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Poverty

The Power of Small-Scale Solar: Gender, Energy Poverty, and Entrepreneurship in Tanzania

Citation:

Gray, Leslie, Alaina Boyle, Erika Francks, and Victoria Yu. 2019. “The Power of Small-Scale Solar: Gender, Energy Poverty, and Entrepreneurship in Tanzania.” Development in Practice 29 (1): 26–39.

Authors: Leslie Gray, Alaina Boyle, Erika Francks, Victoria Yu

Abstract:

Energy poverty is a major challenge in the developing world, with an estimated 1.2 billion people lacking household electricity. Although energy poverty affects both men and women, the burden of household energy supply disproportionately affects women in low-income countries in the developing world. This article examines the impact of a women-oriented solar lighting social enterprise, Solar Sister, in Tanzania for both solar entrepreneurs and customers, demonstrating that solar lanterns positively impact household savings, health, education and women’s economic productivity and empowerment. Our study argues that Solar Sister’s approach is successful because of its explicit gender lens. Providing energy access to women translates to a pro-woman, pro-child, and pro-family development intervention.

Keywords: labour and livelihoods - poverty reduction, Sub-Saharan Africa, Gender and Diversity

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Education, Gender, Women, Health, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2019

Appropriate Gender-Analysis Tools for Unpacking the Gender-Energy-Poverty Nexus

Citation:

Clancy, Joy, Fareeha Ummar, Indira Shakya, and Govind Kelkar. 2007. “Appropriate Gender-Analysis Tools for Unpacking the Gender-Energy-Poverty Nexus.” Gender & Development 15 (2): 241–57.

Authors: Joy Clancy, Fareeha Ummar, Indira Shakya, Govind Kelkar

Abstract:

In rural and low-income urban households, energy is ‘women’s business’: women are responsible for providing energy, and use it for domestic chores and productive activities. However, the poor quality fuels many women use contribute to their time poverty, ill health, and level of drudgery. Despite these negative impacts, energy policy remains gender-blind. This can be attributed to the invisibility of women’s needs to energy planners, stemming from a lack of appropriate gender-analysis tools to meet the particular data requirements of the energy sector. This article analyses why standard gender tools do not provide appropriate gender-disaggregated energy data, and describes a set of tools that have been developed for that purpose. The paper concludes with an evaluation of recent experiences testing the tools in Pakistan, India, and Nepal.

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Nepal, Pakistan

Year: 2007

Exploring the Linkages between Energy, Gender, and Enterprise: Evidence from Tanzania

Citation:

Pueyo, Ana, Marco Carreras, and Gisela Ngoo. 2020. “Exploring the Linkages between Energy, Gender, and Enterprise: Evidence from Tanzania.” World Development 128 (April): 104840.

Authors: Ana Pueyo, Marco Carreras, Gisela Ngoo

Abstract:

The productive use of electricity is essential for poverty reduction in newly electrified rural communities as well as for the financial sustainability of electricity suppliers. Because men and women assume different roles in the rural economy, the inclusion of gender concerns in interventions to promote productive uses of energy could improve development outcomes. Using a multi-methods approach, this study provides new evidence about how men and women use energy in rural micro-enterprises in Tanzania, and which benefits they obtain from it. In our research region, most businesses are owned by men and men-owned enterprises use electricity more frequently and intensely than women owned enterprises. The latter dominate the productive use of cooking fuels like charcoal and firewood. Electricity use is consistently associated with better business performance, but women entrepreneurs do not use it as much as men. There are multiple reasons for this gender imbalance. First, women enjoy less favourable starting conditions for enterprise creation due to poor access to finance, education, and other resources. Furthermore, women are required to balance care responsibilities with paid work and are subject to social norms that determine the acceptability of certain productive activities. Typically, female activities are less profitable and less mechanised than men’s. Consequently, in the absence of gender interventions, male entrepreneurs are more likely to benefit from the promotion of productive uses of electricity. The paper discusses several approaches to improve the gender equity of PUE interventions.

Keywords: Energy, gender, enterprise, africa, tanzania, electricity

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Gender Balance, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2020

Unraveling Relationships in the Energy-Poverty-Gender Nexus

Citation:

Skutsch, Margaret, and Joy Clancy. 2006. “Unraveling Relationships in the Energy-Poverty-Gender Nexus.” In Transforming Power: Energy, Environment, and Society in Conflict, edited by John Byrne, Leigh Glover, and Noah J. Toly, 61–89. New York: Routledge.

Authors: Margaret Skutsch, Joy Clancy

Abstract:

This chapter attempts to unravel some of the relationships in the gender, energy and poverty nexus. It starts by explaining that there is an energy dimension to poverty, and considers why energy policy and planning in most developing countries has paid scant attention to this. Energy poverty is a concept that captures the energy dimension of poverty. It has a number of effects on poor families, which tend to use less energy than wealthier ones. To understand more clearly why energy planning fails the poor, one has to understand that it involves two quite different sub-sectors: the modern sector, including renewable energy technologies (RETs), and the traditional sector. New and RETs can be considered part of the modern, commercial energy sector and are receiving increasing attention. Of several important reasons, the chapter explores: the structure of mainstream development theories and the failure of the energy sector to keep abreast of developments in other sectors as regards gender.

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Infrastructure, Energy

Year: 2006

Energy in the Development Strategy of Indian Households—the Missing Half

Citation:

Sudhakara Reddy, B., and Hippu Salk Kristle Nathan. 2013. “Energy in the Development Strategy of Indian Households—the Missing Half.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 18 (February): 203–10.

Authors: B. Sudhakara Reddy, Hippu Salk Kristle Nathan

Abstract:

There is a growing consensus that universalization of modern energy services is central to reducing major elements of poverty and hunger, to increase literacy and education, and to improve health care, employment opportunities, and lives of women and children. In India, as per 2011 census, over 700 million people lack access to modern energy services for lighting, cooking, water pumping and other productive purposes. Devoid of these services people, mostly women, are forced to spend significant amounts of their time and effort on subsistence activities like firewood collection, carrying these head load for miles, and then burning these hard earned fuels inefficiently in traditional chullas. These adversely affect the health and standard of living for women and act as a barrier to gender development (here ‘gender’ means women unless otherwise specified). Although the links between gender inequity, poverty, and energy deprivation have been studied by many, not many practical solutions to the above problems have emerged. The present paper explores the nexus among gender–energy–poverty, highlights areas of gender concern, and suggests actions. We analyze how women from rural areas and low income households are at the receiving ends of energy poverty. We then analyze the roles women as an important stakeholders in universalizing modern energy services. We show how women self-help groups can be a vital link in large-scale diffusion of energy-efficient and renewable technologies. The paper concludes with policy pointers for sustainable development and gender empowerment through energy solutions.

Keywords: domestic energy sector, gender, entrepreneurs, energy poverty, self help groups

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Education, Gender, Women, Health, Households, Infrastructure, Energy, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2013

Taxation and Gender Equity: A Comparative Analysis of Direct and Indirect Taxes in Developing and Developed Countries

Citation:

Valodia, Imraan and Caren Grown. 2010. Taxation and Gender Equity: A Comparative Analysis of Direct and Indirect Taxes in Developing and Developed Countries. New York: Routledge; Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.

Authors: Imraan Valodia, Caren Grown

Annotation:

Summary:
Around the world, there are concerns that many tax codes are biased against women, and that contemporary tax reforms tend to increase the incidence of taxation on the poorest women while failing to generate enough revenue to fund the programs needed to improve these women’s lives. Because taxes are the key source of revenue governments themselves raise, understanding the nature and composition of taxation and current tax reform efforts is key to reducing poverty, providing sufficient revenue for public expenditure, and achieving social justice. This book presents original research on the gender dimensions of personal income taxes, value-added excise and fuel taxes in Argentina, Ghana, India, Mexico, Morocco, South Africa, Uganda, and the United Kingdom. It will be of interest to postgraduates and researchers studying public finance, international economics, development studies, gender studies, and international relations, among other disciplines. (Summary from International Development Research Centre)

Topics: Development, Economies, Public Finance, Poverty, Gender, Women Regions: Africa, MENA, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Americas, North America, South America, Asia, South Asia Countries: Argentina, Ghana, India, Mexico, Morocco, South Africa, Uganda, United States of America

Year: 2010

The Faulty Foundation of the Tax Code: Gender and Racial Bias in Our Tax Laws

Citation:

Kleinman, Ariel Jurow, Amy K. Matsui, Estelle Mitchell. 2019. “The Faulty Foundation of the Tax Code: Gender and Racial Bias in Our Tax Laws.” Working Paper No. 19-423, School of Law, University of San Diego, San Diego. 

Authors: Ariel Jurow Kleinman, Amy K. Matsui, Estelle Mitchell

Abstract:

This report examines the outdated assumptions and gender and racial biases embedded in the U.S. tax code. It highlights tax code provisions that reflect and exacerbate gender disparities, with particular attention to those that disadvantage low-income women, women of color, members of the LGBTQ community, people with disabilities, and immigrants.

Keywords: tax, gender, tax code, income tax, feminism, inequality, poverty

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Public Finance, Poverty, Feminisms, Gender, Women, LGBTQ, Race Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2019

Gender and Energy Issues in the Global South: Implications for the Post-Millennium Development Goals Agenda after 2015

Citation:

Mininni, Giulia M. 2015. “Gender and Energy Issues in the Global South: Implications for the Post-Millennium Development Goals Agenda after 2015.” The Luminary (5): 43–62.

 

Author: Giulia M. Mininni

Abstract:

Due to the conditions of gender inequality that limit women’s access to and control over environmental resources in remote rural areas, unfavourable environmental conditions tend to have more negative effects on women than on men. The same considerations can be applied to the lack of access to energy services, especially given women’s traditional roles and responsibilities as housekeepers. This happens more consistently in areas where people are directly dependent on natural resources for their livelihoods. This paper will explore how access to energy services is essential to improving the living conditions of women in off-grid rural areas of the global south, and, in the end, to contribute to global poverty reduction. It will highlight how for a long time energy projects have been treated as “gender neutral”, founded on the belief that energy issues and solutions were the same for men and women. However, the reality is different in most countries in the global south. The paper will outline how gender sensitive policies and programmes are necessary to address women’s specific needs. Finally, the paper will focus on the post- Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) agenda and underline how the new framework has the potential to offer opportunities to integrate energy access as a priority goal. Small-scale decentralised energy options could also ensure better participation at local level of under-represented groups such as women and push for better gender equality.

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Infrastructure, Energy, Livelihoods

Year: 2015

Gender Energy and Poverty in Nepal: Perspectives from Human Freedom

Citation:

Mahat, Ishara. 2015. “Gender Energy and Poverty in Nepal: Perspectives from Human Development.” In Sustainable Livelihood Systems in Nepal: Principles, Practices and Prospects, edited by Ambika P. Adhikari and Govinda P. Dahal, 263–79. Kathmandu: International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and Canada Foundation for Nepal (CFFN).

Author: Ishara Mahat

Abstract:

Access to rural energy in general, and biomass in particular, has significant impact on people’s well-being. This is especially true for the life qualities of rural women in Nepal, as they are directly involved in production and management of household energy. Energy poverty involves deprivations on multiple fronts such as economic, social, cultural and ecological. Low access to energy services is one aspect of poverty, as energy choices of poor households are influenced by poverty. Energy poverty has multidimensional implications on human development, and particularly on women from rural areas. For instance, increased use of biomass limits the economic productivity and reproduction capacities of women, which, in turn, restricts their capabilities to access many socio-economic opportunities. The challenges are to identify alternative options that help to address both energy poverty as well as human poverty in order to increase the human capabilities (especially of women) and their freedom, improving the overall well-being of rural households. It is important to think about the type of fuel technologies and their delivery mechanisms that can possibly help to make a large-scale transition away from traditional biomass cooking to improve the well-being of women and their families in rural Nepal.

Keywords: gender, poverty, capabilities and freedom, Nepal, Energy

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2015

Gardening Matters: a Political Ecology of Female Horticulturists, Commercialization, Water Access, and Food Security in Botswana

Citation:

Fehr, Rachel, and William G. Moseley. 2017. “Gardening Matters: a Political Ecology of Female Horticulturists, Commercialization, Water Access, and Food Security in Botswana.” African Geographical Review 38 (1): 67-80.

Authors: Rachel Fehr, William G. Moseley

Abstract:

The Government of Botswana and its partners have sought to address household food insecurity and poverty by experimenting with gardening initiatives of various sizes and commercial orientation. We use a multi-method approach, incorporating both econometric analysis and qualitative data, viewed through the theoretical lens of feminist political ecology, to determine how effective these women’s gardening initiatives are in addressing household food insecurity. We compare the relationship between commercial orientation and food security for women who rely on borehole water, tap water, and river water. We find that food security status improves with commercial orientation only when women are already experienced with the commercial market and/or when commercialization helps cover unavoidable water costs. When women have access to a reliable source of inexpensive water (as the river water users do), they can sustainably pursue subsistence-oriented horticulture and may in fact see greater food security benefits from consuming what they grow than from selling it. This study’s results call into question claims that commercialized horticulture will improve food security without first addressing the gendered dynamics of water access.

Keywords: commercial agriculture, feminist political ecology, food security, horticulture, water access, Botswana

Annotation:


 

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Botswana

Year: 2017

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