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Political Participation

Sister Citizens: Women in Syrian Rebel Governance

Citation:

Gilbert, Victoria. 2020. “Sister Citizens: Women in Syrian Rebel Governance.” Politics & Gender, 1–28. doi:10.1017/S1743923X20000136.

Author: Victoria Gilbert

Abstract:

In the rich literature on women and conflict, many scholars have assumed that the outbreak of civil war suppresses women’s political involvement. However, during Syria’s civil war, there was significant subnational and temporal variation in the involvement of women in the institutions established by armed groups and civilians in rebel-held areas. Why were some Syrian women able to secure a place for themselves in insurgent governance? How were they able to influence the form of local institutions to secure a role for women? Bringing together the scholarship on social movements and rebel governance, this article argues that two factors determine whether women were able to mobilize politically during conflict: the organizational capacity of women and the strength and ideology of locally active armed groups. The article leverages data on local organizations and institutions in Syria, Syrian news sources, and correspondence with several women’s organizations operating in Syria in 2017. By doing so, this article strives to bring attention to the role of gender in the expanding literature on rebel governance. It also highlights the significance of armed groups’ ideologies, an aspect often dismissed in the literature in favor of a focus on material factors.

Keywords: gender, rebel, rebel governance, insurgent governance, civil war, conflict, institutions, Syria, conflict processes, comparative politics, women, middle east, institutional design

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Conflict, Gender, Women, Governance, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Non-state Armed Groups, Political Participation Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Syria

Year: 2020

Gendered Views in a Feminist State: Swedish Opinions on Crime, Terrorism, and National Security

Citation:

Wagnsson, Charlotte, Eva-Karin Olsson, and Isabella Nilsen. 2020. “Gendered Views in a Feminist State: Swedish Opinions on Crime, Terrorism, and National Security.” Gender & Society. doi: 10.1177/0891243220946029.
 

Authors: Charlotte Wagnsson, Eva-Karin Olsson, Isabella Nilsen

Abstract:

Gender differences have been observed regarding many political and social issues, yet we lack comprehensive evidence on differences in perceptions on a wide range of security issues increasingly important to voters: military threats, criminality, and terrorism. Previous research suggests that when women are highly politically mobilized, as they are in Sweden, gender differences in political opinion are large. On the other hand, Swedish politicians have worked hard to reduce gender stereotypical thinking. This prompts the question: Are there gender differences in attitudes on security issues in Sweden, and if so, in what ways do the attitudes differ? This study is based on comprehensive data from focus groups and a large-scale survey. The results show that women were more prone to respond with an “ethic of care,” across security issues. Women were more inclined to understand security problems as structural, explained by macho culture, segregation, and injustice. Women tend to support preventive measures that provide individuals with opportunities to choose “the right path,” such as education and economic investment in deprived areas. When asked about national security, women believe more in diplomacy and dialogue. In general, women are less inclined to support various repressive solutions.

Keywords: crime, law & social control, politics/state/nationalism, violence, war & conflict

Topics: Gender, Gender Analysis, Gendered Discourses, Political Participation, Security Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Sweden

Year: 2020

Sectores campesinos, mujeres rurales y estado en Colombia

Citation:

Villarreal, Norma. 2005. “Sectores campesinos, mujeres rurales y estado en Colombia.” PhD diss., Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.

Author: Norma Villarreal

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This research studies the beginining and development of the rural women movement in Colombia. The rural women organizations have adquired a great influence in the economical and social rural life. This gender empowerment has a framework complex because there is poverty, rural modernization and crisis, violence and sociopolitical changes. The rural women organizations resulted of public political to recognize the role of the peasants women in the rural economy.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
El presente trabajo estudia el proceso de surgimiento y desarrollo de un movimiento de mujeres rurales con capacidad de influencia en los espacios de decisión de las políticas sectoriales. El aumento de la influencia de las mujeres en la economía y en la sociedad rural se da en un complejo proceso de pobreza, crisis y modernización rural, conflicto social y cambios sociopolíticos. La organización de mujeres rurales es el resultado de políticas públicas para reconocer el papel de las mujeres campesinas en la economía rural.

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Livelihoods, Political Participation Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2005

Violations of Afro-Colombian Women’s Human Rights: A Report for the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination

Citation:

Proceso de Comunidades Negras (PCN), MADRE, and Human Rights and Gender Justice (HRGJ) Clinic, CUNY School of Law. 2019. Violations of Afro-Colombian Women’s Human Rights: A Report for the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. Cali: PCN; New York: MADRE and HRGJ Clinic.

Authors: Proceso de Comunidades Negras (PCN), MADRE, Human Rights and Gender Justice (HRGJ) Clinic, CUNY School of Law

Annotation:

Summary:
"This report, prepared for the List of Themes in advance of the review of Colombia’s human rights record by the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, describes a widespread pattern of human rights violations committed against Afro-Colombian women and their communities, a pattern which in turn underscores entrenched systemic racial and gender discrimination in Colombia. Part II details ways in which Afro-descendant women are excluded from meaningful participation in peace implementation, and relatedly, the Government’s failure to adequately implement racial and gender justice provisions of its 2016 Peace Accord with the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC). Part III describes the consistent attacks on Afro-descendant human rights defenders, including women, the lack of meaningful state protection for them, and the environment of impunity in which the attacks occur. The following section provides information on the disproportionate vulnerability to sexual and gender-based violence that Afro-descendant communities face, and the lack of services, protection and justice for victims. Lack of access to adequate, appropriate, and timely health services for Afrodescendant survivors of sexual and gender-based violence is described in more detail in Part V. Part VI discusses the Government’s failure to uphold the collective territorial rights of AfroColombian women and their communities, placing their very existence as Peoples at risk. Each section is followed by suggested questions and recommendations to the Colombian government" (PCN et al. 2019, 4).

Topics: Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Justice, Impunity, Political Participation, Race, Rights, Human Rights, Land Rights, Sexual Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2019

Transitional Justice in Colombia—Insights from Postcolonial Feminist Theory

Citation:

Lasota, Josephine. 2020. “Transitional Justice in Colombia—Insights from Postcolonial Feminist Theory.” TLI Think! Paper 13/2020, Dickson Poon School of Law, King’s College London, London.

Author: Josephine Lasota

Abstract:

In 2016, Colombia’s biggest Guerrilla group, the FARC, and the government under president Santos reached a breakthrough in the lasting peace negotiations after the decades-long armed conflict and established a comprehensive transitional justice system. Although the accord is described as relatively progressive, the peace process is currently fraying. This paper aims to address some of the deficits of the Colombian peacebuilding, focusing on insights from postcolonial feminist theory. Building on experiences of past transitional justice processes, the essay examines the Colombian example with regard to women in decision-making positions and the lack of an intersectional approach. Moreover, the paper challenges the capacity of TJ as a tool to address the root causes of conflicts and to achieve a transformation of the society which is necessary in order to accomplish sustainable peace.

Keywords: transitional justice, peacebuilding, Colombia, FARC, Postcolonial Feminist Theory, intersectionality, women, structural inequalities

Topics: Armed Conflict, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Justice, Transitional Justice, Intersectionality, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Peacebuilding, Political Participation Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2020

Women's Leadership in Renewable Transformation, Energy Justice and Energy Democracy: Redistributing Power

Citation:

Allen, Elizabeth, Hannah Lyons, and Jennie C. Stephens. 2019. “Women’s Leadership in Renewable Transformation, Energy Justice and Energy Democracy: Redistributing Power.” Energy Research & Social Science 57 (November).

Authors: Elizabeth Allen, Hannah Lyons, Jennie C. Stephens

Abstract:

As women take on more leadership roles in the United States advancing social and political change, analysis of women’s contributions to the transformation occurring within the energy sector is critically important. Grassroots movements focused on energy justice and energy democracy focus on: (1) resisting the power of large multinational fossil fuel energy companies that exacerbate inequities and disparities in energy, (2) reclaiming the energy sector with more community and public control to redisitrbute benefits and risks, and (3) restructuring the energy sector to prioritize equity and justice with community ownership and distributed governance. This research analyzes women’s leadership by focusing on how two women-led, non-profit organizations are advancing the renewable energy transition, operationalizing the concept of energy democracy and contributing to the energy justice movement. The two organizations are Grid Alternatives, a solar installation and workforce training organization, and Mothers Out Front, an advocacy organization focused on addressing climate change by promoting a transition to renewable energy. These organizations differ in their mission and approaches, yet both intentionally link climate and energy action with other forms of social justice activism, by expanding community engagement, strengthening participation, and fundamentally redistributing power to promote a transition to more equitable, resilient and sustainable energy systems. This paper contributes to the theoretical understanding of gender in energy justice and energy democracy movements, and to the practical consideration of the role that women’s leadership is playing in accelerating energy system change and advancing the principles of energy justice and energy democracy. 

Keywords: gender, energy, renewable energy, fossil fuels, energy justice, energy democracy, power

Topics: Civil Society, Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Energy, Justice, Multi-national Corporations, Political Participation Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2019

Gender and the Formal and Informal Systems of Local Public Finance in Sierra Leone

Citation:

van den Boogaard, Vanessa. 2018. “Gender and the Formal and Informal Systems of Local Public Finance in Sierra Leone.” Working Paper No. 87, International Centre for Tax and Development (ICTD), Brighton. 

Author: Vanessa van den Boogaard

Abstract:

This paper considers how men and women in eastern and northern Sierra Leone interact differently with formal and informal revenue collection. It argues that the literature on tax and gender equity needs to be expanded in low-income countries to pay greater attention to the ways that citizens pay for public services in practice. It shows that formal taxation affects a very small proportion of the population, and especially of the female population. The reality is that women primarily pay for services at the local level through informal revenue contributions, which has the potential to reinforce gender inequities on account of the implications for intra-household divisions of power and lack of associated opportunities for political representation.

Keywords: gender, informal systems, local public finance, Sierra Leone

Topics: Economies, Informal Economies, Public Finance, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Households, Political Participation Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2018

“Our Lands are Our Lives”: Gendered Experiences of Resistance to Land Grabbing in Rural Cambodia

Citation:

Park, Clara Mi Young. 2019. “‘Our Lands Are Our Lives’: Gendered Experiences of Resistance to Land Grabbing in Rural Cambodia.” Feminist Economics 25 (4): 21-44.

Author: Clara Mi Young Park

Abstract:

Cambodia is known as a hotspot for land grabbing in Southeast Asia. Land dispossession due to elite capture, natural resources exploitation, and agribusiness development has catalyzed international attention following outbreaks of violence, mass protests, and retaliations. Agrarian economies, as well as social and gender relations and thus power dynamics at different levels, are being transformed and reshaped, facilitated by policies that promote capital penetration in rural areas and individualization of land access. Focusing on cases of rural dispossession and political resistance in Ratanakiri and Kampong Speu provinces, and drawing on reports, government documents, focus group discussions, and interviews, this study analyzes the gendered implications of land grabbing in contemporary Cambodia and argues that gender shapes and informs women’s responses and politics, as well as the spaces in which these are played out.

Keywords: women, gender, land grabs, dispossession, mobilization, Cambodia

Topics: Agriculture, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Land grabbing, Political Participation Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia

Year: 2019

A Feminist Perspective and the Challenge of Post Conflict Development in Africa

Citation:

Omotosho, Mashood, and Mariam Adebola Ogunleye. 2018. "A Feminist Perspective and the Challenge of Post Conflict Development in Africa." International Journal for Empirical Education and Research. doi:10.35935/edr/22.3619.

Author: Mashood Omotosho

Abstract:

In the last two decades, Africa has witnessed series of wars and ethno-religious conflicts with devastating impact on women. Various atrocities against women have been recorded during these conflicts and these developments have created a dangerous dimension against non-combatant women in the continent. In an attempt to resolve the conflict and armed conflict on women in the areas of sexual and gender-based violence, series of peace missions and peace building mechanism were put in place. Despite the various peace negotiations, evidence has shown that women are largely absent from formal peace negotiations and their voices are not heard both at local and continental levels especially within the modern-day challenges and post conflict development. In fact, the transformation agenda of post-conflict peace negotiations routinely failed to consider the gendered causes and consequences of armed conflict and post-conflict reconstruction. It is against this backdrop that this paper attempts to reassess the ambivalent role of women in conflict management in Africa. More importantly, the paper argues that there is need to increase women’s participation in peace talks, planning of demilitarisation, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) and determining governance and security structures, especially in conflict prone areas. Ultimately, the paper seeks to also identify challenges hindering the role and the participation of women in post conflict development in Africa.

Keywords: feminist, post conflict, gender, violence, womanism, conflict escalation

Topics: Armed Conflict, DDR, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Peace Processes, Sexual Violence Regions: Africa

Year: 2018

Challenges in Women’s Mental Health: Care in Conflict and Post-Conflict Situations

Citation:

Niaz, Unaiza, and Qudsia Tariq. 2020. "Challenges in Women’s Mental Health: Care in Conflict and Post-Conflict Situations." In Mental Health and Illness of Women, edited by Pradha S. Chandra, Helen Herman, Jane Fisher, and Anita Riecher-Rössler, 109-24. Singapore: Springer, Singapore.

Authors: Unaiza Niaz, Qudsia Tariq

Abstract:

Women usually do not pledge wars, but they do suffer profoundly from the penalties. Conflict spurs much higher rates of violence and traumas. It renders women acutely vulnerable to sexual abuse, poverty, and the loss of employment and the destruction of assets such as homes. Essential health services crumble, underlined by high mortality rate in conflict and post-conflict countries.
 
This chapter focuses on the challenges faced by women in the underdeveloped countries who had experienced war and terror for a long time and are at present struggling through their economic crisis and survival. It would be addressing the gender-based violence issues, the role of women in politics, and their rights to justice, education, and health-care services. It would also be addressing the biggest concern or aftermath of war like sexual violence and mental health and the stigmas attached with it.

Keywords: gender based violence, healthcare services, mental health stigma, sexual violence

Topics: Armed Conflict, Economies, Poverty, Conflict, Education, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Health, Mental Health, Trauma, Justice, Political Participation, Rights, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Violence

Year: 2020

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