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Post-conflict Governance

Gender, Sexuality, and Politics: Rethinking the Relationship Between Feminism and Sandinismo in Nicaragua

Citation:

Heumann, Silke. 2014. “Gender, Sexuality, and Politics: Rethinking the Relationship Between Feminism and Sandinismo in Nicaragua.” Social Politics 21 (2): 290. doi:10.1093/sp/jxu004.

Author: Silke Heumann

Abstract:

This paper revisits the historical relationship between Sandinismo and Feminism in Nicaragua, to explain the increasing antagonism between them. Drawing on the personal accounts of women's rights, sexual rights, and reproductive rights activists who participated in the Sandinista Revolution and movement, I show that the current conflict -- far from being a radical break with the past -- can be traced to antagonisms that have long existed within the Sandinista movement. The Sandinista leadership actively mobilized an anti-feminist discourse that marginalized sexual and reproductive rights from the revolutionary struggle. By constructing feminism as antagonistic to the revolution and forcing a split in loyalties, this discourse produced complex processes of (self)disciplining and (self)silencing. The article seeks to highlight the complexity of these processes and the internal dilemmas they produced. It questions not only the primacy of the economic or material sphere over issues of gender and sexuality, but also the very division of these into different spheres of experience and politics.

Keywords: political leadership, gender, sexuality, feminism, reproductive health

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Health, Reproductive Health, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Nicaragua

Year: 2014

Modernising Women and Democratisation After the Arab Spring

Citation:

Moghadam, Valentine M. 2014. "Modernising Women and Democratisation After the Arab Spring." The Journal of North African Studies 19 (2): 137-42

Author: Valentine M. Moghadam

Abstract:

What has the Arab Spring meant to women, and women's rights, in the region? Three years after the mass social protests of January and February 2011, when and where can we expect the promises of democracy and equality, and the revolutionary spirit of unity and purpose, to be realised? This Foreword offers a stock-taking of events and possible future directions, with a focus on prospects for a women-friendly democratisation.

Keywords: Arab Spring, democratisation, women, women's rights, women's movements

Topics: Armed Conflict, Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Post-Conflict, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Asia, Middle East Countries: Bahrain, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Yemen

Year: 2014

Naga Women Making a Difference: Peace Building in Northeastern India

Citation:

Manchanda, Rita. 2005. “Naga Women Making a Difference: Peace Building in Northeastern India.” Institute for Inclusive Security

 

Author: Rita Manchanda

Keywords: conflict prevention, negotiation, mediation

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Conflict Prevention, Gender, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Nonviolence, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Violence Regions: Asia, South Asia

Year: 2005

Gender Relations and Development in a Weak State: The Rebuilding of Afghanistan

Citation:

Riphenburg, Carol J. 2003. “Gender Relations and Development in a Weak State: The Rebuilding of Afghanistan.” Central Asian Survey 22 (2-3): 187–207. doi:10.1080/0263493032000157726.

Author: Carol J. Riphenburg

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Development, Gender, Women, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Nationalism, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Religion, Terrorism, Tribe Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan

Year: 2003

Lives in Times of Conflict: Locating Women and Accountability of the State in Kashmir

Citation:

Sapna K Sangra. 2011. “Lives in Times of Conflict: Locating Women and Accountability of the State in Kashmir.” International Journal or Interdisciplinary Social Sciences 6 (5): 51.

 

Author: Sapna K Sangra

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Citizenship, Combatants, Gender, Women, Girls, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Peacekeeping, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Security Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2011

Fighting Gender-Based Violence: The Women’s Movement and the Enforcement of Rape Law in Liberia

Citation:

Medie, Peace. A. 2013. “Fighting Gender-Based Violence: The Women’s Movement and the Enforcement of Rape Law in Liberia.” African Affairs 112 (448): 377–97.

Author: Peace A. Medie

Abstract:

Many African states have adopted laws that criminalize rape and other forms of gender-based violence (GBV), but the enforcement of such laws is often weak. Many rape cases are never brought to court and victims are frequently encouraged to accept reconciliation instead of prosecution of offenders. Drawing on research from post-conflict Liberia, this article investigates the ability of women’s movements to influence the state’s implementation of rape law, and seeks to theorize the relationship between women’s activism and the enforcement of rape law. It documents the range of strategies adopted by the Liberian women’s movement, and argues that these tactics have contributed to an increased referral of rape cases to court. This was made possible by two conditions: a relatively open political environment and political and material support from international organizations, which in turn enabled women’s NGOs to gain access to and make an impression on the implementation process. This demonstrates the capacity of civil society organizations in Africa’s more open and internationally connected states to influence policy at the implementation stage – even in particularly challenging areas such as women’s rights. 

Topics: Civil Society, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, International Organizations, NGOs, Post-Conflict, Rights, Women's Rights, Sexual Violence, SV against women Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Liberia

Year: 2013

The Cost of Ignoring Gender in Conflict and Post-Conflict Situations: A Feminist Perspective

Citation:

Puechguirbal, Nadine. 2012. “The Cost of Ignoring Gender in Conflict and Post-Conflict Situations: A Feminist Perspective.” In Amsterdam Law Forum, 4:4–19. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2007625.

 

Author: Nadine Puechguirbal

Abstract:

This article focuses on the cost of ignoring gender when analysing conflict and post-conflict environments. It explains how a feminist perspective allows us to uncover hidden gender power relations and deconstruct the so-called gender-neutral approach in international relations. By highlighting the differential impact of war on women and men regarding security issues, it is understood that the cessation of hostility is not always synonymous with peace for women. It is also understood how patriarchy resurfaces after a war and marginalises women who are mainly seen as powerless victims and sidelined in peace talks that promote a conservative return to the status quo ante bellum.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Men, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict

Year: 2012

Building a State That Works for Women: Integrating Gender into Post-Conflict State Building

Citation:

Castillejo, Claire. 2011. ‘Building a State That Works for Women: Integrating Gender into Post-Conflict State Building’, March, Working Paper. Madrid: Fride. http://fride.org/download/WP107_Building_state.pdf

Author: Claire Castillejo

Abstract:

This working paper presents key findings from a joint FRIDE-ODI research project that investigated the impact of state building on women’s citizenship. The project was developed in response to gaps in the current state building work. On one hand, theoretical models on state building are elaborated at an abstract level that makes gender power relations invisible. For example, these tend to model the relationship between state, elites and an undisaggregated “society” without asking who is represented within each group, who participates in state-society negotiations, and whose expectations and demands are expressed within these negotiations. On the other hand, although donor policies do stress that state building should be an inclusive process, they are vague on how this – and specifically the inclusion of women - is to be achieved.

The project involved research in five post-conflict countries, Burundi, Guatemala, Kosovo, Sierra Leone and Sudan. It investigated three central questions: What role do women play in state building? How do state building processes affect women’s political participation? How do state building processes affect women’s rights?

The findings highlighted that post-conflict contexts do provide new opportunities for women to mobilise. However, their ability to influence state building processes is limited both by structural barriers and by opposition from elites. While women have made some significant gains in terms of formal equality and inclusion, informal patterns of power and resource allocation have been much harder to shift. It appears that gender inequalities in these contexts are innately linked to the underlying political settlement, including the balance of power between formal and customary authorities. It is therefore critical that donors address gender as a fundamentally political issue. 

 

Keywords: post conflict reconstruction, women, gender, state-building, integration

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Development, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Americas, Central America, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Burundi, Guatemala, Kosovo, Sierra Leone, Sudan

Year: 2011

Price of Peace: Financing for Gender Equality in Post Conflict Reconstruction

Citation:

Budlender, Debbie. 2010. ‘Price of Peace: Financing for Gender Equality in Post Conflict Reconstruction’. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/librarypage/womens-empowerment/price-of-peace-financing-for-gender-equality-in-post-conflict-reconstruction.html

Author: Debbie Budlender

Abstract:

Questions of the gender-responsiveness of post-conflict funding are important beyond the economic sphere. While budgets and financing are economic tools, the monies that they govern are used to finance activities that extend into all areas of govern- ment activity. In post-conflict situations, donor funds are used not only to rebuild the economy and to (re-)establish administrative systems and law and order, but also to fund social services such as education and health. Decisions as to which sectors will be funded and what will be funded within them are therefore of clear impor- tance in determining prospects for advancing gender equality in the recipient country. In an attempt to get more detailed information, the Gender Team of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) commissioned case studies in Kosovo, Sierra Leone, Southern Sudan and Timor-Leste. The case studies examine whether and how resources were allocated and used in post-conflict reconstruction initiatives to promote gender equality and address women’s needs.The studies examined whether gender issues were addressed through separate projects or through addressing gender issues in mainstream projects and programmes.They also examined how funding of post-conflict reconstruction related to their own budgets with respect to gender equality and women’s empowerment. The research covered the full post-conflict reconstruction period, including early recovery and peace-building assistance as well as later assistance as the recipient countries attempted to move towards a more ‘normal’ situation. The precise time period varied from one case study to the next and these are detailed in each individual case study. Movement towards the normal situation is reflected by a shift in instruments used, with countries over time increasingly being assisted through standard instruments and processes used in non-conflict countries. For future and current interventions, this synthesis report draws on the lessons that intervening actors as well as actors in the beneficiary countries can learn from these four case studies. 

 

Keywords: United Nations Development Programme, gender equality, gender and finance, post-conflict

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gender Budgeting, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe, Oceania Countries: Kosovo, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Timor-Leste

Year: 2010

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