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Poverty

The Repercussions of Nuclearization on Pakistani Women

Citation:

Khattak, Saba Gul. 1999. “The Repercussions of Nuclearization on Pakistani Women.” Development 42 (2): 71–3.

Author: Saba Gul Khattak

Abstract:

Saba Khattak looks at the impact of the Pakistan nuclear industry on women. She argues that the nuclear programme has a specific impact on women as the poorest and less powerful in their society.

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Weapons /Arms Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 1999

Militarism and Women in South Asia

Citation:

Chenoy, Anuradha M. 2002. Militarism and Women in South Asia. New Delhi: Kali for Women.

Author: Anuradha M. Chenoy

Annotation:

Summary:
This book traces the course of militarism in several South Asian states, with a more detailed account of women's experiences of it in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. This closely argued, detailed analysis of the growing militarism in South Asia presents not just the phenomenon, but all its ramifications, examining its manifestations across the region from a feminist perspective for the first time. (Summary from Google Books)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Understanding Militarism
 
2. National Security Doctrines and Feminist Critiques
 
3. Bangladesh: Poverty and Militarism
 
4. Militarism in Pakistan
 
5. Sri Lanka: Militarization of State and Society
 
6. Militarizing India

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Security Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka

Year: 2002

Plan F: Feminist Plan for a Caring and Sustainable Economy

Citation:

Elson, Diane. 2016. “Plan F: Feminist Plan for a Caring and Sustainable Economy.” Globalizations 13 (6): 919–21.

Author: Diane Elson

Annotation:

Summary:
"Both UK WBG and SWBG have been very critical of the impact of austerity policies on gender equality and well-being of low income women. Plan F is an attempt to develop a Feminist Alternative for social and economic recovery that goes beyond a focus on economic growth and job creation with a vision of creating a caring and sustainable economy. This would be funded by measures such as cancelling plans for a new Trident submarine, ending tax giveaways that benefit better-off men much more than low-income women, and cracking down on aggressive tax avoidance and evasion. A caring and sustainable economy is based on mutual support and respect for rights. It is oriented to the broad and inclusive aim of improving our well-being in ways that reduce inequalities, not only today, but also for future generations. It prioritises care for people and for the planet" (Elson 2016, 919). 

Topics: Economies, Care Economies, Feminist Economics, Poverty, Environment, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year: 2015

What Determines Poverty Transition? An Investigation of Women Livestock Farmers in Bangladesh

Citation:

Akter, Shaheen, and John Farrington. 2011. “What Determines Poverty Transition? An Investigation of Women Livestock Farmers in Bangladesh.” Development in Practice 21 (2): 269–81.

Authors: Shaheen Akter, John Farrington

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This article evaluates poverty transition using self-assessment in a quasi-experimental framework. Data are drawn from a survey conducted in 2006 of 400 women who were the beneficiaries of a poverty-alleviation programme which involved longer-term interventions towards building the strength of government departments, participating organisations, and beneficiaries. During the survey, when the project was approaching its conclusion, about 50 per cent of these farmers were still in the programme. The article addresses a number of key questions related to pathways out of poverty through livestock-based activities, heterogeneity in livelihood choice and its impact on household welfare, and wider applications.
 
FRENCH ABSTRACT:
Cet article évalue la transition hors de la pauvreté à l'aide de l'auto-évaluation dans un cadre quasi-expérimental. Les données sont tirées d'une étude menée en 2006 parmi 400 femmes qui étaient les bénéficiaires d'un programme d'atténuation de la pauvreté qui faisait intervenir des interventions à plus long terme visant à renforcer les départements gouvernementaux, les organisations participantes et les bénéficiaires. Durant cette étude, alors que le projet touchait à sa fin, environ 50 pour cent de ces éleveuses étaient encore dans le programme. Cet article aborde un certain nombre de questions clés liées aux chemins possibles pour sortir de la pauvreté au moyen d'activités basées sur le bétail, l'hétérogénéité dans le choix du moyen de subsistance et son impact sur le bien-être des ménages, ainsi que des applications plus larges.
 
PORTUGUESE ABSTRACT:
Este artigo avalia a transição da pobreza utilizando a auto-avaliação em uma estrutura quase-experimental. Os dados são extraídos de um levantamento realizado em 2006 com 400 mulheres que eram as beneficiárias de um programa de alívio da pobreza que envolveu intervenções de mais longo prazo voltadas ao fortalecimento de departamentos governamentais, organizações participantes e beneficiários. Durante o levantamento, quando o projeto estava abordando sua conclusão, cerca de 50 por cento destas produtoras rurais ainda estavam no programa. O artigo aborda algumas questões-chave relacionadas a maneiras de se deixar a pobreza através de atividades que envolvem gado, heterogeneidade na escolha dos meios de subsistência e seu impacto no bem-estar familiar e aplicações mais abrangentes.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Este ensayo analiza la evolución de la pobreza utilizando un método de autoevaluación en un marco semiexperimental. Las estadísticas proceden de encuestas realizadas a 400 mujeres beneficiarias de un programa de reducción de la pobreza en 2006. El programa consistió en acciones a largo plazo para fortalecer a agencias gubernamentales, organizaciones y beneficiarias. Durante el periodo de las encuestas, hacia el final del programa, alrededor de la mitad de las campesinas seguía participando. Este ensayo aborda varias interrogantes en torno a las vías para superar la pobreza a través de actividades ganaderas, de la diversificación de medios de subsistencia y de su impacto en el bienestar familiar, entre otras aplicaciones.

Keywords: Gender and Diversity, Labour and livelihoods, technology, South Asia

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2011

Gender, Water, and Nutrition in India: An Intersectional Perspective

Citation:

Mitra, Amit, and Nitya Rao. 2019. “Gender, Water, and Nutrition in India: An Intersectional Perspective.” Water Alternatives 12 (1): 169–91.

Authors: Amit Mitra, Nitya Rao

Abstract:

Despite the global recognition of women’s central role in the provision, management, and utilisation of water for production and domestic use, and despite the close links between production choices, the security of water for consumption, and gendered social relations, the implications of these interlinkages for health and nutrition are under-explored. This paper seeks to fill this gap. It unpacks the gendered pathways mediating the links between water security in all its dimensions and nutritional outcomes, based on research in 12 villages across two Indian states. The findings point to the importance of the dynamic links between natural (land and water) systems and gendered human activities, across the domains of production and reproduction, and across seasons. These links have implications for women’s work and time burdens. They impact equally on physical and emotional experiences of well-being, especially in contexts constrained by the availability, access, quality, and stability of water.

Keywords: gender, water, agriculture, nutrition, food security, India

Topics: Agriculture, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Intersectionality, Livelihoods, Security Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2019

The Gender Dimensions of Water Poverty: Exploring Water Shortages in Chitungwiza

Citation:

Gambe, Tazviona Richman. 2019. “The Gender Dimensions of Water Poverty: Exploring Water Shortages in Chitungwiza.” Journal of Poverty 23 (2): 105–22.

Author: Tazviona Richman Gambe

Abstract:

Water poverty in Chitungwiza has become the poverty of mainly women. Yet the effects of water poverty on the economic well-being of women remain little understood at least empirically. This article seeks to explore the gender implications of water poverty in Chitungwiza and strategies that can be adopted to sever the gender-water poverty nexus. The study revealed that acute water shortages in Chitungwiza have impoverished mainly women as they are the managers of water at household level. Thus, there is need to balance the gender composition of water managers at all levels so that water-management decisions are gender sensitive.

Keywords: gender roles, gender sensitive, piped water supply, water management, water planning

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Zimbabwe

Year: 2019

Time Spent on Household Chores (Fetching Water) and the Alternatives Forgone for Women in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Kenya

Citation:

Agesa, Richard U., and Jacqueline Agesa. 2019. “Time Spent on Household Chores (Fetching Water) and the Alternatives Forgone for Women in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Kenya.” The Journal of Developing Areas 53 (2): 29-42.

Authors: Richard U. Agesa, Jacqueline Agesa

Abstract:

Due to a lack of piped water, household members in sub-Saharan Africa, typically girls, fetch water from sources outside the home. We offer the first econometric study that considers a fetching water/schooling time tradeoff as a possible and partial explanation for the relatively high dropout rate for girls in school. Our empirical technique fist estimates a baseline probit where the dependent variable is one if the individual is enrolled in school and zero if the individual is not enrolled. The covariates are factors which may influence school attendance. However, such a specification may be vulnerable to omitted variable bias. To account for this possibility, we estimate the average treatment effect by augmenting the probit model with instruments which may induce 'treatment' of time spent fetching water i.e. whether the individual resides in a household connected to electricity. Our data is drawn from the 2004/2005 Kenya Integrated Household Budget Survey. Our findings shed new light. In particular, we find that the interaction between the female dummy variable and time spent fetching water is negative and statically significant suggesting that the incidence of not attending school, due to fetching water, is relatively higher for females. This finding is further reinforced by the coefficient on the female dummy variable which is negative and statistically significant, suggesting that being female in Kenya, and in much of SSA, reduces the probability of enrolling and spending time in school. Taken together, our findings are consistent with the notion, and provide evidence for the anecdotal view in the literature that the high dropout rate for girls in school may in part be explained by a fetching water/schooling time tradeoff. To reduce the time individuals spend fetching water from sources outside the home, we suggest that a policy prescription that offers a requisite infrastructure, typically provided for through public means, may reduce the cost for households of connecting piped water to their homes. Importantly, such a policy action would be effective in reducing the time spent fetching water not only for females but for males as well.

Keywords: fetching-water, schooling, gender, Kenya, africa

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Education, Gender, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2019

Female Faces in Informal ‘Spaces’: Women and Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining in Sub-Saharan Africa

Citation:

Hilson, Gavin, Abigail Hilson, Agatha Siwale, and Roy Maconachie. 2018. "Female Faces in Informal 'Spaces': Women and Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining in Sub-Saharan Africa." Africa Journal of Management 4 (3): 306-46.

Authors: Gavin Hilson, Abigail Hilson, Agatha Siwale, Roy Maconachie

Abstract:

This paper critically examines how women employed in artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) – low-tech mineral extraction and processing – in sub-Saharan Africa could be affected by moves made to formalize and support their activities under the Africa Mining Vision (AMV), ‘Africa’s own response to tackling the paradox of great mineral wealth existing side by side with pervasive poverty’. One of the main goals of the AMV is Boosting Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining, which requires signatories to devise strategies for ‘Harnessing the potential of small scale mining to improve rural livelihoods and integration into the rural and national economy’. Moves being made to achieve this, however, could have an adverse impact on many of the women working in ASM in sub-Saharan Africa. Findings from the literature and research being undertaken by the authors in Sierra Leone and Zambia suggest that whilst most women engaged in ASM in the region work informally and, as a result, face very challenging circumstances daily, many have adapted to their surroundings and now earn far more money than they would from any other income-earning activity. Governments must study these dynamics before taking action under the auspices of the AMV to formalize and support women in ASM.

Keywords: artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM), Sub-Saharan Africa, informal sector, women, poverty

Topics: Economies, Informal Economies, Poverty, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Livelihoods Regions: Africa

Year: 2018

Ethnicity, Gender, and Oil: Comparative Dynamics in the Ecuadorian Amazon

Citation:

Vallejo, Ivette, Cristina Cielo, and Fernando García. 2019. "Ethnicity, Gender, and Oil: Comparative Dynamics in the Ecuadorian Amazon." Latin American Perspectives 46 (2): 182-98.

Authors: Ivette Vallejo, Cristina Cielo, Fernando García

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
During the past decade, Ecuador’s Alianza PAÍS socialist government, primarily under the leadership of Rafael Correa, was committed to moving toward a post-neoliberal economy and implementing a “New Amazon” free of poverty, with expanded infrastructure and services, as part of the redistribution of oil revenues. However, in sites of state development projects, gender hierarchies and territorial dispossession in fact became more acute. Analysis of two place-based indigenous political ecologies—one in the central Amazon, where the state licensed new oil blocks in Sapara territory to a Chinese company in 2016, and the other in the Kichwa community of Playas de Cuyabeno in the northern Amazon, where the state company PetroAmazonas has operated since the 1970s—shows how women have reconfigured their ethnic and gender identities in relation to oil companies and the state in the context of rising and falling oil prices and in doing so reinforced or challenged male leaders’ positions in the internal structures of their communities and organizations.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Durante la última década, el gobierno socialista de Alianza PAÍS de Ecuador, princi- palmente bajo el liderazgo de Rafael Correa, se comprometió a avanzar hacia una economía posneoliberal e implementar una “Nueva Amazonía” libre de pobreza, con infraestructura y servicios ampliados, como parte de la redistribución de los ingresos petroleros. Sin embargo, en los sitios de proyectos estatales de desarrollo, las jerarquías de género y el despojo territorial de hecho se hicieron más agudos. Análisis de dos ecologías políticas indígenas basadas en el lugar—una en la Amazonía central, donde el estado otorgó licen- cias de nuevos bloques petroleros en el territorio de Sapara a una compañía china en 2016, y la otra en la comunidad Kichwa de Playas de Cuyabeno, en el norte de la Amazonía, donde la compañía estatal PetroAmazonas ha operado desde la década de 1970—muestra cómo las mujeres han reconfigurado sus identidades étnicas y de género en relación con las compañías petroleras y el estado en el contexto del alza y la caída de los precios del petróleo y, al hacerlo, refuerzan o desafían las posiciones de los líderes masculinos en la estructura interna de sus comunidades y organizaciones.

Keywords: neoextractivism, petroleum, ethnic identities, gender, Amazonia

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Ethnicity, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Infrastructure, Political Economies Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Ecuador

Year: 2019

Women in Selected Rural Municipalities: Resilience and Agency against Vulnerabilities to Climate Change

Citation:

Meyiwa, Thenjiwe, Thandokazi Maseti, Sizani Ngubane, Tebello Letsekha, and Carina Rozani. 2014. “Women in Selected Rural Municipalities: Resilience and Agency against Vulnerabilities to Climate Change.” Agenda 28 (3): 102-14.

Authors: Thenjiwe Meyiwa, Thandokazi Maseti, Sizani Ngubane, Tebello Letsekha, Carina Rozani

Abstract:

The role of rural women in eradicating poverty and ending hunger has been recognised by both scholars and practitioners. There is an acknowledgement that women serve a critical role in the agricultural labour force, subsistence farming, and rural development in sub-Saharan Africa, yet their central role in food security has been largely ignored, particularly in policy (Govender, 2012). Although much of the labour of rural women is not nationally defined as economically active employment these women still spend long hours in undervalued productive and reproductive work to ensure the well-being of their households. Linked to this role is the challenge of dealing with rapidly changing climatic conditions. Women assume primary responsibility in fetching water and wood for meal preparation, and in tilling the ground. They are among the most vulnerable groups to climate change as a result of their precarious environmental livelihoods. Using data from a workshop with rural women to discuss climate change and qualitative interviews with rural women in selected rural communities in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal we explore the meaning of climate change. We report on the way climate change is understood, its effects on rural livelihoods and some responses to climate change problems experienced by the women in the communities. The women in the rural communities highlight that there are also social problems that have arisen from water scarcity. As a result of the household division of labour, rural girls confront particular challenges as they need to search further from home for water and are exposed to the risk of gender violence.

Keywords: rural women, Resilience, vulnerabilities, policy lessons, gender and climate change

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Livelihoods, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa

Year: 2014

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