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Poverty

What Factors Contribute to Intimate Partner Violence against Women in Urban, Conflict-Affected Settings? Qualitative Findings from Abidjan, Côte D’Ivoire

Citation:

Cardoso, L. F., J. Gupta, S. Shuman, H. Cole, D. Kpebo, K. L. Falb. 2016. “What Factors Contribute to Intimate Partner Violence against Women in Urban, Conflict-Affected Settings? Qualitative Findings from Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.” Journal of Urban Health 93 (2): 364–78.

Authors: L. F. Cardoso, J. Gupta, S. Shuman, H. Cole, D. Kpebo, K. L. Falb

Abstract:

Rapid urbanization is a key driver of the unique set of health risks facing urban populations. One of the most critical health hazards facing urban women is intimate partner violence (IPV). In post-conflict urban areas, women may face an even greater risk of IPV. Yet, few studies have examined the IPV experiences of urban dwelling, conflict-affected women, including those who have been internally displaced. This study qualitatively examined the social and structural characteristics of the urban environment that contributed to the IPV experiences of women residing in post-conflict Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Ten focus groups were conducted with men and women, both internally displaced (IDPs) and non-displaced. Lack of support networks, changing gender roles, and tensions between traditional gender norms and those of the modern city were reported as key contributors to IPV. Urban poverty and with it unemployment, food insecurity, and housing instability also played a role. Finally, IDPs faced heightened vulnerability to IPV as a result of displacement and discrimination. The relationship between economic strains and IPV are similar to other conflict-affected settings, but Abidjan’s urban environment presented other unique characteristics contributing to IPV. Understanding these factors is crucial to designing appropriate services for women and for implementing IPV reduction interventions in urban areas. Strengthening formal and informal mechanisms for help-seeking, utilizing multi-modal interventions that address economic stress and challenge inequitable gender norms, as well as tailoring programs specifically for IDPs, are some considerations for IPV program planning focused on conflict-affected women in urban areas.

Keywords: gender-based violence, humanitarian crisis, urbanization, domestic violence

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Urban Displacement, Poverty, Domestic Violence, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Post-Conflict, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Côte D'Ivoire

Year: 2016

Kuña ha yvy. Desigualdades de género en el acceso a la tierra en Paraguay

Citation:

Guereña, Arantxa. 2017. Kuña ha yvy. Desigualdades de género en el acceso a la tierra en Paraguay. Asunción: Oxfam Paraguay y ONU Mujeres Paraguay.

Author: Arantxa Guereña

Abstract:

SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Pese a que las mujeres contribuyen significativamente a las economías, siguen sufriendo de manera desproporcionada la pobreza, la discriminación y la explotación, traducidas en pobreza de ingresos, tiempo, recursos y activos productivos. La discriminación de género no sólo las expone a situaciones de violencia sino también a un menor acceso a bienes económicos como la tierra y los préstamos, limitando además su participación en el diseño de políticas sociales y económicas.
 
En Paraguay viven 1,3 millones de mujeres rurales que con su trabajo, casi siempre invisible, sostienen hogares y comunidades. Este informe, que hace parte de una alianza entre ONU Mujeres y Oxfam, responde al objetivo de generar evidencia que permita comprender los obstáculos que tienen las mujeres rurales, campesinas e indígenas, para acceder a la tierra y otros activos productivos, además de visibilizar su aporte tanto a la economía familiar local como nacional. 

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Rights, Land Rights, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Paraguay

Year: 2017

La violencia hacia las mujeres en Oaxaca. En los caminos de la desigualdad y la pobreza

Citation:

Briseño-Maas, María Leticía, y Eduardo Bautista-Martínez. 2016. “La violencia hacia las mujeres en Oaxaca. En los caminos de la desigualdad y la pobreza.” LiminaR. Estudios Sociales y Humanístico 14 (2): 15-27.

Authors: María Leticía Briseño-Maas, Eduardo Bautista-Martínez

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
The  increase  in  manifestations  of  violence  against  women  in  Oaxaca  and  links  between  these  expressions  should  be  explained  beyond  immediate  situations  and  in  a  perspective  of  intersectionality.  Given  the  breadth  of  expressions  of  gender  violence  and  the  predominantly  rural  and  indigenous  constitution  of  the  state  of  Oaxaca,  this  paper  focuses  on  the  nature  of  violence  faced  by  indigenous  women  within  their  community,  concerning  land  conflicts,  the  struggle  for  land  tenure  and  the  relative  recent  participation  of  women  in  positions of authority not traditional assumed by them.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
El incremento de las manifestaciones de violencia contra las mujeres en Oaxaca y los encadenamientos de esas expresiones deben explicarse más allá de coyunturas inmediatas y en una perspectiva de interseccionalidad. Dada la amplitud de las expresiones de violencia de género y la constitución eminentemente rural e indígena del estado de Oaxaca, el presente texto se enfoca en las violencias que sufren las mujeres  indígenas  relacionadas  con  los  conflictos  comunitarios  y  agrarios,  las  luchas  por  la  tenencia  de  tierras  y  su  participación  en  los  sistemas de organización tradicional, expresiones consideradas dentro de la modalidad de violencia en la comunidad.

Keywords: violencia hacia las mujeres, desigualdad, pobreza, violence against women, inequality, poverty

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Conflict, Resource Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Land Tenure, Intersectionality Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2016

Sectores campesinos, mujeres rurales y estado en Colombia

Citation:

Villarreal, Norma. 2005. “Sectores campesinos, mujeres rurales y estado en Colombia.” PhD diss., Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.

Author: Norma Villarreal

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This research studies the beginining and development of the rural women movement in Colombia. The rural women organizations have adquired a great influence in the economical and social rural life. This gender empowerment has a framework complex because there is poverty, rural modernization and crisis, violence and sociopolitical changes. The rural women organizations resulted of public political to recognize the role of the peasants women in the rural economy.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
El presente trabajo estudia el proceso de surgimiento y desarrollo de un movimiento de mujeres rurales con capacidad de influencia en los espacios de decisión de las políticas sectoriales. El aumento de la influencia de las mujeres en la economía y en la sociedad rural se da en un complejo proceso de pobreza, crisis y modernización rural, conflicto social y cambios sociopolíticos. La organización de mujeres rurales es el resultado de políticas públicas para reconocer el papel de las mujeres campesinas en la economía rural.

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Livelihoods, Political Participation Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2005

El impacto del desplazamiento forzado sobre las mujeres en Colombia

Citation:

Ramírez, María Himelda. 2001. “El impacto del desplazamiento forzado sobre las mujeres en Colombia.” Amérique Latine Histoire et Mémoire 3.

Author: María Himelda Ramírez

Keywords: Colombia, desplazados, Mujeres

Annotation:

Summary:
"Este artículo presenta una mirada sobre la producción reciente acerca del desplazamiento forzado en Colombia, que incluye, el impacto sobre las mujeres. Esta visión, puesta en escena por las investigadoras que introdujeron la perspectiva de género en tales estudios, es innovadora en los análisis del tema1. Algunas vertientes de la investigación que muestran las diferencias de género, parten de la observación de las experiencias de la vida cotidiana de las comunidades campesinas antes de la expulsión. Así, es posible apreciar la especialización de funciones o, en otros términos, la división del trabajo por sexos, como un referente clave de la organizaciones sociales tradicionales, el cual es alterado de manera radical en la etapas subsiguientes al éxodo" (Ramírez 2001, 1).

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2001

La ley para las mujeres rurales en Colombia alcances y perspectivas

Citation:

Gutiérrez C., Myriam. 2003. “La ley para las mujeres rurales en Colombia alcances y perspectivas.” Trabajo Social 5: 56–80.

Author: Myriam Gutiérrez C.

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
The Law for the rural women is a dream and a hope that has been a long fight by the Colombian women, up to now it has been sanctioned but has not been applied. If it is regulated in the spirit that the women wanted to give to it and this applies, not only would they surpass many obstacles and give new opportunities for rural poor women, but also they would open ways for seeking social equity in relation to gender, ethnicity, and race in the new schemes of Sustainable Rural Development with a more human face.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
La Ley para las mujeres rurales es un sueño y una esperanza largamente luchada por las mujeres colombianas, hasta ahora solo ha sido sancionada pero no ha sido aplicada, si se reglamenta en el espíritu que las mujeres han querido darle y se aplica, no solo se lograrían superar muchos obstáculos y dar nuevas oportunidades para las mujeres pobres rurales, sino también se abrirían caminos hacia la búsqueda de la equidad social, de género, étnica y racial en los nuevos esquemas de Desarrollo Rural Sostenible con un rostro más humano.

Keywords: ley, mujeres rurales, obstaculos, oportunidades equidad de género, law, rural women, obstacles, opportunities, equity, gender

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Race Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2003

Experiences and Reflections on a Latin American Feminist Theology of Liberation Using an Ecofeminist Key Towards an Indigenous Women’s Perspective: Experience and Reflections on a Latin American Feminist Theology of Liberation

Citation:

Salazar, Marilú Rojas. 2010. “Experiences and Reflections on a Latin American Feminist Theology of Liberation Using an Ecofeminist Key Towards an Indigenous Women’s Perspective: Experience and Reflections on a Latin American Feminist Theology of Liberation.” The Ecumenical Review 62 (4): 411-22.

Author: Marilú Rojas Salazar

Annotation:

Summary:
“Women have been present, supporting and building together praxis and a transforming commitment in places and scenarios in which many religious, political and social male ‘‘leaders’’ have been absent. Women’s religious leadership in the churches has not been recognized, nor has their political and social leadership in Latin American societies. The same has happened in the sphere of theological reflection, where it seems that others have reflected or ‘‘theorized’’ about what women have practised. Women, who because of their commitment with the preferential option for the poor did not have access to academic-theological formation, are now starting to reflect from their praxis and are taking up their theological formation from a different perspective: their life experience.

The lack of academic-theological formation among women (which is not the case among men liberation theologians) is an element that shows what Latin American theologians have called ‘‘the feminization of poverty." This feminization of poverty uncovers the face of the injustice, exclusion and marginalization of Latin American women, who have suffered a triple exclusion: for being women, for being poor, and for being indigenous.

Women in Latin America, besides having to overcome the patriarchal and machismo systems operating in society in general, must face constantly in the church the dominant clericalism and control over the theological thought by men. Despite these realities, women have made their Latin American feminist theological reflection from the parameters of liberation beginning from their own experiences of marginalization and exclusion, as we shall see now” (Salazar 2010, 412).

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Religion Regions: Americas, Central America, North America, South America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2010

Gendered Implications of Tax Reform in Latin America: Argentine, Chile, Costa Rica, and Jamaica

Citation:

Huber, Evelyne. 2006. "Gendered Implications of Tax Reform in Latin America: Argentine, Chile, Costa Rica, and Jamaica." In Gender and Social Policy in a Global Context, edited by Shahra Razavi and Shireen Hassim, 301-21. London: Palgrave Macmillan London.

Author: Evelyne Huber

Abstract:

In Latin American and Caribbean countries, poverty and inequality have been longstanding problems, and the momentous economic and social policy changes over the past two decades have done little to ameliorate them. The most effective means for reducing class- and gender-based poverty and inequality would be citizenship-based entitlements to basic (i.e. allowing basic subsistence) income support, healthcare, and education. In advanced industrial societies, public spending is an extremely important instrument for the alleviation of class- and gender-based poverty and inequality (Moller et al. 2003; Bradley et al. 2003; Huber and Stephens 2001), and it could potentially play a similar role in Latin America and the Caribbean. However, responsible, that is non-inflationary, financing of such programs requires a sound system of taxation, something that is scarce in developing countries, including in Latin America and the Caribbean. Systems of taxation on their part have important implications for class and gender equity. This chapter explores changes in the systems of taxation in four Latin American and Caribbean countries — Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, and Jamaica — from the point of view of their gendered impact.

Keywords: International Monetary Fund, indirect taxis, direct taxis, gender implication, Jamaica Labour Party

Topics: Citizenship, Class, Development, Economies, Public Finance, Poverty, Education, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, South America Countries: Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Jamaica

Year: 2006

Making Space for Women: Civil Society Organizations, Gender and Hydropower Development in the Mekong Region

Citation:

Lebel, Phimphakan, Louis Lebel, Darunee Singphonphrai, Chatta Duangsuwan, and Yishu Zhou. 2019. “Making Space for Women: Civil Society Organizations, Gender and Hydropower Development in the Mekong Region.” International Journal of Water Resources Development 35 (2): 305-25.

Authors: Phimphakan Lebel, Louis Lebel, Darunee Singphonphrai, Chatta Duangsuwan, Yishu Zhou

Abstract:

Large-scale hydropower development disrupts local livelihoods and resource access. Adverse impacts are often greater for women than men, but also large for children, the elderly, poorer households and ethnic minorities. Burdens of resettlement often fall disproportionately on already disadvantaged individuals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how international, national and local civil society organizations (CSOs) have addressed gender in hydropower development in the Mekong Region. Four CSO orientations are distinguished: communitarian, environmentalist, knowledge-based and feminist. Common activities of CSOs were to share information, to expand participation and to mobilize development. The extent to which these activities were promoted and appear to be making space for women depended on the types of CSOs and women and men targeted or otherwise involved. 

Keywords: civil society organizations, gender, hydropower, Mekong

Topics: Age, Youth, Civil Society, Displacement & Migration, Development, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Gender, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam

Year: 2019

Energy Poverty and Gender in England: A Spatial Perspective

Citation:

Robinson, Caitlin. 2019. “Energy Poverty and Gender in England: A Spatial Perspective.” Geoforum 104: 222-33.

Author: Caitlin Robinson

Abstract:

A growing research agenda has sought to understand the substantial inequalities that exist in domestic energy provision. One way in which these inequalities are shaped is through socio-spatially contingent gender relations, an area underexplored with regards to energy poverty. This paper aims to uncover the spatialities of gender and energy poverty. It argues that established energy vulnerability frameworks can challenge the assumption that gender inequality is synonymous with energy poverty, but to do so these framings must move beyond a focus upon the household to recognise the vulnerability of individuals. Gendered vulnerabilities likely to enhance energy poverty are delineated for a case study of England, underpinned by socio-spatial analyses of gender-sensitive indicators. Five dimensions of gendered, socio-spatial energy vulnerability are evidenced in this context: exclusion from the economy; time-consuming and unpaid reproductive, caring or domestic roles; exposure to physiological and mental health impacts; a lack of social protection during a life course; and coping and helping others to cope. The findings demonstrate that whilst it is possible to draw initial conclusions about the spatialities of gendered energy vulnerability associated with health and economic activity, this is more complex concerning gendered aspects of energy vulnerability related to infrastructure that tend to be measured at the scale of the household, or those aspects of vulnerability that are relatively private or personal.

Keywords: gender inequality, energy poverty, energy vulnerability, gender-sensitive indicators, spatial analysis

Topics: Economies, Care Economies, Poverty, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Mental Health, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2019

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