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Post-Conflict

Introduction: Security Council Resolution 1325: Assessing the Impact on Women, Peace and Security

Citation:

Willett, Susan. 2010. “Introduction: Security Council Resolution 1325: Assessing the Impact on Women, Peace and Security.” International Peacekeeping 17 (2): 142–58. doi:10.1080/13533311003625043.

Author: Susan Willett

Abstract:

October 2010 marks the tenth anniversary of UN Security Council resolution 1325, on ‘Women, Peace and Security’. Hailed as a major milestone in the struggle for gender equality in all aspects of peacemaking, peacekeeping and post-conflict recovery, the implementation of 1325 has floundered over the intervening years. Gender discourse has been submerged by the dominant UN epistemology of hegemonic masculinity, militarism and war. This essay contextualizes the struggle for resolution 1325, and provides an overview of the major challenges that still need to be addressed if UN attempts to establish a durable peace in conflict zones are to conform to the 1325 mandate.

Topics: Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Organizations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325

Year: 2010

The Civil War That Was Fought by Children: Understanding the Role of Child Combatants in El Salvador’s Civil War, 1980-1992

Citation:

Courtney, Jocelyn. 2010. “The Civil War That Was Fought by Children: Understanding the Role of Child Combatants in El Salvador’s Civil War, 1980-1992.” Journal of Military History 74 (2):523-56.

Author: Jocelyn Courtney

Abstract:

From 1980 to 1992, the Salvadoran government and the Farabundo Martí Front for National Liberation (FMLN) fought each other in a civil conflict that devastated El Salvador, killing 75,000 people and leaving thousands more homeless or injured. Over 80 percent of the government's troops and over 20 percent of the FMLN's were under eighteen years of age; however, thus far, historians have missed the centrality of the role of children in this conflict. This article explores the legacy of both sides' reliance on child soldiers and examines the costs of child soldiering in terms of demobilization issues and postwar societal problems.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Combatants, Child Soldiers, Post-Conflict Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: El Salvador

Year: 2010

Peacekeepers and Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict

Citation:

Bastick, Megan, Karen Grimm, and Rahel Kunz. 2007. Peacekeepers and Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict. Geneva: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces.

Authors: Megan Bastick, Karen Grimm, Rahel Kunz

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Displacement & Migration, Gender-Based Violence, Health, Justice, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Peacekeeping, Post-Conflict, Security, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, SV against women

Year: 2007

Peace-Building and Reconstruction with Women: Reflections on Afghanistan, Iraq, and Palestine

Citation:

Moghadam, Valentine M. 2007. “Peace-Building and Reconstruction with Women: Reflections on Afghanistan, Iraq, and Palestine.” In From Patriarchy to Empowerment: Women’s Participation, Movements, and Rights in the Middle East, North Africa, and South Asia, edited by Valentine M. Moghadam, 327–52. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

Author: Valentine M. Moghadam

Abstract:

Valentine M. Moghadam looks at feminist insights into violence, conflict, peacebuilding, and women’s rights, as well as developments in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Palestine, to make the case for the involvement of women and the integration of gender into all phases of conflict resolution and post-conflict reconstruction and governance.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Iraq, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2007

Women, War and Transition

Citation:

El-Bushra, Judy, and Cécile Mukarubuga. 1995. “Women, War and Transition.” Gender and Development 3 (3): 16–22.

Authors: Judy El-Bushra, Cécile Mukarubuga

Abstract:

War represents transition in its most violent and bewildering form. Yet the destructive capacity of war derives not from physical violence alone but also from the deep injuries to people's sense of themselves and their sense of identity as a member of a community. In war, both the physical and the moral underpinnings of society are brought into question. In the long term they may be either strengthened or weakened, with consequences for women, men, and gender relations within that society.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Post-Conflict, Violence Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 1995

The Social Reintegration of Women: Reconstructing Womanhood and Moving Past Post-Conflict in Sierra Leone

Citation:

Holt-Rusmore, Evarosa Thalia. 2009. “The Social Reintegration of Women: Reconstructing Womanhood and Moving Past Post-Conflict in Sierra Leone.” Berkeley Undergraduate Journal 22 (1): 1–34.

Author: Evarosa Thalia Holt-Rusmore

Abstract:

Because post-conflict contexts are highly complex, the ways in which women both fit within accepted modern discourses of development and maneuver through more traditional systems of development and reconstruction are not fully understood. In Sierra Leone this dynamic is particularly true because of the small size of the population and the extended length of the conflict. Since the end of the civil war in 2002, transnational interventions have been highlighted as having successful programs that have been key in increasing stability in the country. Using the framework of women’s reintegration successes, this research aims to show that much of the stability in the country can also be attributed to linkages between past socio-cultural and political practices and institutions. This research shows that these linkages are spaces of strategic manipulation which women use to increase their economic and social standing. I argue that these manipulations between discourses and practices of the past, the present, and the proposed future have contributed to new ways of identity formation for women in Sierra Leone. Explorations in secondary data and theory pertaining to gendered social transformation in post-conflict settings are further informed by two months of intensive fieldwork using ethnographic research methods of participant observation and informal interviews in Sierra Leone in the summer of 2008.

Keywords: Sierra Leone, identity formation, post-conflict, development

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Development, Gender, Women, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2009

The Transnational Campaign for Redress for Wartime Rape by the Japanese Military: Cases for Survivors in Shanxi Province

Citation:

Terazawa, Yuki. 2006. “The Transnational Campaign for Redress for Wartime Rape by the Japanese Military: Cases for Survivors in Shanxi Province.” NWSA Journal 18 (3): 133–45.

Author: Yuki Terazawa

Abstract:

This article discusses cases of sexual violence committed by the Japanese Army in China during the Asia-Pacific War and the redress movement for Chinese rape survivors started in the 1990s. I focus particularly on campaigns launched by women in rural Shanxi province in the People's Republic of China. Unlike survivors of wartime rape and sexual slavery by the Japanese Army in other Asian and European nations, Shanxi women had to develop their movement without strong government and grassroots support in their home country. The ambivalent attitude of the Chinese government regarding individual Chinese citizens' demand for redress from the Japanese government and corporations responsible for the wartime atrocities led women in Shanxi and their supporters in the People's Republic of China and Japan to form a remarkable transnational alliance.

Topics: Gender, Women, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Sexual Violence, Rape, Sexual Slavery Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: China, Japan

Year: 2006

Sierra Leone: The Proving Ground for Prosecuting Rape as a War Crime

Citation:

Eaton, Shana. 2004. “Sierra Leone: The Proving Ground for Prosecuting Rape as a War Crime.” Georgetown Journal of International Law 35 (4): 873–919.

Author: Shana Eaton

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, International Law, International Humanitarian Law IHL, Justice, War Crimes, Post-Conflict, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Sexual Violence, Rape, SV against women Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2004

Gender and Transitional Justice: The Women of East Timor

Citation:

Harris-Rimmer, Susan. 2010. Gender and Transitional Justice: The Women of East Timor. New York: Routledge.

Author: Susan Harris-Rimmer

Abstract:

Gender and Transitional Justice provides the first comprehensive feminist analysis of the role of international law in formal transitional justice mechanisms. Using East Timor as a case study, it offers reflections on transitional justice administered by a UN transitional administration. Often presented as a UN success story, the author demonstrates that, in spite of women and children’s rights programmes of the UN and other donors, justice for women has deteriorated in post-conflict Timor, and violence has remained a constant in their lives.

This book provides a gendered analysis of transitional justice as a discipline. It is also one of the first studies to offer a comprehensive case study of how women engaged in the whole range of transitional mechanisms in a post-conflict state, i.e. domestic trials, internationalised trials and truth commissions. The book reveals the political dynamics in a post-conflict setting around gender and questions of justice, and reframes of the meanings of success and failure of international interventions in the light of them. (Amazon)

Topics: Gender, Women, Justice, Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Violence Regions: Oceania Countries: Timor-Leste

Year: 2010

A Determination of the Prevalence of Gender-Based Violence Among Conflict-Affected Populations in East Timor

Citation:

Hynes, Michelle, Jeanne Ward, Kathryn Robertson, and Chadd Crouse. 2004. “A Determination of the Prevalence of Gender-Based Violence Among Conflict-Affected Populations in East Timor.” Disasters 28 (3): 294–321.

Authors: Michelle Hynes, Jeanne Ward, Kathryn Robertson, Chadd Crouse

Topics: Armed Conflict, Domestic Violence, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Households, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, Violence Regions: Oceania Countries: Timor-Leste

Year: 2004

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