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Post-conflict Governance

The Legacy of Gender-Based Violence and HIV/AIDS in the Post-Genocide Era: Stories From Women in Rwanda


Russell, Susan Garnett, Sanaya Lim, Paul Kim, and Sophie Morse. 2015. “The Legacy of Gender-Based Violence and HIV/AIDS in the Post-Genocide Era: Stories From Women in Rwanda.” Health Care for Women International, August, 1–43.

Author: Susan Garnett Russell, Sanaya Lim, Paul Kim, Sophie Morse


Drawing on qualitative interviews with 22 Rwandan women, we describe the lived experiences of women survivors of Gender-Based Violence (GBV) more than a decade and a half after the 1994 Genocide. We argue that the intersection between GBV and HIV/AIDS has long-term implications: the majority of women interviewed continue to endure trauma, stigma, social isolation, and economic hardship in the post-genocide era and are in need of expanded economic and mental health support. Our findings have implications for the importance of providing integrated psychosocial support to survivors of GBV post-conflict contexts. 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender-Based Violence, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Health, HIV/AIDS, Mental Health, PTSD, Reproductive Health, Trauma, Justice, Crimes against Humanity, International Tribunals & Special Courts, Reparations, War Crimes, Rights, Sexual Violence, Rape Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2015

Military Invasion and Women's Political Representation: Gender Quotas in Post-Conflict Afghanistan and Iraq


Krook, Mona Lena, Diana Z. O’Brien, and Krista M. Swip. 2010. “Military Invasion and Women’s Political Representation: Gender Quotas in Post-Conflict Afghanistan and Iraq.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 12 (1): 66–79.

Authors: Mona Lena Krook, Diana Z. O’Brien, Krista M. Swip

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Balance, Governance, Constitutions, Quotas, Post-conflict Governance, International Organizations, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Rights, Women's Rights, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Asia, Middle East, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Iraq

Year: 2010

Gender and Consociational Power-Sharing in Northern Ireland


Hayes, Bernadette C. and Ian McAllister. 2012. “Gender and Consociational Power-Sharing in Northern Ireland.” International Political Science Review 34 (2): 123-139.

Authors: Bernadette C. Hayes, Ian McAllister


Designing political arrangements is the most viable approach to resolving inter-communal divisions in post-conflict societies. Yet women are frequently ill-served by such peace settlements, since gender equality is often sacrificed in an effort to resolve conflicts over national identity. Northern Ireland is no exception to this trend. Although the 1998 Northern Ireland Agreement made specific provision for gender equality, it was primarily framed in terms of national identity. This article examines to what extent this focus on inter-communal ethnic division undermined support for the Agreement among women. Using data from the 2010 Northern Ireland Election Survey, we examine gender differences in attitudes towards the consociational institutions of government. The results show a significant gender gap in support for the institutional arrangements that were established by the Agreement. We propose and test three explanations to account for this gender gap. 

Keywords: post-conflict, consociationalism, gender, national identity, power-sharing

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Civil Society, Democracy / Democratization, Domestic Violence, Economies, Poverty, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, Governance, Constitutions, Elections, Post-conflict Governance, Justice, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Paramilitaries, Nationalism, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Weapons /Arms Regions: Europe, Western Europe Countries: Ireland

Year: 2012

'Goodbye Serbian Kennedy': Zoran Dindic and the New Democratic Masculinity in Serbia


Greenberg, Jessica. 2006. “’Goodbye Serbian Kennedy’: Zoran Dindic and the New Democratic Masculinity in Serbia.” East European Politics and Societies 20 (1): 126-51. 

Author: Jessica Greenberg


In this article, the author demonstrates how representations of the assassination and funeral of Serbian Prime Minister Zoran Dindic enacted politics, reshaping the relationship between citizen and state during a time of political crisis. The expression of citizen-state relations through public mourning grounded in intimate, familial loss produced a break between a violent, nationalist past and a possible democratic future. This process relied on the deployment of normative assumptions about gender and kinship. The figure of Zoran Dindic represented a heteronormative, democratic masculinity that evoked a new relationship between family, citizen, state, and nation in the Serbian context. In contrast, those held responsible for his assassination were presented as antifamily and part of a clan structure based on non-reproductive, criminal connections that evoked a contrasting and undemocratic form of masculinity. Such representations masked ways that current political institutions and public figures were implicated in past state violence by focusing on a story about Dindic and his killers as certain kinds of men, rather than about structural features of politics and government.

Topics: Citizenship, Clan, Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Post-Conflict, Security, Violence Regions: Europe, Balkans Countries: Serbia

Year: 2006

Troubling Masculinities: Changing Patterns of Violent Masculinities in a Society Emerging from Political Conflict


Ashe, Fidelma, and Ken Harland. 2014. "Troubling Masculinities: Changing Patterns of Violent Masculinities in a Society Emerging from Political Conflict." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 37 (9): 747-762. 

Authors: Fidelma Ashe, Ken Harland


Men's dominance of the political and military dimensions of the Northern Ireland conflict has meant that the story of the conflict has generally been a story about men. Ethno-nationalist antagonism reinforced men's roles as protectors and defenders of ethno-national groups and shaped violent expressions of masculinities. Due to the primacy of ethno-nationalist frameworks of analysis in research on the conflict, the relationships between gender and men's violence have been under-theorized. This article employs the framework of Critical Studies of Men and Masculinities to examine these relationships and also explores the changing patterns of men's violence in Northern Ireland. 

Topics: Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Nationalism, Post-Conflict Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: Ireland

Year: 2014

Gender, conflict and peace-building: Lessons from the conflict in the former Yugoslavia


Korac, Maja. 2006. “Gender, conflict and peace-building: Lessons from the conflict in the former Yugoslavia.” Women's Studies International Forum 29: 510-20.

Author: Maja Korac


This article explores the importance of gender sensitive analysis of conflict constructed as ethnic strife for conceptualising and developing new and more effective ways of intervening in this type of war. It points out that because most of the physical violence and suffering in these conflicts occur at the community level, they generate massive refugee movements, causing not only physical and material devastation, but also the destruction of social networks and local communities. This critically affects the prospects for refugee return, which is central to any sustainable peace agreement and post-conflict democratic development. In searching for an answer to the question of how to address effectively the issue of reconciliation in such a context, the discussion highlights the centrality of acknowledging gender dimensions and dynamics of this type of war, as a way of uncovering and recognising a reconciliatory potential of women as women organising and activism that often occurs in these conflicts. By focusing specifically on the initiatives of some women's groups during the war in the former Yugoslavia, which aimed at rebuilding trust and broken social networks at a communal level, the article examines the reasons why women as women often opt for alternative forms of political mobilisation. It argues that this type of activism has an important potential for conflict resolution and should be recognised in a fundamental way in any attempt to build peace in conflict zones.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Democracy / Democratization, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Violence Regions: Europe, Balkans Countries: Yugoslavia (former)

Year: 2006

Picking up the Threads: Model Approach Helps Cambodia Design a New Fashion Image


Medvedev, Katalin, and Britanny Reef. 2012. “Picking up the Threads: Model Approach Helps Cambodia Design a New Fashion Image.” Women’s Studies Quarterly 41 (1/2): 131–49.

Authors: Katalin Medvedev, Britanny Reef


Last paragraph of Introduction: Most of the country's intelligentsia and skilled labor force perished. Because Cambodia's entire population was uprooted and displaced around the country, the national agriculture, industry, and service sectors, including textiles and fashion production, were either destroyed or abandoned. Vietnamese troops put an end to the destruction by ousting Pol Pot's Khmer Rouge in 1979. In 1991 the Paris Peace Agreement finally brought a cease-fire in the continuing civil war. The agreement and the subsequent establishment of the United Nations Transitional Authority in 1992, followed by national elections in 1993, opened Cambodia to international investment and aid, which claimed to rebuild the nation and spur economic growth. As part of this, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) like Blue Mekong, which operates within the Stung Treng Women's Development Center have become important catalysts in creating socially and economically sustainable employment opportunities for Cambodian women in fashion production.

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender, Women, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, NGOs, Post-Conflict Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, United States of America, Vietnam

Year: 2012

La mujer rural y la reforma agraria en Colombia


Deere, Carmen Diana and Magdalena León. 1997. "La mujer rural y la reforma agraria en Colombia", Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural, no.38-39, 7-23.

Authors: Carmen Diana Deere, Magdalena León


Este artículo señala que Colombia sobresale como líder progresista en el contexto latinoamericano, en cuanto a normas legales acerca del acceso de las mujeres a la tierra y sus derechos sobre la misma. Las autoras argumentan las razones por las cuales el acceso directo de las mujeres a la tierra es un tema importante; hacen una revisión de la legislación agraria reciente y del proceso mediante el cual esta fue aprobada; señalan que el papel que desempeñó la Asociación Nacional de Mujeres Campesinas e Indígenas, ANMUCIC, fue crucial para establecer la prioridad que la legislación otorgó tanto a las mujeres jefas de hogar como a la titulación conjunta de la tierra a las parejas. La aplicación de las normas muestra que aunque la ley de reforma agraria de 1994 ha tenido como resultado un aumento del número de mujeres beneficiarias en las adjudicaciones recientes aún falta mucho camino por recorrer para lograr equidad de género. Mas la señalada igualdad debe obtenerse bajo actuales circunstancias muy desfavorables de cruces de violencias, crisis polftica, delegitimación del Estado y concentración de la tierra, como resultado del enriquecimiento ilícito o reforma agraria ilegal.
This article proposes that Colombia is the "gender progressive" leader in Latin American with respect to the legal dispositions governing women's access to land and land rights. After establishing why women' s direct access to and property of land is an important issue, the author's review Colombia's recent agrarian legislation and the process which led to its adoption. They argue that the role of Anmucic, the national association of peasant and indigenous women, was critical in the priority which the legislation gives to female heads of household and the joint titling of land couples. In the practice; they find that while the 1.994 agrarian law has resulted in an important increase in the number of wornen beneficiaries by Incorain recent adjudications, much remains to be done to achieve gender equity. Morover, issues of equity for women in access to land are being played out amidst unfavorable background events and issues such as violence from several crosscutting fronts, a political crisis, the delegitimation of the Colombian state and the concentration of land ownership as a result of illicit capital concentration or illegal agrarian reform.

Topics: Civil Society, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Households, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 1997

Acceso de las Mujeres a la Tierra: realidades de la restitución y el desarrollo rural para las mujeres en Santander, Antioquia, y Cauca.


Coll Agudelo, Alejandra. 2015. Acceso de las Mujeres a la Tierra: realidades de la restitutción y el desarrollo rural para las mujeres en Santander, Antioquia y Cauca. Bogotá, Colombia: Ruta Pacífica de las Mujeres y de la Corporación de Mujeres Ecofeminista, COMUNITAR.

Author: Alejandra Coll Agudelo

Topics: Civil Society, Ethnicity, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Land grabbing, Rights, Indigenous Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights, Security Regions: Americas, Central America, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2015


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