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Political Economies

Women, Nature, and Development in Sites of Ecuador’s Petroleum Circuit

Citation:

Cielo, Cristina, Lisset Coba, and Ivette Vallejo. 2016. “Women, Nature, and Development in Sites of Ecuador’s Petroleum Circuit.” Economic Anthropology 3 (1): 119–32. doi:10.1002/sea2.12049.

Authors: Cristina Cielo, Lisset Coba, Ivette Vallejo

Abstract:

This article argues that the contradictory character of Ecuador’s current development project is made evident through a focus on energy resource management from a feminist ecological perspective. The hydrocarbon exploitation fundamental to these projects transforms women’s roles in social reproduction and production, their relationship with nature, and their dependence on state-institutionalized energy regimes. We examine changes in women’s territorially based work of care at sites in Ecuador’s petroleum circuit. An ethnographic focus on the transformation of women’s daily lives at sites of petroleum exploration, exploitation, and processing in Ecuador reveals an often overlooked dimension of the socioenvironmental conflicts produced by the intensification of national economic insertion into the global energy market. This article thus examines the intersection of state development policies and the gendered construction of subjects of development. The exploitation of natural resources transforms the meanings and values of nature and development, of women’s work of care, and of the participation of these in different energy regimes.

Keywords: care work, ecofeminism, development, petroleum circuit, Ecuadorian Amazon

Topics: Development, Environment, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, conflict, Infrastructure, Energy, Political Economies Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Ecuador

Year: 2016

‘To Finish, We Must Finish’: Everyday Practices of Depletion in Sri Lankan Export-Processing Zones

Citation:

Gunawardana, Samanthi J. 2016. “‘To Finish, We Must Finish’: Everyday Practices of Depletion in Sri Lankan Export-Processing Zones.” Globalizations 13 (6): 861-875.

Author: Samanthi J. Gunawardana

Abstract:

The integrative dynamic between social reproduction (SR) and the market economy is underscored by the everyday experience of what can be termed ‘depletion’ for many women in the Global South. Drawing upon case study material from Sri Lanka, this paper focuses on migration decisions to work in export-processing zones (EPZs) and everyday production processes. It shows how workplaces are sites of depletion. Depletion reproduces the processes of disposability in global factories. Relations of SR are also reproduced in the factory. Affecting body and mind, depletion flourishes in environments without recourse to adequate inputs that maintain well-being including, but not limited to, leisure and rest, adequate wages, freedom of association, adequate nutrition, housing, and job security. In Sri Lanka, migration to EPZs was prompted by a crisis in SR and lack of inflows to sustain the well-being of women and households. Such workplaces are also an everyday day element of the global political economy, enacted upon gendered bodies, fuelling a cycle of gendered harm through the reproduction of disposability. 

Keywords: depletion, export, processing zone, Gendered harm, Sri Lanka, social reproduction

Topics: Civil Society, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Political Economies Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Sri Lanka

Year: 2016

Everyday Matters in Global Private Security Supply Chains: A Feminist Global Political Economy Perspective on Gurkhas in Private Security

Citation:

 
Chisholm, Amanda, and Saskia Stachowitsch. 2016. “Everyday Matters in Global Private Security Supply Chains: A Feminist Global Political Economy Perspective on Gurkhas in Private Security.” Globalizations 13 (6): 815-29. 

Authors: Amanda Chisholm, Saskia Stachowitsch

Abstract:

In a case study of Nepalese Gurkhas working for Western private military and security companies (PMSCs), this article develops feminist global political economy understandings of global labour chains by exploring how the ‘global market’ and the ‘everyday’ interact in establishing private security as a gendered and racialised project. Current understandings of PMSCs, and global markets at large, tend to depoliticise these global and everyday interactions by conceptualising the ‘everyday’ as common, mundane, and subsequently banal. Such understandings, we argue, not only conceal the everyday within private security, but also reinforce a conceptual dualism that enables the security industry to function as a gendered and racialised project. To overcome this dualism, this article offers a theoretically informed notion of the everyday that dissolves the hegemonic separation into ‘everyday’ and ‘global’ levels of analysis. Drawing upon ethnography, semi- structured interviews, and discourse analysis of PMSCs’ websites, the analysis demonstrates how race, gender, and colonial histories constitute global supply chains for the security industry, rest upon and reinforce racialised and gendered migration patterns, and depend upon, as well as shape, the everyday lives and living of Gurkha men and women.

Keywords: Gurkhas, private security, feminist security studies, feminist global political economy, masculinity

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Political Economies, Race, Security Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2016

The Feminisation of Mining

Citation:

Lahiri‐Dutt, Kuntala. 2015. “The Feminisation of Mining.” Geography Compass 9 (9): 523–541. doi:10.1111/gec3.12229.

Author: Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt

Abstract:

This paper argues that feminisation is beginning to occur in the mining industry, a process associated with an expanded notion of mining as a livelihood in the radically changing political economy of extractive industries. It demonstrates that new gendered geographies are being created as grinding rural poverty pushes large numbers of women into informal mining (also known as artisanal and small‐scale mining or ASM)—a fundamentally different type of economic activity from the capitalised, industrialised mining operated by large corporations. Further, it shows that a number of civil society initiatives, industry measures, policy processes and action‐research with large‐scale mining corporations are currently underway in response to an overall enhanced awareness of gender mainstreaming. It argues that these initiatives, ensued from women's struggles and feminist contributions, are helping to integrate gender more firmly in a wide range of extractive environments, and how these have enhanced the visibility of women and gender in mining. The paper ends by indicating the existing gaps in inquiry and possible directions for future research by feminist geographers into these gendered economic spaces.

Topics: Civil Society, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Livelihoods, Political Economies

Year: 2015

War as Feminized Labour in the Global Political Economy of Neoimperialism

Citation:

Meger, Sara. 2016. “War as Feminized Labour in the Global Political Economy of Neoimperialism.” Postcolonial Studies 19(4): 378–92. 

Author: Sara Meger

Abstract:

This article examines the structures of international relations that facilitate political violence in postcolonial states. It explores the intersections of patriarchy and imperialism in the contemporary political economy to understand how armed conflict and political violence in postcolonial states form an integral element of the global economy of accumulation in deeply gendered ways. By focusing on the structural level of analysis, this article argues that the siting of armed conflict in postcolonial contexts serves to maintain neo-colonial relations of exploitation between the West and non-West, and is made both possible and effective through the gendering of political identities and types of work performed in the global economy. I argue here that armed conflict is a form of feminized labour in the global economy. Despite the fact that performing violence is a physically masculine form of labour, the outsourcing of armed conflict as labour in the political economy is ‘feminized’ in that it represents the flexibilization of labour and informalization of market participation. So while at the same time that this work is fulfilling hegemonic ideals of militarized masculinity within the domestic context, at the international level it actually demonstrates the ‘weakness’ or ‘otherness’ of the ‘failed’/feminized state in which this violence occurs, and legitimizes and hence re-entrenches the hegemonic relations between the core and eriphery on the basis of problematizing the ‘weak’ state’s masculinity. It is through the discursive construction of the non-Western world as the site of contemporary political violence that mainstream international relations reproduces an orientalist approach to both understanding and addressing the ‘war puzzle'.

Keywords: political economy, neo-colonialism, war, gender, feminized labour, feminist international relations, postcolonial theory

Topics: Armed Conflict, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Political Economies, Violence

Year: 2016

Clients, Contractors, and the Everyday Masculinities in Global Private Security

Citation:

Chisholm, Amanda. 2017. “Clients, Contractors, and the Everyday Masculinities in Global Private Security.” Critical Military Studies 3 (2): 120–41. 

Author: Amanda Chisholm

Abstract:

This article explores the intimate relationships between the client and the security contractor. It draws upon autoethnography to bring into focus the client/contractor encounters and demonstrate how such encounters (re)shape the marginal and hegemonic men/masculinities of the security industry – masculinities which work to legitimize not only who and what are appropriate security providers but also how value/valuation of security is understood and practised. As such it contributes to the broader debates about gender and war by (1) demonstrating how the researcher is always embedded in and shaped by the research she produces; and (2) by bringing to the fore the multitude of masculinities, beyond the hegemonic militarized, that emerge in private security markets.

Keywords: autoethnography, military, militarization, private military and security companies, masculinities, feminist political economy

Topics: Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Militaries, Militarization, Political Economies, Security

Year: 2017

Rebuilding With or Without Women?

Citation:

True, Jacqui. 2012. “Rebuilding With or Without Women?: Gendered Violence in Postconflict Peace and Reconstruction” In The Political Economy of Violence Against Women. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Author: Jacqui True

Abstract:

Chapter 8 examines the spike of sexual and gender-based violence in postconflict and peace-building environments. Despite recent UN Security Council resolutions, the invisibility of this violence against women during and after conflict marginalizes women in postconflict state-building and economic reconstruction processes. This economic and political marginalization of women exacerbates violence after conflict and hinders these peace-building efforts. The first part of the chapter applies the political economy approach of the book to reveal how gendered peacekeeping economies exacerbate violence against women. It critiques the prioritization of law and order over social and economic opportunities. The second part examines the role of women in peace-building decision making and economic reconstruction in places as diverse as East Timor; Aceh, Indonesia; Mindanao province in the Philippines; Iraq; Afghanistan; Colombia; Guatemala; the Congo; and Darfur. The chapter concludes by critically assessing two approaches to postconflict prevention of violence against women: the “good practice” of placing women peacekeepers in postconflict zones and the role of reparations in ensuring women's equal access to postconflict development.

 

Keywords: post conflict, peacekeeping economies, reparations, peacebuilding, economic reconstruction

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Economies, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, Political Economies, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, Violence Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, Americas, Central America, South America, Asia, Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Oceania Countries: Afghanistan, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guatemala, Indonesia, Iraq, Philippines, Sudan, Timor-Leste

Year: 2012

Building Back Better? — Negotiating Normative Boundaries of Gender Mainstreaming and Post-Tsunami Reconstruction in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Indonesia

Citation:

Jauhola, Marjaana. 2010. "Building Back Better? — Negotiating Normative Boundaries of Gender Mainstreaming and Post-Tsunami Reconstruction in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Indonesia." Review of International Studies 36 (1): 29-50.

Author: Marjaana Jauhola

Abstract:

This article focuses on gender mainstreaming policies and advocacy on equality in the post-tsunami context in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. Through the analysis this article illustrates how gender mainstreaming policy documents and gender advocacy of the provincial and central government, when drawing from sex/gender division and binary of genders, reproduce heteronormative boundaries. By focusing on details, I argue that the image of the heteronormative nuclear family participates in normalizing other identity categories; such as urban and middle-class. I also provide examples of how simultaneous to the production of dominant norms, gender advocacy challenges heteronormativity and norms governing heterosexuality and actively question the dominant gender norms. Drawn from postcolonial feminist and recent queer critiques, I argue that advocacy that solely focuses on gender and/or sexuality reduces human bodies and their desires to simplistic stick figures. Thus, it remains blind to other forms of violence, such as global economic and political frameworks that define 'building back better' primarily as recovery and rehabilitation of economy, assets and labour force.

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, LGBTQ, Political Economies, Violence Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2010

Gender Change in the Globalization of Agriculture?

Citation:

Joshi, Deepa. “Gender Change in the Globalization of Agriculture?” Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice 27, 2 (2015): 165-174. 

Author: Deepa Joshi

Abstract:

Almost two decades ago, feminist researcher Maria Mies asked, “What would an economy look like in which nature mattered, in which women mattered, in which children mattered, in which people mattered, [an economy] which would not be based on colonizing and exploiting others?” These are precisely the issues of concern today. Contemporary globalization relocates high value agricultural production to the Southern hemisphere for Northern markets and high-income consumers in general. A post-colonial globalization of agri-food and trade through corporatization of land is critiqued by many for undermining food security, for irreversibly altering ecological landscapes, and for marginalizing the poorest, including women, through traps of coercive wage labor opportunities that are grossly inequitable as well as limiting voice, dignity, and food sovereignty. Given the tenacious links drawn between the political, social, and economic dimensions of food insecurity and conflict, it appears that there is indeed a contemporary nexus between gender, environment, and conflict, it is manifested in and aggravated by the globalization of the agri-food system.

 

 

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, Globalization, Political Economies

Year: 2015

Feminist Security Studies and Feminist International Political Economy: Considering Feminist Stories

Citation:

Allison, Katherine. 2015. “Feminist Security Studies and Feminist International Political Economy: Considering Feminist Stories.” Politics & Gender 11 (2): 430–4. 

Author: Katherine Allison

Topics: Feminisms, Militarism, Political Economies, Security, Violence

Year: 2015

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