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Property Rights

Women’s Land Activism and Gendered Citizenship in the Urbanising Pearl River Delta

Citation:

Po, Lanchih. 2020. “Women’s Land Activism and Gendered Citizenship in the Urbanising Pearl River Delta.” Urban Studies 57 (3): 602–17.

Author: Lanchih Po

Abstract:

 

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
In light of the unequal access to urban citizenship resulting from the household registration system (hukou), an increasing number of scholarly works have pointed out how a system of citizenship stratification has emerged in urbanising China. However, this stratification has seldom been analysed in terms of gender. Rural women, situated at the bottom of the hierarchy of differentiated citizenship, often suffer gender-based discrimination and tumble still further down the hierarchy. Specifically, women are vulnerable to economic and social dispossession in the process of the displacement of rural populations and renegotiation of land rights. Owing to the custom of patrilocal residence, women who have ‘married out’ (waijianü) have been excluded from rights, participation and entitlement to collective land property. By creating a class of rural female non-citizens, rural communities have deprived waijianü of opportunities to share land-related revenue realised in the process of urbanisation, further perpetuating male dominance just as local economies and society are in flux. Through a case study of these conflicts in Guangdong, this paper explores how women have challenged gendered citizenship in the process of urbanisation.
 
CHINESE ABSTRACT:
摘要
 
鉴于户籍制度(户口)导致的获得城市居民身份方面的机会不平等,越来越多的学术著作指出了居民身份分层制度是如何在中国城市化过程中出现的。然而,学者们很少从性别角度分析这种分层。农村妇女位于不同居民等级的最底层,往往遭受基于性别的歧视,并跌入等级的更低的位置。具体而言,在农村人口驱逐和土地权利重新谈判的过程中,妇女容易遭受经济和社会剥夺。由于从夫居的习俗,已经“出嫁”的妇女(外嫁女))被排除在集体土地财产随附的权利、参与权和福利之外。通过创造一个农村女性非居民阶层,农村社区剥夺了外嫁女分享城市化进程中实现的土地相关收入的机会,在当地经济和社会不断变化之际进一步延续了男性的支配地位。本文通过对在广东省发生的这类冲突的案例研究,探讨了女性在城市化进程中是如何挑战性别居民身份的。

 

Keywords: agglomeration/urbanisation, citizenship, gender, inequality, poverty/exclusion

Topics: Citizenship, Displacement & Migration, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Patriarchy, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: China

Year: 2020

Predicament of Landlessness: A Critical Study of Women’s Rights over Land in Assam

Citation:

Hazarika, Kanki, and V. Sita.  2020. “Predicament of Landlessness: A Critical Study of Women’s Rights over Land in Assam.” South Asian Survey 27 (1): 19–36.

Authors: Kanki Hazarika, V. Sita

Abstract:

Land rights to women is one of the significant markers of a gender-just society. It is a basic human right that provides welfare, economic and social security, strong bargaining power and various other benefits. Ownership right over land is also critical to the citizens in terms of exercising and availing rights guaranteed by the state. Based on a narrative from the fieldwork done among the Bodos in Assam, this paper explores the significance of land rights in accessing various rights and welfare programmes and how women are affected in this regard due to lack of land rights. It discusses how a woman’s lack of rights over land can lead to a status of homelessness and place her in a socially and economically precarious position. The landlessness or homelessness status restricts her from accessing various benefits provided by the state. In this context, the paper also looks into the social construction of gendered norms on land rights of the Bodo community. Construction of societal norms on individual’s rights over landed property, inheritance are generally determined by kinship and affinal ideologies of a community. Such norms are often gendered that deny rights to women over this material resource. The most affected are the single, widow and separated women who have no support from the families. Communities having patriarchal ideologies consider women as passive, dependent and secondary subject and accordingly, gendered norms are constructed. Even the state apparatuses, which is often male-dominated, locate woman within the realm of the family and design policies for women as ‘beneficiaries’ and ‘dependents.’ The gendered norms on land rights of a community have a broader impact that goes beyond the community level and enmeshed with the affairs of the state.

Keywords: Bodo, community, citizen, land rights, norms, state, women

Topics: Citizenship, Gender, Gender Roles, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Rights, Human Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2020

Género, grupos domésticos y derechos de propiedad sobre la tierra

Citation:

Meza, Laura Elena Ruiz. 2006. "Género, grupos domésticos y derechos de propiedad sobre la tierra." El Cotodiano 21 (139): 7-19.

Author: Laura Elena Ruiz Meza

Abstract:

SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Las construcciones culturales de masculinidad y feminidad que orientan las pautas culturales en la familia y en la comunidad han jugado un papel significativo en restringir el derecho de las mujeres a la propiedad de la tierra, así como su participación en espacios públicos. Igualmente, la residencia patrilocal tiene implicacio- nes en la condición y posición de las mujeres al colocarlas en una situación de vulnerabilidad. El reducido poder de negociación que suelen tener en esta etapa de su vida, su posición subordinada en el sistema de parentesco y su limitado acceso a los bienes y recursos se expresan en inequidades de género que afectan notablemente su calidad de vida. 

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Households, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 2006

Propietarias a la Espera: Migración Internacional, Herencia y Género en dos Comunidades Indígenas Oaxaqueñas

Citation:

Martínez Iglesias, María. 2016. “Propietarias a la Espera: Migración Internacional, Herencia y Género en dos Comunidades Indígenas Oaxaqueñas.” Tesis doctoral, Universitat Rovira I Virgili.

Author: María Martínez Iglesias

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This thesis analysis why the permanent migration of the sons - the preferred inheritors of family land under the Mesoamerican family model - has shifted inheritance patterns to include daughters in some areas of Oaxaca (México), while in others men still maintain their privileges over family land even when they are not present. Based in two case studies conducted in Oaxaca indigenous communities, we argue that daughters, excluded from previous arrangements, have become heirs because they can replace or complement their brothers in the four elements that made men legitimate heirs: residence, provision, care and the capacity of representing elderly parents in community institutions. Along with these new daughters ́ contributions to parents, new social definition of what means to be an adult women has change the assumption that daughters, after marriage, must be dependent only in their husband economic provision. Women, as daughters, still excluded from family property transfers because parents and migrated sons can rebuild cooperation despite the distance; or daughters cooperate only as care-givers but not providing or representing their parents. As long as our research areas are ruled by usos y costumbres and the land tenure is communal, some other debates around the tensions between private-communal land and law –custom needed to be answered.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Esta tesis se pregunta por qué en unas zonas de Oaxaca (México) la migración permanente de los hijos varones- los herederos preferentes de la tierra en el modelo mesoamericano- modifica los patrones de transmisión patrimonial para incluir a las hijas; mientras que en otras áreas los varones, a pesar de la ausencia, mantienen los privilegios hereditarios sobre el patrimonio familiar. A partir de dos estudios de caso en comunidades indígenas oaxaqueñas se muestra que las hijas se convierten en herederas porque pueden suplir o complementar a sus hermanos en los cuatro elementos que convertían a los hijos en herederos legítimos: la residencia, la provisión, la atención y la representación ante la comunidad de los padres ancianos. Esto implica una nueva definición social de adultez femenina basada en una mayor cooperación con los padres y autonomía frente al vínculo matrimonial. Por otro lado, las mujeres en el rol de hijas siguen ocupando un lugar residual en la transmisión patrimonial, a pesar de la ausencia de sus hermanos varones, porque aún en la distancia las familias transnacionales pueden recomponer el sistema tradicional de transmisión patrimonial, basado en la cooperación preferente con los hijos; también, porque las hijas se incorporan a elementos menos valorados de la cooperación inter-generacional, como el cuidado. Tratar de contestar la pregunta de investigación en contextos donde la tenencia de la tierra es comunitaria y está regida por sistemas normativos internos -usos y costumbres-conlleva adentrarse en debates vinculados a opciones distintas de intervención pública (tensiones entre propiedad privada y propiedad social así como entre la ley y la costumbre), que han sido tomados en cuenta y a los que se ha intentado dar una respuesta parcial. 

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Gender, Women, Indigenous, Land Tenure, Rights, Property Rights Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2016

Colonización campesina, división sexual del trabajo y acceso de las mujeres a la tierra: Aproximaciones al caso de las mujeres rurales de Tillavá

Citation:

Garcés Amaya, Diana Paola, 2017. “Colonización campesina, división sexual del trabajo y acceso de las mujeres a la tierra: Aproximaciones al caso de las mujeres rurales de Tillavá.” Mediaciones 19: 10-31.

Author: Diana Paola Garcés Amaya

Abstract:

SPANISH ABSTRACT: 

Este artículo reflexiona sobre la historia del acceso de las mujeres a la tierra y la divisón sexual del trabajo del mundo rural en el marco del proceso de colonización campesina llevado a cabo en la inspección del Tillavá, departamento del Meta. A partir de la epistemología feminista y mediante el estudio de relatos de vida se pudo comprender que las condiciones materiales precarias en contextos de colonización se entrelazan con una división sexual del trabajo inequitativa particular del mundo rural, lo que termina generando obstáculos para el reconocimiento de los derechos a la propiedad y complejizando sus condicions laborales. 

 

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: 

This article is a reflection on the history of women’s access to land and the sexual division of labor in the rural world, in the framework of peasant colonization in the inspección—small township—of Tillavá, in the department of Meta. From feminist epistemology and through the study of life-histories we could understand that precarious economic circumstances in colonization contexts interweave with an inequitable sexual division of labor, typical in the rural world. This, eventually, posits an obstacle to the recognition of women’s rights to property, and makes their working conditions even harder.

Keywords: acceso a la tierra, división sexual del trabajo, historias de vida, unidad familiar de producción

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2017

Género y arrebato de tierras: El caso del nuevo aeropuerto internacional de Ciudad de México

Citation:

García, Verónica Vázquez. 2018. “Género y arrebato de tierras: El caso del nuevo aeropuerto internacional de Ciudad de México.” Región y Sociedad 73.

Author: Verónica Vázquez García

Abstract:

SPANISH ABSTRACT:
En este artículo se explora la dinámica de género del arrebato de tierras en el municipio de Atenco, Estado de México, para la construcción del nuevo aeropuerto internacional de la Ciudad de México. A partir de datos obtenidos mediante la sistematización de expedientes ejidales, la observación participante y las entrevistas a profundidad, se analiza la discriminación de género en la venta de tierras y las estrategias de las mujeres para enfrentarla. El artículo contribuye a estudiar la infraestructura de comunicaciones, un sector poco teorizado; a utilizar información documental, principalmente testimonial, y a visibilizar los efectos de género y el papel de las mujeres en la resistencia. Se muestra que los agentes del arrebato de tierras son el Estado, el capital y las estructuras comunitarias que reproducen la inequidad de género, para concentrar la riqueza y los privilegios políticos en manos predominantemente masculinas.
 
ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This paper explores the gender dynamics of land grabbing in the municipality of Atenco, State of Mexico, for the construction of the New Mexico City International Airport. Drawing on data obtained through three research tools (ejidal file systematization; participant observation; in-depth interviews), the paper examines gender discrimination in land sales and women’s strategies to fight it. The article makes three contributions: analyzing a poorly theorized sector (communication infrastructure); relying on both documental and grass-root testimonies in order to do so; highlighting gender impacts and women’s roles in resistance movements. The paper shows that land grabbing involves not only State and capital, but also community structures that reproduce gender inequality and contribute to the concentration of wealth and political privilege in few, masculine hands.

Keywords: gênero, desigualdad, acaparamiento de tierras, derecho de propiedad, mercados de tierra, desamortización, gender, inequality, land grabbing, property right, land markets, disentailment

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Masculinism, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Land Grabbing, Rights, Property Rights Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2018

Women’s Land Rights in Africa: Does Implementation Match Policy?

Citation:

Sulle, Emmanuel, Sue Mbaya, Barbara Codispoti, Josephine Atananga, Bernard Moseti, and Leah Mugehera. 2019. “Women’s Land Rights in Africa: Does Implementation Match Policy?” Paper presented at Conference on Land Policy in Africa, 2019: Winning the fight against Corruption in the Land Sector: Sustainable Pathway for Africa’s Transformation, Abidjan, November 25-29.

Authors: Emmanuel Sulle, Sue Mbaya, Barbara Codispoti, Josephine Atananga, Bernard Moseti, Leah Mugehera

Abstract:

This paper assesses the performance of selected countries in implementing the provisions of women’s land rights instruments such as African Union Framework and Guidelines on Land Policy in Africa and the Voluntary Guidelines on Responsible Governance of Tenure among others. Field research was carried out in seven African countries whereby, in each country a national researcher in collaboration with the collaborating nongovernmental organisation selected three heterogeneous locations which capture the range of situations under which rural women use land. Based on field research results complemented with desk review, the study finds that while statutory laws to protect women land rights are in place in all studied countries, with some differences and, in some cases with existing loopholes, adherence to these laws at the community level remain inadequate. This is particularly evident in terms of equality of rights to inherit land among men and women. Women experience constant threat from clansmen and relatives of their husbands. As also documented elsewhere, in many African communities (although not all), most land-holding systems are male lineage based, with men playing an important decision-making role. Malawi represents a specific case in this regard, as most land-holdings are based on matrilineal systems, but this still is not an automatic guarantee of women having more decision-making power on land. Based on these findings the paper confirms that while impressive steps to address women’s land rights issues have been taken in recent African policies, law enforceability is yet to receive sufficient political backing, due to widespread patriarchal values, limited financial and human resources and last but not least informal rules of the games that are the same drivers of widespread corruption. Patronage, ‘clientage’, illegality and opacity of land transactions find fertile ground in a patriarchal system. Understanding the status, causes and consequences of the de facto ‘unenforceability’ of constitutional and legal provisions in favour of women might shed a light on much broader challenges like those addressed in this conference. Holistic implementation and reforms that 1) address existing loopholes in land laws and regulation, 2) align other sectoral policies, laws and regulations, and 3) use transformative actions to revert patriarchal values in order to bridge the gender gap in property rights, but also to help creating a fairer environment to contribute combating corruption.

Topics: Corruption, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Land Tenure, Governance, Constitutions, NGOs, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Togo

Year: 2019

Empowering Women Through Land Rights: Connecting Economic Empowerment, Control Over Assets, and Sexual Negotiation Within Kisumu County, Kenya

Citation:

Shaffer, Madison. 2019. “Empowering Women Through Land Rights: Connecting Economic Empowerment, Control Over Assets, and Sexual Negotiation Within Kisumu County, Kenya.” Paper presented at APHA's 2019 Annual Meeting and Expo, Burlington, VT, November 2-6.

Author: Madison Shaffer

Abstract:

This project aims to gain a greater understanding of the current state of women’s land rights in Kisumu County, Kenya. It will discuss how current interventions are impacting women’s empowerment and their ability to negotiate safe sex. Property rights can provide women with a secure place to live, a place of economic activity and reduces dependence on men. Property ownership can also serve to empower women and “give them greater bargaining power at the household, individual, and community level...increasing agency” (Dworkin,2009). Unfortunately, men have almost always been favored in land rights in traditional land allocation and in customary law. In 2010, Kenya’s new constitution, article 60, eliminates gender discrimination in law, customs, and practices related to land. Since this, little research has evaluated the relationship between land rights and female empowerment in a Kenyan context. Through the Kenya Demographic Health survey data I was able to formulate semi-constructed interviews, and a questionnaire to analyze the impact land rights has on women’s empowerment. Empowerment was measured on a 0-1 scale based off a set of indicators drawn from the World Bank (Malhotra et al., 2002). Regardless of the clear legal standards now in place, gender-biased public attitude and limited utilization of legal services still lead to women systematically being denied their rights to land. This project utilizes Fundamental Cause Theory to describe how interventions that involve the community through legal training and education on human rights can help support women’s land claims and lead to empowering women in their own sexual, and nonsexual, health going forward.

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Reproductive Health, Rights, Reproductive Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2019

Property Rights, Intersectionality, and Women’s Empowerment in Nepal

Citation:

Pradhan, Rajendra, Ruth Suseela Meinzen-Dick, and Sophie Theis. 2019. “Property Rights, Intersectionality, and Women’s Empowerment in Nepal.” Journal of Rural Studies 70: 26–35.

Authors: Rajendra Pradhan, Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Sophie Theis

Abstract:

Property is widely recognized as an important resource for empowering women. Many development policies worldwide therefore call for strengthening women’s rights to property, especially to physical assets such as land and livestock. However, the relationship between property and women’s empowerment is more complex than generally assumed because of the overlapping and dynamic nature of property rights. In this paper, we explore how property rights affect the empowerment of women at different stages of the life cycle and different social locations, ethnicities, household structures, and social classes, using the lens of intersectionality. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted for the “Evaluation of the Welfare Impacts of a Livestock Transfer Program in Nepal,” we examine patterns in women’s strategies to exercise specific rights over joint and personal property within their households. The findings show that legal categories of property rights in Nepal fail to account for nuanced rights to assets shared within households. Rather than emphasize individual control over assets for women’s empowerment, the social relations around property need to be considered to understand which rights women value. The paper makes recommendations for how research and development projects, especially in South Asia, can avoid misinterpreting asset and empowerment data by incorporating nuance around the concepts of property rights over the life cycle.

Keywords: gender, Property Rights, life cycle, intrahousehold, empowerment, intersectionality, Nepal

Topics: Gender, Women, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2019

Toward Everyday Practices of Gender: Implications of Feminist Political Ecology for Gender Mainstreaming in Korean ODA

Citation:

Nam, Souyeon. 2018. “Toward Everyday Practices of Gender: Implications of Feminist Political Ecology for Gender Mainstreaming in Korean ODA.” Asian Journal of Women’s Studies 24 (4): 463-88.

Author: Souyeon Nam

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: 

This paper suggests feminist political ecology (FPE) as a knowledge resource for policy makers, practitioners, and researchers involved in Korean gender equality-focused ODA (Official Development Assistance) programs. Since Korea joined the OECD in 2010, its government has endeavored to incorporate gender mainstreaming into Korean ODA programs. This has generally taken the "topdown approach," (i.e., shifting the practice of official institutions in ODA agencies of the donor country to recipient countries). However, social and cultural contexts of recipient countries have received little attention in assessing what the outcomes would be in these. This paper reviews feminist political ecology, which has examined multi-scalar gender politics and considers the importance of social and cultural contexts of developing countries, in order for Korean ODA programs to embrace things in a nuanced way regarding gender politics. This paper argues for the potential of FPE as an effective tool for these programs that relate to gender. It proceeds as follows: first, it critically examines characteristics of Korean gender equality focused ODA. Then it reviews what FPE is about, including four themes of feminist political ecology: property rights, gender division of labor, women knowledge resource for policy makers, practition on its review, the paper discusses ways in which feminist political ecology can generate insights for researchers and practitioners involved in the ODA programs of Korea.

KOREAN ABSTRACT: 

연구는 한국 젠더 관련 ODA 정책실무자 연구자들에게 페미니스트 정치생태학을 유용한 연구분야로 제안한다. 2010 한국이 OECD 가입한 이래, 한국 정부는 ODA 프로그램의 젠더 주류화를 향상시키기 위해 노력해왔다. 이에 있어 공여국과 수여국의 ODA 관련기관 제도적 환경을 변화시키는 상향식 접근이 주를 이루었다. 그러나 수여국의 사회문화적 맥락을 고려한 평가에 대한 관심은 상대적으로 제한적이었다. 이에 따라 연구는 개발도상국 특정 지역들의 사회문화적 맥락을 고려한 다중스케일적 젠더 정치를 다루는 페미니스트 정치생태학을 고찰한다. 이를 통해 맥락성이 상대적으로 결여된 젠더 관련 한국 ODA 프로그램을 보완함에 있어 페미니스트 정치생태학이 통찰력을 제공할 있음을 제안하고 있다. 이를 위해 먼저 페미니스트 정치생태학을 재산권, 성역할분담, 여성 권한강화, 여성의 주관성 가지 주제를 중심으로 살펴본다. 다음으로 페미니스트 정치생태학이 폭넓은 민족지학적 현장연구를 기반으로 개발도상국 사례연구를 중심으로 구축된 분야인 만큼, 이러한 기반이 부족한 한국 젠더 ODA 정책수립 연구에 기여할 있음을 보인다. 또한, 국제사회에서 한국이 지니는 특수한 위치로 인해 한국의 젠더 ODA 관련 연구 역시 페미니스트 정치생태학에 기여할 있는 잠재력을 지님을 연구는 지적하고 있다.

Keywords: feminist political ecology, Korean ODA, gender mainstreaming, gender politics, social and cultural contexts

Topics: Development, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods, Rights, Property Rights Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: South Korea

Year: 2018

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