Printer-friendly versionSend by emailPDF version

Political Economies

Dangerous Places and Nimble Fingers: Discourses of Gender Discrimination and Rights in Global Corporations


Poster, Winifred R. 2001. “Dangerous Places and Nimble Fingers: Discourses of Gender Discrimination and Rights in Global Corporations.” International Journal of Politics, Culture & Society 15 (1): 77-105.

Author: Winifred R. Poster


This paper considers how women's employment rights are being constructed in multinational corporations by examining three high-tech organizations-a U.S. company in Silicon Valley, its subsidiary in New Delhi, India, and a comparable local Indian company. It first describes the legal frameworks for addressing gender employment discrimination by state governments in India and the United States. Then it examines how these frameworks are appropriated and negotiated within the local contexts of the workplaces in the study. Finally, it reflects on recent transnational attempts to legislate and enforce women's employment rights in multinational corporations, specifically the challenges that such attempts face in light of the three case studies.

Keywords: gender, women's rights, employment discrimination, multinational corporation, international labor standards

Topics: Economies, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Multi-national Corporations, Political Economies, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, South Asia Countries: India, United States of America

Year: 2001

Women in Multinational Corporations: Old Myths, New Constructions and Some Deconstruction


Dallalfar, Arlene, and Siamak Movahedi. 1996. “Women in Multinational Corporations: Old Myths, New Constructions and Some Deconstruction.” Organization 3 (4): 546–59.

Authors: Arlene Dallalfar, Siamak Movahedi


When compared with domestic business operations, multinational corporations include fewer women at managerial levels in their foreign subsidiaries. Debates have ensued regarding whether women's absences from these positions are due to lack of the particular managerial abilities required for international assignments. In this article we argue that too much has been assumed about the sociopsychological requirements for international management, both for men and women. Through critical re-analyses of data from a previous study we contend that understanding 'women's advantages/disadvantages' in international management requires understanding women's structural positions in the First World-Third World political economy.

Topics: Economies, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Multi-national Corporations, Political Economies

Year: 1996

Gender, Capitalism and Globalization


Acker, Joan. 2004. “Gender, Capitalism and Globalization.” Critical Sociology 30 (1): 17–41.

Author: Joan Acker


Gendering the discourse of globalization will help to develop a better understanding of globalization processes and their consequences for women and men. I argue that gender processes and ideologies are embedded in globalizing capitalism in the separation of capitalist production and human reproduction and the corporate claims to non-responsibility for reproduction; in the important role of hegemonic masculinities in globalizing processes, and in the ways that gender serves as a resource for capital. I also discuss some of the consequences for women and men of these processes of globalization.

Keywords: globalization, gender, masculinities, capitalism, Third World women

Topics: Economies, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Globalization, Multi-national Corporations, Political Economies

Year: 2004

‘Expatriates’: Gender, Race and Class Distinctions in International Management


Berry, Daphne P., and Myrtle P. Bell. 2012. “‘Expatriates’: Gender, Race and Class Distinctions in International Management.” Gender, Work and Organization 19 (1): 10–28.

Authors: Daphne P. Berry, Myrtle P. Bell


In the international management (IM) literature, 'expatriate' is used as a verb in reference to the transnational movement of employees by multinational corporations (MNCs) and as a noun in reference to the people who are so moved across borders to work. IM's resulting expatriate analyses apply only to a specific minority of relatively privileged people. However, as is clear in other bodies of literature, many others ('migrants') in less privileged class positions move themselves across national boundaries for work. In this majority are often women and men—people of diverse races, ethnicities, economic and social means—who have less education and who work in lower level jobs, also often in or for MNCs. Their invisibility in the IM literature sustains and reinforces gender, race and class-based disparities in globalization processes and work to the detriment of poor women of colour around the world. We call for gendering change that would make visible the invisible in IM scholarship related to expatriation.

Keywords: expatriates, migrants, class, international management, gender

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Globalization, Multi-national Corporations, Political Economies, Race

Year: 2012

Hegemonic Masculinities, the Multinational Corporation, and the Developmental State Constructing Gender in ‘Progressive’ Firm


Elias, Juanita. 2008. “Hegemonic Masculinities, the Multinational Corporation, and the Developmental State Constructing Gender in ‘Progressive’ Firms.” Men and Masculinities 10 (4): 405–21.

Author: Juanita Elias


This article analyzes how the mainstream study of multinational corporations (MNCs) reflects a set of gendered assumptions that construct the firm as a hegemonically masculine political actor. It is suggested that the same masculinist assumptions that are found in these writings on MNCs take shape within firms in the form of a masculinist managerialism that constructs women workers in terms of their “productive femininity.” There is an extensive literature on women's employment in MNCs and their subsidiaries; the author suggests that this focus on women workers is only a starting point for developing a gendered understanding of global production. Importantly, a focus on “feminine” work and the role that masculinist managerial practices play in underpinning this construction provides insight into the gendered structures and institutions that support the workings of the global political economy.

Keywords: factory work, multinational corporation, globalization, masculinities, gendered employment practices

Topics: Economies, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Globalization, Multi-national Corporations, Political Economies

Year: 2008

The Political Economy of Women's Budgets in the South


Budlender, Debbie. 2000. “The Political Economy of Women’s Budgets in the South.” World Development 28 (7): 1365-78. 

Author: Debbie Budlender


Soon after the democratic elections of 1994, South Africa embarked on its first women's budget exercise, a collaborative venture between nongovernmental organizations and the South African parliament. Some time later the South African government initiated its own exercise in gender analysis of the budget. The South African initiative has attracted a lot of interest from around the world. In a number of other countries governments and civil society players have embarked on gender analysis exercises, often with strong support from international donors. This paper discusses the ways in which these exercises can assist in addressing gender issues, as well as some of the tensions involved.

Topics: Gender, Gender Analysis, Gender Budgeting, Gender Mainstreaming, Governance, Political Economies Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 2000

Mujer Rural: Cambios y persistencias en Ámerica Latina


Anderson, Jeanine, Luisa Elvira Belaunde, Rita Bórquez, María del Rosario Castro, Julia Cuadro Falla, María Cuvi Sánchez, Alejandro Diez Hurtado, Karim Flores Mego, Elizabeth López Canelas, Flor Edilma Osorio and Patricia Ruiz Bravo. 2011. Mujer Rural: Cambios y persistencias en Ámerica Latina. Lima: Centro Peruano de Estudios Sociales- CEPES.

Authors: Jeanine Anderson, Luisa Elvira Belaunde, Rita Bórquez, María del Rosario Castro, Julia Cuadro Falla, María Cuvi Sánchez, Alejandro Diez Hurtado, Karim Flores Mego, Elizabeth López Canelas, Flor Edilma Osorio, Patricia Ruiz Bravo

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Civil Society, Domestic Violence, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Globalization, Health, Political Economies, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights, Security, Sexual Violence Regions: Americas, Central America, South America

Year: 2011

Informalization, Inequalities and Global Insecurities


Peterson, V. Spike. 2010. “Informalization, Inequalities and Global Insecurities.” International Studies Review 12 (2): 244–70.

Author: V. Spike Peterson

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Political Economies

Year: 2010

Towards a Feminist International Ethics


Hutchings, Kimberly. 2000. "Towards a Feminist International Ethics." Review of International Studies 26 (5): 111-30.

Author: Kimberly Hutchings


The title of this article brings together two terms, the latter, ‘international ethics’, is instantly recognizable as referring to a distinct aspect of the academic study of international relations with its own canonic tradition and debates. The former term, ‘feminist’, is much less familiar, and for many normative theorists in international relations refers to a political movement and set of ideological positions whose relevance to international ethics is far from clear. It is therefore necessary to engage in some preliminary explanation of the term ‘feminism’ and how it has come to be linked to ‘international ethics’ in recent scholarship in order to set out the argument of this article. It is only in the last fifteen years that theoretical perspectives under the label of feminism have come to be applied to international relations, although they have a rather longer history within other social sciences and, significantly, within ethical theory. Feminism as a political movement comes in a variety of ideological forms and the same is true of feminism within the academy. The common theme which connects diverse theoretical positions under the label of ‘feminism’ is the claim that paying attention to the ways in which social reality is ‘gendered’ has a productive impact on how it is to be understood, judged and may be changed. What counts as ‘productive’ is related not simply to the goal of enriching understanding and judgment as such (by drawing attention to its gendered dimension), but to the explicitly political goal of exposing and addressing the multiple ways in which both women and men are oppressed by gendered relations of power. It is clear, from the first, therefore, that there is a powerfully normative agenda inherent in any perspective labelled as ‘feminist’.

Keywords: feminism, feminist theory, gender theory, international feminist movement, international politics, gendered policy analysis, gender and development

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Democracy / Democratization, Development, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Globalization, Governance, Political Economies

Year: 2000


© 2019 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at

Subscribe to RSS - Political Economies