw, Liz Alden Wily, Lorenzo Cotula, Taylor Michael

Abstract:

The land and resource rights and livelihoods of rural communities are being put in jeopardy by the prevailing model of large-scale land acquisition.

Topics: Civil Society, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Constitutions, Land grabbing, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America

Year: 2012

Pages

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