Political Economies

Gender Equity, Citizenship and Public Water in Bangladesh

Citation:

Sultana, Farhana, Chandra Talpade Mohanty, and Sarah Miraglia. 2016. “Gender Equity, Citizenship and Public Water in Bangladesh.” In Making Public in a Privatized World: The Struggle for Essential Services, edited by David McDonald, 149-64. London: Zed Books Ltd.

Authors: Farhana Sultana, Chandra Talpade Mohanty, Sarah Miraglia

Annotation:

Summary:
“This study underscores the significance of a gendered perspective, the need to focus on women’s lived realities, and the importance of analyzing how politics of place shape access, delivery and preferences for public water. The study affirms equity, affordability, sustainability, and efficiency as generally desirable aspects of public water provision, but questions the means of creating and evaluating public systems to achieve these goals, and warns against entrenching local power hierarchies or further marginalizing the poor or exacerbating their exploitation. The study argues that attention to gender, experience, and place is crucial to any conceptualization of public service and water justice” (Sultana et al. 2016, 150).

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Governance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Political Economies Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2016

The Fallen Hero: Masculinity, Shame and Farmer Suicide in Australia

Citation:

Bryant, Lia, and Bridget Garnham. 2015. “The Fallen Hero: Masculinity, Shame and Farmer Suicide in Australia.” Gender, Place & Culture 22 (1): 67–82.

Authors: Lia Bryant, Bridget Garnham

Abstract:

The drought-stricken Australian rural landscape, cultures of farming masculinity and an economy of value, moral worth and pride form a complex matrix of discourses that shape subjective dynamics that render suicide a possibility for distressed farmers. However, the centrality of a ‘mental health’ perspective and reified notions of ‘stoicism’ within this discursive field operate to exclude consideration of the ways in which cultural identity is linked to emotions. To illuminate and explore complex connections between subjectivity, moral worth and affect in relation to understanding farmer suicide, this article draws on theory and literature on agrarian discourses of masculine subjectivity and shame to analyze empirical data from interviews with farmers during times of environmental, social and economic crisis. The idealized notion of the farming man as ‘Aussie battler’ emerges from romantic agrarian mythology in which pride and self-worth are vested in traditional values of hard work, struggle and self-sacrifice. However, the structural context of agriculture, as it is shaped by the political economy of neoliberalism, threatens farm economic viability and is eroding the pride, self-worth and masculine identity of farmers. The article suggests that the notion of the ‘fallen hero’ captures a discursive shift of a masculinity ‘undone’, a regress from the powerful position of masculine subjectivity imbued with pride to one of shame that is of central importance to understanding how suicide emerges as a possibility for farmers.

Keywords: masculinity, rurality, suicide, farmer, shame

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Health, Mental Health, Political Economies Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2015

Fluid Lives: Subjectivities, Gender and Water in Rural Bangladesh

Citation:

Sultana, Farhana. 2009. “Fluid Lives: Subjectivities, Gender and Water in Rural Bangladesh.” Gender, Place & Culture 16 (4): 427–44.

Author: Farhana Sultana

Abstract:

This article seeks to contribute to the emerging debates in gender–water and gender–nature literatures by looking at the ways that gendered subjectivities are simultaneously (re)produced by societal, spatial and natural/ecological factors, as well as materialities of the body and of heterogeneous waterscapes. Drawing from fieldwork conducted in Bangladesh on arsenic contamination of drinking water, the article looks at the ways that gender relations are influenced by not just direct resource use/control/access and the implications of different types of waters, but also by the ideological constructs of masculinity/femininity, which can work in iterative ways to influence how people relate to different kinds of water. Conflicts and struggles over water inflect gendered identities and sense of self, where both men and women participate in reproducing and challenging prevailing norms and practices. As a result, multiple social and ecological factors interact in complex and interlinked ways to complicate gender–water relations, whereby socio-spatial subjectivities are re/produced in water management and end up reinforcing existing inequities. The article demonstrates that gender–water relations are not just intersected by social axes, as generally argued by feminist scholars, but also by ecological change and spatial relations vis-à-vis water, where simultaneously socialized, ecologized, spatialized and embodied subjectivities are produced and negotiated in everyday practices.

Keywords: gender, water, Bangladesh, Subjectivity, arsenic

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Political Economies Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2009

“Traditional” Women, “Modern” Water: Linking Gender and Commodification in Rajasthan, India

Citation:

O’Reilly, Kathleen. 2006. “‘Traditional’ Women, ‘Modern’ Water: Linking Gender and Commodification in Rajasthan, India.” Geoforum 37 (6): 958–72.

Author: Kathleen O'Reilly

Abstract:

In this paper, I analyze the connections made between women and water in a Rajasthani drinking water supply project as a significant part of drinking water’s commodification. For development policy makers, water progressing from something free to something valued by price is inevitable when moving economies toward modernity and development. My findings indicate that water is not commodified simply by charging money for it, but through a series of discourses and acts that link it to other “modern” objects and give it value. One of these objects is “women”. I argue that through women’s participation activities that link gender and modernity to new responsibilities and increased mobility for village women involving the clean water supply, a “traditional” Rajasthani woman becomes “modern”. Water, in parallel, becomes “new”, “improved” and worth paying for. Women and water resources are further connected through project staff’s efforts to promote latrines by targeting women as their primary users. The research shows that villagers applied their own meanings to latrines, some of which precluded women using them. This paper fills a gap in feminist political ecology, which often overlooks how gender is created through natural resource interventions, by concerning itself with how new meanings of “water” and “women” are mutually constructed through struggles over water use and its commodification. It contributes to critical development geography literatures by demonstrating that women’s participation approaches to natural resource development act as both constraints and opportunities for village constituents. It examines an under-explored area of gender and water research by tracing village-level struggles over meanings of latrines.

Keywords: water, gender, India, NGOs, development, Latrines, commodification

Topics: Development, Economies, Environment, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gendered Discourses, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Political Economies, Privatization Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2006

Depleting Fragile Bodies: The Political Economy of Sexual and Reproductive Health in Crisis Situations

Citation:

Tanyag, Maria. 2018. “Depleting Fragile Bodies: The Political Economy of Sexual and Reproductive Health in Crisis Situations.” Review of International Studies 44 (4): 654-71. 

Author: Maria Tanyag

Abstract:

In a crisis-prone world, the number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) uprooted by both armed conflicts and environmental disasters has drastically increased and displacement risks have intensified. Despite the growing attention within global security and development agendas to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), there remain striking gaps in addressing SRHR in crisis situations, particularly among IDP women and girls. This article examines the continuum between social reproduction in times of crisis and the material and ideological conditions that restrict women’s bodily autonomy in everyday life. Using the case of the Philippines where millions of people are routinely affected by conflict and disaster-induced displacements, it argues that the failure to recognise the centrality of women’s health and bodily autonomy not only hinders the sustainable provision of care and domestic labour during and after crisis, but also fundamentally constrains how security is enacted within these spaces. Thus, the article highlights an urgent need to rethink the gendered political economy of crisis responses as a building block for stemming gendered violence and depletion of social reproductive labour at the household, state, and global levels.

Keywords: feminist political economy, social reproduction, depletion, Crisis, global health

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Health, Reproductive Health, Livelihoods, Political Economies Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2018

Suffering for Water, Suffering from Water: Emotional Geographies of Resource Access, Control and Conflict

Citation:

Sultana, Farhana. 2011. "Suffering for Water, Suffering from Water: Emotional Geographies of Resource Access, Control and Conflict." Geoforum 42 (2): 163-72. 

Author: Farhana Sultana

Abstract:

This article argues that resource access, use, control, ownership and conflict are not only mediated through social relations of power, but also through emotional geographies where gendered subjectivities and embodied emotions constitute how nature–society relations are lived and experienced on a daily basis. By engaging the insights from feminist political ecology literatures and emotional geographies literatures, the article demonstrates that resource struggles and conflicts are not just material challenges but emotional ones, which are mediated through bodies, spaces and emotions. Such a focus fleshes out the complexities, entanglements and messy relations that constitute political ecologies of resources management, where practices and processes are negotiated through constructions of gender, embodiments, and emotions. Abstractions of ‘resource struggles’ and ‘resource conflicts’ are thereby grounded in embodied emotional geographies of places, peoples, and resources, enabling us to better understand the ways resources and emotions come to matter in everyday survival struggles. This framing can enrich feminist political ecology theorizations and texture our understandings of commonly used terms such as access, use, control, conflict and struggles vis-à-vis natural resources in any context. In other words, we are better able to conceptualize and explain how and why people access, use, and struggle over resources the ways they do. A case study of drinking water contamination from Bangladesh is used to develop the theoretical arguments in contributing to existing debates in (feminist) political ecologies.

Keywords: political ecology, emotional geography, resource access, conflict, gender, water, Bangladesh

Topics: Conflict, Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Political Economies Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2011

Military Markets, Masculinities and the Global Political Economy of the Everyday: Understanding Military Outsourcing as Gendered and Racialised

Citation:

Chisholm, Amanda, and Saskia Stachowitsch. 2017. “Military Markets, Masculinities and the Global Political Economy of the Everyday: Understanding Military Outsourcing as Gendered and Racialised.” In The Palgrave International Handbook of Gender and the Military, edited by Rachel Woodward and Claire Duncanson, 371–85. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK. 

Authors: Amanda Chisholm, Saskia Stachowitsch

Annotation:

Summary:
“This chapter examines the racialized and gendered practices that underpin and shape military privatization. It first traces the emergence of the research field; second, it highlights why critical research in this area remains important to understanding the gendering of war and military institutions; and third, it advances the field by integrating feminist global political economy to theorise private military security as an issue of labour, foregrounding gendered and racialized labour relations, global labour chains, labour migration patterns and the unpaid reproductive labour which constitute the private security industry” (Chisholm and Stachowitsch 2017, 371). 

Topics: Economies, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Political Economies, Race

Year: 2017

Perspectives on Private Security: The Myth, the Men and the Markets

Citation:

Chisholm, Amanda. 2018. “Perspectives on Private Security: The Myth, the Men and the Markets.” In Handbook on the International Political Economy of Gender, edited by Juanita Elias and Adrienne Roberts, 196-210. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Author: Amanda Chisholm

Annotation:

Summary:
“This chapter seeks to broaden gender discussions on PMSCs and the Global Political Economy (GPE) of militaries/peacekeeping by asking what can be learned about security when seen through a feminist IPE lens – taking into account questions around the reproductive labour of the industry, how value and valuation are produced, and paying attention to the labour chains that underpin this global industry. Such a broadening allows us to see the security industry as both a security and political economy issue” (Chisholm 2018, 197). 

Topics: Economies, Feminisms, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Militaries, Peacekeeping, Political Economies, Security

Year: 2018

Stepchildren of Progress: The Political Economy of Development in an Indonesian Mining Town

Citation:

Robinson, Kathryn M. 1986. Stepchildren of Progress: The Political Economy of Development in an Indonesian Mining Town. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Author: Kathryn M. Robinson

Annotation:

Summary:
Dramatic changes caused by a foreign-owned nickel mining company in an Indonesian town provide the setting for this ethnographic study. Robinson notes the changes that took place in Soroako, a village in Sulawesi. The book outlines the effects of this new development, principally in regard to the 1,000 indigenous Soroakans whose former agricultural land is now the site for the mining town. It presents an analysis of developing capitalist relations in the mining town, investigating changes not only in the sphere of production manifested in daily life as new forms of work, but also in culture and ideology. The book also investigates related changes in other areas of social life, in particular that of women's roles, marriage and the family, and the importance of ideologies of race and ethnicity in regulating relations between different groups in the mining town. Furthermore, Robinson shows that new ideological forms have arisen in the context of the evolving class structure. (Summary from SUNY Press)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Introduction
 
2. The Mining Town
 
3. The Village of Soroako: Its People and the Beginnings of Their Incorporation Into the Modern World 
 
4. Political Independence: The Village in the New State 
 
5. Land, Labour, and Social Relations in the Preproject Economy 
 
6. Peasants, Proletarians, and Traders in the Peripheral Capitalist Economy 
 
7. Domination and Conflict: The Company, the Village, and the State
 
8. The Wedding of Hijra: Changing Social Relations
 
9. Race Relations and Class Domination 
 
10. Stepchildren of Progress: Ethnicity and Class Consciousness in the Mining Town
 
11. Conclusion 

Topics: Class, Development, Economies, Ethnicity, Extractive Industries, Gender, Gender Roles, Indigenous, Political Economies, Race, Rights, Indigenous Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 1986

Pages

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