Post-Conflict Governance

Security and Gendered National Identity in Uzbekistan


Koch, Natalie. 2011. “Security and Gendered National Identity in Uzbekistan.” Gender, Place & Culture 18 (4): 499–518. 

Author: Natalie Koch


Contributing to the growing literature on feminist geopolitics, this article addresses the security discourses employed by the Karimov regime in Uzbekistan's post-independence nation-building process. It examines the ways in which militarism and the ‘culture of war’ are productive of gendered national identities in Uzbekistan, focusing on how the ‘protector–protected’ relationship figures prominently in the Karimov regime's anti-terrorist rhetoric. It does so through a textual analysis of the Andijon uprising and the ‘Day of Memory and Honor’ holiday. It argues that the terrorist threat has been a driving factor in the pervasive militarization of society, but that official responses to state violence in Andijon obscure alternative security concerns of the general population in Uzbekistan – and more specifically those of women. It adds to existing feminist geopolitics literature by expanding it into a new empirical context, while rejecting the assertion that a ‘geopolitical’ analysis necessarily entails a ‘global’ approach.

Keywords: feminist geopolitics, nation-building, militarism, Uzbekistan, Andijon

Topics: Gender, Women, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Nationalism, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Security, Human Security, Terrorism Regions: Asia, Central Asia Countries: Uzbekistan

Year: 2011

Defying Victimhood: Women and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding


Schnabel, Albrecht and Amara Tabyshalieva, eds. 2012. Defying Victimhood: Women and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding. Tokyo and New York: United Nations University Press.

Authors: Amara Tabyshalieva, Albrecht Schnabel


Women are among the most competent, yet marginalized, unnoticed and underutilized actors in efforts to rebuild war-torn societies. Opportunities for sustainable peacebuilding are lost - and sustainable peace is at risk - when significant stakeholders in a society's future peace and conflict architecture are excluded from efforts to heal the wounds of war and build a new society and a new state. The contributors to this book draw on comparative case and country studies from post-conflict contexts in different parts of world to offer their insights into frameworks for understanding women as both victims and peacebuilders, to trace the road that women take from victimhood to empowerment and to highlight the essential partnerships between women and children and how they contribute to peace. The authors examine the roles of women in political and security institutions.



1 Forgone opportunities: The marginalization of women’s contributions to post-conflict peacebuilding; Albrecht Schnabel and Anara Tabyshalieva

2 Frameworks for understanding women as victims and peacebuilders; Lisa Schirch

Part I: From victimhood to empowerment: Patterns and changes

3 Mass crimes and resilience of women: A cross-national perspective;  Krishna Kumar

4 Victimization, empowerment and the impact of UN peacekeeping missions on women and children: Lessons from Cambodia and Timor-Leste; Sumie Nakaya

5 Frontline peacebuilding: Women’s reconstruction initiatives in Burundi;  Rose M. Kadende-Kaiser

Part II: Women and children: Essential partnership of survival and peace.

6 Women and children in the post-Cold War Balkans: Concerns and responses; Constantine P. Danopoulos, Konstantinos S. Skandalis and Zlatko Isakovic

7 Emerging from poverty as champions of change: Women and children in post-war Tajikistan; Svetlana Sharipova and Hermine De Soto

8 Young mothers as agents of peacebuilding: Lessons from an early childcare and development project in Macedonia; Deborah Davis

Part III: Putting good intentions into practice: National and global efforts to right past wrongs.

9 Gender and transitional justice: Experiences from South Africa, Rwanda and Sierra Leone; Lyn S. Graybill

10 Empowering women to promote peace and security: From the global to the local – Securing and implementing UN Security Council Resolution 1325; Ancil Adrian-Paul

Part IV: Deconstructing victimhood: Women in political and security institutions.

11 State-building or survival in conflict and post-conflict situations? A peacebuilding perspective on Palestinian women’s contributions to ending the Israeli occupation;  Vanessa Farr

12 Women’s participation in political decision-making and recovery processes in post-conflict Lebanon; Kari H. Karamé

13 Combating stereotypes: Female security personnel in post-conflict contexts; Kristin Valasek


14 Defying victimhood: Women as activists and peacebuilders; Anara Tabyshalieva and Albrecht Schnabel

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, Political Economies, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Rights, Women's Rights, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Asia, Central Asia, Middle East, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe, Oceania Countries: Burundi, Lebanon, Macedonia, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tajikistan, Timor-Leste

Year: 2012

Endogenous African Governance Systems: What Roles do Women Play in Rural Malawi?


Msukwa, Chimwemwe A.P.S., and Marion Keim-Lees. 2014. “Endogenous African Governance Systems: What Roles Do Women Play in Rural Malawi?” Development in Practice 24 (5–6): 735–42. doi:10.1080/09614524.2014.938613.

Authors: Chimwemwe Msukwa, Marion Keim-Lees



Endogenous African governance systems are criticised for excluding women. This critique ignores several realities that women have played roles different from those of men. This article examines the roles that women play in endogenous governance structures of patrilineal and matrilineal ethnic groups in rural areas in Malawi on leadership, violent conflict prevention, and transformation. It argues that these endogenous governance systems inherently contain features that enable women to actively participate and play powerful leadership roles, though men dominate in terms of numbers and authority. These gender patterns do not seem to change much despite the changing political, social, and economic environment.


Les systèmes endogènes africains de gouvernance sont critiqués parce qu'ils excluent les femmes. Cette critique ignore la réalité selon laquelle les femmes ont joué des rôles différents de ceux des hommes. Cet article examine les rôles que jouent les femmes dans les structures de gouvernance endogènes des groupes ethniques patrilinéaires et matrilinéaires dans des zones rurales du Malawi sur le plan du leadership, de la prévention des conflits violents et de la transformation. Il soutient que ces systèmes de gouvernance endogènes présentent de manière inhérente des caractéristiques qui permettent aux femmes de participer activement et de jouer de puissants rôles de leadership, même si les hommes dominent en termes de nombre et d'autorité. Ces schémas de genre ne semblent pas beaucoup changer malgré l'environnement politique, social et économique en mutation.


Los sistemas endógenos de gobernanza en África han recibido críticas por el hecho de excluir a las mujeres. Sin embargo, tales críticas pasan por alto la realidad de que las mujeres han desempeñado roles diferentes de los cumplidos por los hombres. El presente artículo examina los roles que, en las áreas rurales de Malaui, han desempeñado las mujeres en los ámbitos de liderazgo, de prevención de conflictos violentos y de transformación, dentro de las estructuras de gobierno endógenas de los grupos étnicos patrilineales y matrilineales. Al respecto, se sostiene que, aun cuando los hombres dominen en términos de presencia numérica y autoridad, dichos sistemas contienen modalidades inherentes que permiten la participación activa de las mujeres y que éstas desempeñen roles fuertes de liderazgo. Estos patrones de género no parecen haberse alterado mucho a pesar de los cambios ocurridos en los ámbitos políticos, sociales y económicos.

Keywords: gender, diversity, Sub-Saharan Africa

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, Political Participation, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Malawi

Year: 2014

International Human Rights, Gender-Based Violence, and Local Discourses of Abuse in Postconflict Liberia: A Problem of "Culture"?


Abramowitz, Sharon, and Mary H. Moran. 2012. “International Human Rights, Gender-Based Violence, and Local Discourses of Abuse in Postconflict Liberia: A Problem of ‘Culture’?” African Studies Review 55 (2): 119–46. 


Authors: Sharon Abramowitz, Mary H. Moran


In this article we draw on three years of ethnographic observation of postconflict humanitarian intervention in Liberia to consider the process whereby global efforts in the areas of gender-based violence (GBV) and human rights are interacting with local debates over kinship, entitlement, personal rights, and social responsibility. This article draws upon Liberian narratives, complaints, and efforts to regulate, in a national context, social norms and behavior in regard to gender-based violence issues in postconflict life while also engaging with an ongoing international human rights discourse on the subject of GBV. Our ethnography takes a multiscalar approach to give a sense of the process, multiple discourses, and dialectics of power involved in this issue, and to demonstrate how the definition of “the GBV problem” in Liberia, the target of complex GBV interventions, is different from the conception held by agencies, governmental ministries, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that are responsible for implementing global mandates.

Topics: Gender-Based Violence, Post-Conflict Governance, Humanitarian Assistance, NGOs, Post-Conflict, Rights, Human Rights Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Liberia

Year: 2012

Peace Accords and the Adoption of Electoral Quotas for Women in the Developing World


Anderson, Miriam J., and Liam Swiss. 2014. “Peace Accords and the Adoption of Electoral Quotas for Women in the Developing World, 1990–2006.” Politics & Gender 10 (01): 33–61. doi:10.1017/S1743923X13000536.

Authors: Miriam J. Anderson, Liam Swiss


The high percentage of women in Rwanda's parliament is well known. At 64%, it scores far above the world average of about 22% (IPU 2013). Rather than an anomaly, Rwanda is representative of many postconflict developing countries that feature women's political representation at above-average levels. A frequently identified correlate of this heightened representation has been the presence of electoral quotas for women (Bush 2011; Fallon, Swiss, and Viterna 2012; Paxton, Hughes, and Painter 2010). More generally, the role of societal rupture and transitions from conflict to peace or from authoritarianism to democracy have been a focus of gender and politics research in recent years (Fallon, Swiss, and Viterna 2012; Hughes 2007; 2009; Hughes and Paxton 2007; Viterna and Fallon 2008). Within such transitions, the role of women's participation has been identified as a key determinant of more beneficial posttransition outcomes for women (Viterna and Fallon 2008). Peace processes and the accords that they yield represent a mechanism through which transition and women's rights become linked and theoretically hold the potential to shape postconflict societies. However, the link between women's involvement in peace processes and the subsequent adoption of electoral quotas has not been explored. In this article, we seek to answer the question: What is the relationship between postconflict transition, peace processes, and quota adoption? To this end, we examine the role played by peace accords and, more specifically, accords with a focus on women's rights in leading countries to adopt electoral quotas for women.

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, Peace Processes, Political Participation, Post-Conflict Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2014

Security, Gender and Post-Conflict Reconstruction: The Need for a "Woman Question" When Engaging in Reconstruction


Kfir, Isaac. 2012. “Security, Gender and Post-Conflict Reconstruction: The Need for a ‘Woman Question’ When Engaging in Reconstruction.” Texas Journal of Women and the Law 22 (1): 71–112.


Author: Isaac Kfir


In the field of post-conflict reconstruction, gender-related issues are mostly analyzed through a legal or a development paradigm. These conditions, coupled with a general disinclination by the international community—the industrialized, western countries—to challenge cultural norms, whether real or imagined, allows for a security-first and/or a security-development nexus to take precedence regarding post-conflict reconstruction. This paper advances the argument that by viewing gender issues as existential to the security of a state transitioning out of conflict, as opposed to viewing gender as a development or a legal issue, makes it possible to engage in real reconstruction, which means addressing the gender bias that dominates many societies. 


Topics: Development, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, International Law, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Security

Year: 2012

Gendered Transformations of State Power: Masculinity, International Intervention, and the Bosnian Police


Helms, Elissa. 2006. “Gendered Transformations of State Power: Masculinity, International Intervention, and the Bosnian Police.” Nationalities Papers 34 (3): 343–61. doi:10.1080/00905990600766651.


Author: Elissa Helms

Topics: Economies, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, International Organizations, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina

Year: 2006

"Ellen Is Our Man:" Perceptions of Gender in Postconflict Liberian Politics


Garnett, Tanya Ansahta. 2016. “‘Ellen Is Our Man:’ Perceptions of Gender in Postconflict Liberian Politics.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 18 (1): 99–118. doi:10.1080/14616742.2015.1125648.

Author: Tanya Ansahta Garnett


This article examines the nature of shifting gender roles in Liberia's postconflict reconstruction process. Specifically, it investigates the ways in which political authority is gendered and the agency that women in politics employ to justify their participation as they attempt to reduce gender inequalities at the institutional level. I argue that the intervention of the international community has been instrumental in providing space and resources for gender mainstreaming, however in the absence of more in-depth intersectional analyses of gender dynamics, the unintended consequences of peacebuilding policies could hinder the sustainability of long-term peace. This article is based on a qualitative research country study conducted by the author in rural and urban Liberia following the election of Ellen Johnson Sirleaf. A discussion of key findings is exemplified with excerpts from key informant interviews and focus group discussions that seek to give voice to a cross-section of Liberians, so that they can contribute to the ongoing debate on gender mainstreaming in postconflict societies and bridge the gap between local and international discourses.

Keywords: Liberia, gender, postconflict, women;s political representation, peacebuilding

Topics: Civil Society, Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Elections, Post-Conflict Governance, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Liberia

Year: 2016

Indonesian Women and Local Politics: Islam, Gender and Networks in Post-Suharto Indonesia


Dewi, Kurniawati Hastuti. 2015. Indonesian Women and Local Politics: Islam, Gender and Networks in Post-Suharto Indonesia. Kyoto CSEAS Series on Asian Studies 14. NUS Press and Kyoto University Press.

Author: Kurniawati Hastuti Dewi


In an important social change, female Muslim political leaders in Java have enjoyed considerable success in direct local elections following the fall of Suharto in Indonesia. Indonesian Women and Local Politics shows that Islam, gender, and social networks have been decisive in their political victories. Islamic ideas concerning female leadership provide a strong religious foundation for their political campaigns. However, their approach to women's issues shows that female leaders do not necessarily adopt a woman's perspectives when formulating policies. This new trend of Muslim women in politics will continue to shape the growth and direction of democratization in local politics in post-Suharto Indonesia and will color future discourse on gender, politics, and Islam in contemporary Southeast Asia.
(NUS Press)

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Women, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Religion Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2015

Gender, Sexuality, and Politics: Rethinking the Relationship Between Feminism and Sandinismo in Nicaragua


Heumann, Silke. 2014. “Gender, Sexuality, and Politics: Rethinking the Relationship Between Feminism and Sandinismo in Nicaragua.” Social Politics 21 (2): 290. doi:10.1093/sp/jxu004.

Author: Silke Heumann


This paper revisits the historical relationship between Sandinismo and Feminism in Nicaragua, to explain the increasing antagonism between them. Drawing on the personal accounts of women's rights, sexual rights, and reproductive rights activists who participated in the Sandinista Revolution and movement, I show that the current conflict -- far from being a radical break with the past -- can be traced to antagonisms that have long existed within the Sandinista movement. The Sandinista leadership actively mobilized an anti-feminist discourse that marginalized sexual and reproductive rights from the revolutionary struggle. By constructing feminism as antagonistic to the revolution and forcing a split in loyalties, this discourse produced complex processes of (self)disciplining and (self)silencing. The article seeks to highlight the complexity of these processes and the internal dilemmas they produced. It questions not only the primacy of the economic or material sphere over issues of gender and sexuality, but also the very division of these into different spheres of experience and politics.

Keywords: political leadership, gender, sexuality, feminism, reproductive health

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, Health, Reproductive Health, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Nicaragua

Year: 2014


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