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Post-conflict Governance

Integrating Gender in Post-Conflict Security Sector Reform

Citation:

Bastick, Megan. 2008. ‘Integrating Gender in Post-Conflict Security Sector Reform’. In SIPRI Yearbook. DCAF. https://www.sipri.org/yearbook/2008/04.

Author: Megan Bastick

Abstract:

The importance of security sector reform (SSR) has increasingly been empha- sized in international engagement with post-conflict countries. In February 2007 the United Nations Security Council stressed that ‘reforming the security sector in post-conflict environments is critical to the consolidation of peace and stability, promoting poverty reduction, rule of law and good governance, extending legitimate state authority, and preventing countries from relapsing into conflict’. National governments also identify SSR as a key tool in con- solidating their authority and healing divisions of the past. This chapter explores the case and methods for addressing gender issues in post-conflict SSR processes, drawing upon experiences in Afghanistan, Kosovo, Liberia, Peru, Rwanda, Sierra Leone and Timor-Leste, and potential models from Serbia and South Africa. Section II further defines the concepts of SSR and gender, as well as their relationship to each other. The rationale for and experiences of gender mainstreaming in SSR and promoting the full and equal participation of men and women in SSR processes are discussed in section III, with practical examples from post-conflict settings. Section IV focuses on promoting women’s participation in post-conflict security services. Section V examines some challenges for key post-conflict SSR and SSR- related activities, including gender dimensions in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) processes, transitional justice and justice reform. Section VI summarizes the case for integrating gender into future SSR program- ming and policymaking and outlines the key opportunities and challenges. 

 

Keywords: gender, security sector reform, post-conflict, gender mainstreaming

Annotation:

Security sector reform (SSR) is essential to post-conflict peacebuilding in order to prevent the reoccurrence of conflict, to enhance public security, and to create the conditions for reconstruction and development. The importance of women’s participation and gender equality in peacebuilding and security is recognized by many governments and United Nations and donor agencies. However, efforts to promote these goals are often planned and implemented independently of each other, with the result that SSR fails to include women and to address the security needs of the entire population—including women, girls and boys.

Post-conflict SSR processes have used various approaches to address gender issues.

  • In Afghanistan, Kosovo and Liberia SSR measures to recruit and
    retain women, and to make security institutions more responsive to
    gender issues presented challenges but also yielded positive results.
  • In Peru, Sierra Leone and Timor- Leste truth and reconciliation commissions included mechanisms to address the experiences and justice needs of women.
  • Rwandan women parliamentarians made distinctive contributions to SSR by uniting across party and ethnic lines to address issues of women’s security.
  • In Liberia and Sierra Leone disarmament, demobilization and reintegration processes contributed to developing operational procedures to ensure that women and girls are not excluded, and that the needs of men and boys are also addressed.
  • In Liberia and South Africa women’s civil society organizations were important partners in linking SSR with local security and justice concerns.

Gender mainstreaming—assessing the impact of SSR policies andactivities on women, men, boys and girls at every stage of the process—is a key strategy. It must be accompanied by steps to ensure that both men and women participate and are represented in SSRprocesses.

Participation of women in post-conflict security services is crucial to creating structures that are representative, trusted and legitimate,and are able to meet the security needs of both men and women.

‘Transitional justice’ and justice reform processes have madeadvances in responding to gender issues. Ad hoc criminal tribunals have prioritized prosecution of sexual violence.

Successful integration of gender in SSR shares the broader challenges of SSR. External actors can encourage and support, but initiatives must be led by local stakeholders. SSR has much to gain byintegrating gender.

 

Megan Bastick (Australia/United Kingdom) is Deputy Head of the Special Programmes Division at the 

Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF).

Topics: Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, South Asia, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe, Oceania Countries: Afghanistan, Kosovo, Liberia, Peru, Rwanda, Serbia, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Timor-Leste

Year: 2008

Women’s Political Participation and Economic Empowerment in Post-Conflict Countries

Citation:

Sow, Ndeye. 2012. ‘Women’s Political Participation and Economic Empowerment in Post-Conflict Countries: Lessons from the Great Lakes Region in Africa’. London: International Alert. http://www.international-alert.org/resources/publications/womens-political-participation-and-economic-empowerment-post-conflict.

Author: Ndeye Sow

Topics: Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Gender Budgeting, Gender Mainstreaming, Governance, Constitutions, Quotas, Elections, Post-conflict Governance, Peace Processes, Political Economies, Political Participation, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Uganda

Year: 2012

On the Frontlines: Gender, War, and the Post-Conflict Process

Citation:

Ní Aoláin, Fionnuala, Dina Francesca Haynes and Naomi Cahn. 2011. On the Frontlines: Gender, War, and the Post-Conflict Process. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Authors: Fionnuala Ní Aoláin, Dina Francesca Haynes, Naomi Cahn

Annotation:

Summary:
Gender oppression has been a feature of war and conflict throughout human history, yet until fairly recently, little attention was devoted to addressing the consequences of violence and discrimination experienced by women in post-conflict states. Thankfully, that is changing. Today, in a variety of post-conflict settings--the former Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, Colombia, Northern Ireland --international advocates for women's rights have focused bringing issues of sexual violence, discrimination and exclusion into peace-making processes. 
 
In On the Frontlines, Fionnuala Ní Aoláin, Dina Francesca Haynes, and Naomi Cahn consider such policies in a range of cases and assess the extent to which they have had success in improving women's lives. They argue that there has been too little success, and that this is in part a product of a focus on schematic policies like straightforward political incorporation rather than a broader and deeper attempt to alter the cultures and societies that are at the root of much of the violence and exclusions experienced by women. They contend that this broader approach would not just benefit women, however. Gender mainstreaming and increased gender equality has a direct correlation with state stability and functions to preclude further conflict. If we are to have any success in stabilizing failing states, gender needs to move to fore of our efforts. With this in mind, they examine the efforts of transnational organizations, states and civil society in multiple jurisdictions to place gender at the forefront of all post-conflict processes. They offer concrete analysis and practical solutions to ensuring gender centrality in all aspects of peace making and peace enforcement. (Summary from Oxford University Press) 

Topics: Armed Conflict, DDR, Democracy / Democratization, Development, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Peacekeeping, Post-Conflict, Rights, Security Sector Reform, Sexual Violence

Year: 2011

Gendering Processes of Institutional Design: Activists at the Negotiating Table

Citation:

McLeod, Laura, Rachel Johnson, Sheila Meintjes, Alice Brown and Valerie Oosterveld. 2014. "Gendering Processes of Institutional Design: Activists at the Negotiating Table." International Feminist Journal of Politics 16 (2): 354–69. 

Author: Laura McLeod, Rachel Johnson, Sheila Meintjes, Alice Brown, Valerie Oosterveld

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Balance, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Political Participation, Post-Conflict

Year: 2014

Gendered Practices of Counterinsurgency

Citation:

Khalili, Laleh. 2011. "Gendered Practices of Counterinsurgency." Review of International Studies 37: 1471-91.

Author: Laleh Khalili

Abstract:

Current US counterinsurgency doctrine is gendered diversely in the different geographic locations where it is formulated, put in practice, and experienced. Where Iraqi and Afghan populations are subjected to counterinsurgency and its attendant development policy, spaces are made legible in gendered ways, and people are targeted – for violence or ‘nation-building’ – on the basis of gender-categorisation. Second, this gendering takes its most incendiary form in the seam of encounter between counterinsurgent foot-soldiers and the locals, where sexuality is weaponised and gender is most starkly cross-hatched with class and race. Finally, in the Metropole, new masculinities and femininities are forged in the domain of counterinsurgency policymaking: While new soldier-scholars represent a softened masculinity, counterinsurgent women increasingly become visible in policy circles, with both using ostensibly feminist justifications for their involvement.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Class, Combatants, Development, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Political Participation, Race, Sexuality, Violence Regions: MENA, Americas, North America, Asia, Middle East, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Iraq, United States of America

Year: 2011

Women and War in the Middle East: Transnational Perspectives

Citation:

Al-Ali, Nadje, and Nicola Pratt. 2009. Women and War in the Middle East: Transnational Perspectives. London: Zed Books.

Author: Nadje Al-Ali

Keywords: women and war, Iraqi women, Palestinians, international cooperation

Annotation:

"Women and War in the Middle East provides a critical examination of the relationship between gender and transnationalism in the context of war, peace-building and post-conflict reconstruction in the Middle East. Critically examining the ways in which the actions of various local and transnational groups - including women's movements, diaspora communities, national governments, non-governmental actors and multilateral bodies - interact to both intentionally and inadvertantly shape the experiences of women in conflict situations, and determine the possibilities for women's participation in peace-building and (post)-conflict reconstruction, as well as the longer-term prospects for peace and security. The volume pays particular attention to the ways in which gender roles, relations and identities are constructed, negotiated and employed within transnational social and political fields in the conflict and post-conflict situations, and their particular consequences for women. Contributions focus on the two countries with the longest experiences of war and conflict in the Middle East, and which have been subject to the most prominent international interventions of recent years - that is, Iraq and the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Issues addressed by contributors include the impact of gender mainstreaming measures by international agencies and NGOs upon the ability of women to participate in peace-building and post-conflict resolution; the consequences for gender relations and identities of the US-led invasion and occupation of Iraq; and how transnational feminist movements can most effectively support peace building and women's rights in the region.Based entirely on original empirical research. Women and War in the Middle East brings together some of the foremost scholars in the areas of feminist international relations, feminist international political economy, anthropology, sociology, history and Middle East studies." -The University of Chicago Press

Table of Contents

Introduction: Women and War in the Middle East: Transnational Perspectives
Nadje Al-Ali and Nicola Pratt

Part I: Gendering the Neoliberal Imperial Project

1. Gendering Informal Economies in Iraq
V. Spike Peterson

2. The United States, the Iraqi Women's Diaspora and Women's 'Empowerment' in Iraq
Nadje Al-Ali and Nicola Pratt

3. Post-war Reconstruction', Imperialism and Women's NGOs
Shahrzad Mojab

Part II: Revisiting Transnational Women's Activism in the Context of Conflict, Post-conflict and Peace-building

4. Gender Mainstreaming and Feminist Organizing in the Middle East and North Africa
Isis Nusair

5. 'Here, it's not about conflict resolution - we can only resist': Palestinian Women's Activism in Conflict Resolution and Non-violent Resistance
Sophie Richter-Devoe

Part III: Gender, Citizenship and Post-conflict Reconstruction

6. Fragmented Citizenship: Communalism, Ethnicity and Gender in Iraq
Martina Kamp

7. Gendered Palestinian Citizenship: Women, Legal Pluralism and Post-conflict Aid
Riina Isotalo

Conclusion: Gendering War and Transnationalism in the Middle East
Nadje Al-Ali and Nicola Pratt

 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Mainstreaming, Globalization, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, NGOs, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Security Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Iraq, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2009

The Legacy of Gender-Based Violence and HIV/AIDS in the Post-Genocide Era: Stories From Women in Rwanda

Citation:

Russell, Susan Garnett, Sanaya Lim, Paul Kim, and Sophie Morse. 2015. “The Legacy of Gender-Based Violence and HIV/AIDS in the Post-Genocide Era: Stories From Women in Rwanda.” Health Care for Women International, August, 1–43.

Author: Susan Garnett Russell, Sanaya Lim, Paul Kim, Sophie Morse

Abstract:

Drawing on qualitative interviews with 22 Rwandan women, we describe the lived experiences of women survivors of Gender-Based Violence (GBV) more than a decade and a half after the 1994 Genocide. We argue that the intersection between GBV and HIV/AIDS has long-term implications: the majority of women interviewed continue to endure trauma, stigma, social isolation, and economic hardship in the post-genocide era and are in need of expanded economic and mental health support. Our findings have implications for the importance of providing integrated psychosocial support to survivors of GBV post-conflict contexts. 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender-Based Violence, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Health, HIV/AIDS, Mental Health, PTSD, Reproductive Health, Trauma, Justice, Crimes against Humanity, International Tribunals & Special Courts, Reparations, War Crimes, Rights, Sexual Violence, Rape Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2015

Military Invasion and Women's Political Representation: Gender Quotas in Post-Conflict Afghanistan and Iraq

Citation:

Krook, Mona Lena, Diana Z. O’Brien, and Krista M. Swip. 2010. “Military Invasion and Women’s Political Representation: Gender Quotas in Post-Conflict Afghanistan and Iraq.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 12 (1): 66–79.

Authors: Mona Lena Krook, Diana Z. O’Brien, Krista M. Swip

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Balance, Governance, Constitutions, Quotas, Post-conflict Governance, International Organizations, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Rights, Women's Rights, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Asia, Middle East, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Iraq

Year: 2010

Gender and Consociational Power-Sharing in Northern Ireland

Citation:

Hayes, Bernadette C. and Ian McAllister. 2012. “Gender and Consociational Power-Sharing in Northern Ireland.” International Political Science Review 34 (2): 123-139.

Authors: Bernadette C. Hayes, Ian McAllister

Abstract:

Designing political arrangements is the most viable approach to resolving inter-communal divisions in post-conflict societies. Yet women are frequently ill-served by such peace settlements, since gender equality is often sacrificed in an effort to resolve conflicts over national identity. Northern Ireland is no exception to this trend. Although the 1998 Northern Ireland Agreement made specific provision for gender equality, it was primarily framed in terms of national identity. This article examines to what extent this focus on inter-communal ethnic division undermined support for the Agreement among women. Using data from the 2010 Northern Ireland Election Survey, we examine gender differences in attitudes towards the consociational institutions of government. The results show a significant gender gap in support for the institutional arrangements that were established by the Agreement. We propose and test three explanations to account for this gender gap. 

Keywords: post-conflict, consociationalism, gender, national identity, power-sharing

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Civil Society, Democracy / Democratization, Domestic Violence, Economies, Poverty, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, Governance, Constitutions, Elections, Post-conflict Governance, Justice, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Paramilitaries, Nationalism, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Weapons /Arms Regions: Europe, Western Europe Countries: Ireland

Year: 2012

Pages

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