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Post-conflict Governance

Rwanda: Women Hold Up Half the Parliament

Citation:

Powley, Elizabeth. 2005. “Rwanda: Women Hold Up Half the Parliament.” In Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers, edited by Julie Ballington and Azza Karam, 154–63. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance.

Author: Elizabeth Powley

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Political Participation Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2005

Women’s Political Representation in Post-Conflict Rwanda: A Politics of Inclusion or Exclusion?

Citation:

Hogg, Carey Leigh. 2009. “Women’s Political Representation in Post-Conflict Rwanda: A Politics of Inclusion or Exclusion?” Journal of International Women’s Studies 11 (3): 34–55.

Author: Carey Leigh Hogg

Abstract:

Though references abound to Rwandan women holding the world’s highest percentage of parliamentary representation at 56%, what is rarely addressed is the confluence of two opposing trends in Rwanda’s post-conflict environment: that the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF)-led government has advocated for women’s greater political inclusion under the premise that women will ‘better’ the political climate, while simultaneously excluding any form of political dissent or ethnic identification. This article ventures into uncharted territory by asking two questions: first, does the discourse surrounding the Government of National Unity’s (GNU) campaign to increase women’s participation in formal politics uncritically assume that women parliamentarians will have a different relationship to politics, paring women representatives’ identities down to non-ethnic female subjects, seen only as promoting peaceful reconciliation? Secondly, given what external actors increasingly term an ‘authoritarian state’ that lacks political space, does the notion that women will change the political climate have any substantive meaning in post-genocidal Rwanda? The answers to such queries show that viewing the Rwandan case with a critical and gendered lens generates deeper meaning for how women political representatives’ identities can be dangerously frozen and ‘subjectified’ in post-conflict contexts; particularly those intent on building ‘national unity’ by way of quieting dissent.

Topics: Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Gender Balance, Governance, Post-conflict Governance Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2009

Gendered Citizenship: South Africa’s Democratic Transition and the Construction of a Gendered State

Citation:

Seidman, Gay W. 1999. “Gendered Citizenship: South Africa’s Democratic Transition and the Construction of a Gendered State.” Gender & Society 13 (3): 287-307.

Author: Gay W. Seidman

Abstract:

The tendency for abstract theorists of democratization to overlook gender dynamics is perhaps exacerbated in the South African case, where racial inequality is obviously key. Yet, attention to the processes through which South African activists inserted gender issues into discussions about how to construct new institutions provides an unusual prism through which to explore the gendered character of citizenship. After providing an explanation for the unusual prominence of gender concerns in South Africa's democratization, the article argues that during the drawn-out democratic transition, South African activists, often influenced by international feminist discussions, developed a collective definition of gender interests and began to build those interests into the structure of democratic institutions, in ways that will affect politics and the definition of “women's interests” in the future.

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Governance, Post-conflict Governance Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 1999

Women and the Transition to Democracy in South Africa

Citation:

Albertyn, Catherine. 1994. “Women and the Transition to Democracy in South Africa.” Acta Juridica 1: 39–63.

Author: Catherine Albertyn

Abstract:

This article considers the historical context as well as the transitional period and the process of writing South Africa's interim constitution to the current 1996 Constitution to assess the extent to which they took account of the experiences, interests and demands of women in South Africa.

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Women, Governance, Constitutions, Post-conflict Governance Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 1994

Gendering Constitutional Design in Post-Conflict Societies

Citation:

Haynes, Dina Francesca. 2011. “Gendering Constitutional Design in Post-Conflict Societies.” William & Mary Journal of Women and the Law 17 (3): 509-44.

Author: Dina Francesca Haynes

Topics: Gender, Governance, Constitutions, Post-conflict Governance, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction

Year: 2011

The National Implementation of SCR 1325 in Latin America: Key Areas of Concern

Citation:

Luciak, Ilja. 2009. “The National Implementation of SCR 1325 in Latin America: Key Areas of Concern.” Paper presented at the Annual ISA-ABRI Joint International Meeting, Rio de Janeiro, July 22-24.

Author: Ilja Luciak

Abstract:

It is the premise of this paper that sustainable peace and development require the full implementation of Security Council Resolution 1325. The paper calls attention to the importance of implementing SCR 1325 by highlighting key areas of concern with a primary focus on a small sample of Latin American countries, including Colombia, Guatemala, El Salvador, Haiti, and Nicaragua. The paper discusses several recent and current peace processes in the region. It emphasizes that peace negotiations constitute a crucial entry point for considerations of gender justice. Thus it is essential that the process be inclusive. Yet women'€™s participation in formal peace processes continues to be limited and their contributions to informal peace processes are only starting to be recognized. Peace accords and subsequent constitution-building present important opportunities for countries emerging from conflict to transform their political systems toward greater gender equality. Several Latin American countries have advanced in the political reconstruction of their respective societies by instituting constitutional and electoral reforms in the wake of conflict. On the other hand, a discussion of disarmament and demobilization processes in the region and highlights the current lack of attention to gender considerations. Similarly, the gendered needs of refugees and internally displaced populations also require attention. Further, in addition to dealing with violent acts committed during war, governments need to address the security environment that emerges in the wake of conflict. Post-war violence, whether committed in the public or private sphere, plagues many countries in the region.

Topics: Armed Conflict, DDR, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Constitutions, Elections, Post-conflict Governance, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, Violence Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, North America, South America

Year: 2009

Gender, Citizenship, and Political Agency in Lebanon

Citation:

Khatib, Lina. 2008. “Gender, Citizenship, and Political Agency in Lebanon.” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 35 (3): 437–51.

Author: Lina Khatib

Abstract:

This paper examines the condition of women as political agents in Lebanon in the context of legislation and political participation. It focuses on the effect of the Civil War on women's conditions of living in Lebanon, and their lives in the post-war period. War had negative effects on women, reinforcing their patriarchal subjugation, furthering their economic deprivation, and diverting attention from issues like women's rights, which have only added to women's political and social marginalization. The war also had a positive effect on women as it opened up new avenues for them to participate in public life. This paper analyzes gender relations in Lebanon through the frameworks of social change and the rise of civil society, but also emphasizes the challenges facing women in post-war Lebanon, where they are still governed by patriarchal values that hinder their political participation and their identification as full citizens.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Citizenship, Civil Society, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Political Participation, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Lebanon

Year: 2008

The Role of Women in the Reconstruction and Building of Peace in Rwanda: Peace Prospects for the Great Lakes Region

Citation:

Mzvondiwa, Cecilia Ntombizodwa. 2007. “The Role of Women in the Reconstruction and Building of Peace in Rwanda: Peace Prospects for the Great Lakes Region.” African Security Review 16 (1): 99–106.

Author: Cecilia Ntombizodwa Mzvondiwa

Abstract:

In view of the fact that women bear the heaviest burden of failed states, it is inevitable and logical that they should play a central role in designing and implementing peace-building programmes. This not only improves the quality but also the increases the chances of success and the consolidation of peace. This article uses Rwanda to highlight how women are affected by collapsing states and prescribes the role that they can play in reconstructing societies merging from violent conflicts. It strongly recommends the inclusion of women in post-conflict reconstruction and peace-building as model for good governance.

Topics: Gender, Women, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2007

Judges & Gender: The Constitutional Rights of Women in a Post-Apartheid South Africa

Citation:

Sachs, Albie. 1990. “Judges & Gender: The Constitutional Rights of Women in a Post-Apartheid South Africa.” Agenda Empowering Women for Gender Equity, no. 7, 1–11.

Author: Albie Sachs

Topics: Gender, Women, Governance, Constitutions, Post-conflict Governance, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 1990

The Role of Women in Reconciliation and Peace Building in Rwanda: Ten Years After Genocide

Citation:

Mutamba, John, and Jeanne Izabiliza. 2005. The Role of Women in Reconciliation and Peace Building in Rwanda: Ten Years After Genocide. Kigali, Rwanda: National Unity and Reconciliation Commission (NURC).

Authors: John Mutamba, Jeanne Izabiliza

Keywords: Rwanda, genocide, peace building, gender, women

Topics: Gender, Women, Genocide, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Peacebuilding Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2005

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