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Political Economies

Economies of Violence: Transnational Feminism, Postsocialism, and the Politics of Sex Trafficking

Citation:

Suchland, Jennifer. 2015. Economies of Violence: Transnational Feminism, Postsocialism, and the Politics of Sex Trafficking. Durham: Duke University Press.

Author: Jennifer Suchland

Annotation:

Summary:
Recent human rights campaigns against sex trafficking have focused on individual victims, treating trafficking as a criminal aberration in an otherwise just economic order. In Economies of Violence Jennifer Suchland directly critiques these explanations and approaches, as they obscure the reality that trafficking is symptomatic of complex economic and social dynamics and the economies of violence that sustain them. Examining United Nations proceedings on women's rights issues, government and NGO anti-trafficking policies, and campaigns by feminist activists, Suchland contends that trafficking must be understood not solely as a criminal, gendered, and sexualized phenomenon, but as operating within global systems of precarious labor, neoliberalism, and the transition from socialist to capitalist economies in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc. In shifting the focus away from individual victims, and by underscoring trafficking's economic and social causes, Suchland provides a foundation for building more robust methods for combatting human trafficking. (Summary from Duke University Press) 
 
Table of Contents: 
1. Sex Trafficking and the Making of a Feminist Subject of Analysis
 
2. The Natasha Trade and the Post-Cold War Reframing of Precarity
 
3. Second World/ Second Sex: Alternative Genealogies in Feminist Homogenous Empty Time
 
4. Lost in Transition: Postsocialist Trafficking and the Erasure of Systemic Violence
 
5. Freedom as Choice and the Neoliberal Economism of Trafficking Discourse
 
6. Conclusion: Antitrafficking Beyond the Carceral State

 

Topics: Economies, Feminisms, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Women, International Organizations, NGOs, Political Economies, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Trafficking, Sex Trafficking

Year: 2015

Economy for the Earth: The Labour Theory of Value without the Subject/Object Distinction.

Citation:

Brennan, Teresa. 1997. “Economy for the Earth: The Labour Theory of Value without the Subject/Object Distinction.” Ecological Economics 20 (2): 175–85. 

Author: Teresa Brennan

Abstract:

This is a theoretical paper which applies feminist and ecological feminist critiques of the subject/object distinction in philosophy to Marx's labour theory of value. It argues that much of the use of Marx's political economy has been undermined by the centrality of the subject/object distinction in his theory. His deployment of this distinction led him to an exclusive emphasis on subjective human labour-power as the key factor in profit. The main part of the paper reworks Marx's value-theory without the subject/object distinction. Used this way, the paper argues, Marx's value theory becomes a theory of time and speed, in which nature overall is the source of value, and the time of natural reproduction is disregarded in the interests of profit. The paper contends that this reworking of the labour theory of value extends its explanatory force.

Topics: Economies, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Feminist Political Economy, Political Economies

Year: 1997

Routledge Handbook of Gender and Environment

Citation:

MacGregor, Sherilyn, ed. 2017. Routledge Handbook of Gender and Environment. New York: Routledge.

Author: Sherilyn MacGregor

Annotation:

Summary:
The Routledge Handbook of Gender and Environment gathers together state-of-the-art theoretical reflections and empirical research from leading researchers and practitioners working in this transdisciplinary and transnational academic field. Over the course of the book, these contributors provide critical analyses of the gender dimensions of a wide range of timely and challenging topics, from sustainable development and climate change politics, to queer ecology and interspecies ethics in the so-called Anthropocene.
 
Presenting a comprehensive overview of the development of the field from early political critiques of the male domination of women and nature in the 1980s to the sophisticated intersectional and inclusive analyses of the present, the volume is divided into four parts:
 
Part I: Foundations
Part II: Approaches
Part III: Politics, Policy and Practice
Part IV: Futures
 
Comprising chapters written by forty contributors with different perspectives and working in a wide range of research contexts around the world, this Handbook will serve as a vital resource for scholars, students, and practitioners in environmental studies, gender studies, human geography, and the environmental humanities and social sciences more broadly. (Summary from Routledge)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Rachel Carson Was Right – Then and Now 
Joni Seager
 
2. The Death of Nature: Foundations of Ecofeminist Thought 
Charis Thompson and Sherilyn MacGregor
 
3. The Dilemma of Dualism 
Freya Mathews
 
4. Gender and Environment From ‘Women, Environment and Development’ to Feminist Political Ecology
Bernadette P. Resurrección
 
5. Ecofeminist Political Economy: A Green and Feminist Agenda
Mary Mellor
 
6. Naturecultures and Feminist Materialism
Helen Merrick
 
7. Posthumanism, Ecofeminism, and Inter-species Relations
Greta Gaard
 
8. Gender, Livelihoods, and Sustainability: Anthropological Research
Maria Cruz-Torres and Pamela McElwee
 
9. Gender’s Critical Edge: Feminist Political Ecology, Postcolonial Intersectionality, and the Coupling of Race and Gender
Sharlene Mollett
 
10. Gender and Environmental Justice
Julie Sze
 
11. Gender Differences in Environmental Concern: Sociological Explanations
Chenyang Xiao and Aaron M. McCright
 
12. Social Ecology: A Transdisciplinary Approach to Gender and Environment Research
Diana Hummel and Immanuel Stieß
 
13. Gender and Environmental (In)security: From Climate Conflict to Ecosystem Instability
Nicole Detraz
 
14. Gender, Environmental Governmentality, and the Discourses of Sustainable Development
Emma A. Foster
 
15. Feminism and Biopolitics: A Cyborg Account
Catriona Sandilands
 
16. Exploring Industrial, Eco-Modern, and Ecological Masculinities
Martin Hultman
 
17. Transgender Environments
Nicole Seymour
 
18. A Fruitless Endeavour: Confronting the Heteronormativity of Environmentalism
Cameron Butler
 
19. Gender and Environmental Policy
Seema Arora-Jonsson
 
20. Gender Politics in Green Parties
Stewart Jackson
 
21. Good Green Jobs for Whom? A Feminist Critique of the Green Economy
Beate Littig
 
22. Gender Dimensions of Sustainable Consumption
Ines Weller
 
23. Sexual Stewardship: Environment, Development, and the Gendered Politics of Population
Jade Sasser
 
24. Gender Equality, Sustainable Agricultural Development, and Food Security
Agnes A. Babugura
 
25. Whose Debt for Whose Nature? Gender and Nature in Neoliberalism’s War Against Subsistence
Ana Isla
 
26. Gender and Climate Change Politics
Susan Buckingham
 
27. Changing the Climate of Participation: The Gender Constituency in the Global Climate Change Regime
Karren Morrow
 
28. Planning for Climate Change: REDD+SES as Gender-Responsive Environmental Action
Marcela Tovar-Restrepo
 
29. Pragmatic Utopias: Intentional Gender-Democratic and Sustainable Communities
Helen Jarvis
 
30. Feminist Futures and ‘Other Worlds’: Ecologies of Critical Spatial Practice
Meike Schalk, Ulrika Gunnarsson-Östing and Karin Bradley
 
31. Orca Intimacies and Environmental Slow Death: Earthling Ethics for a Claustrophobic World 
Margret Grebowicz
 
32. The End of Gender or Deep Green Trans-Misogyny?
Laura Houlberg
 
33. Welcome to the White (m)Anthropocene? A Feminist-Environmentalist Critique
Giovanna Di Chiro

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Feminist Political Ecology, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Intersectionality, Livelihoods, Political Economies

Year: 2017

Practising Feminist Political Ecologies: Moving Beyond the 'Green Economy'

Citation:

Harcourt, Wendy, and Ingrid L. Nelson, eds. 2015. Practising Feminist Political Ecologies: Moving Beyond the 'Green Economy'. London: Zed Books.

Authors: Wendy Harcourt, Ingrid L. Nelson

Annotation:

Summary:
Practicing Feminist Political Ecologies explores the latest thinking on feminist political ecology. Included is a collective critique of the “green economy,” an analysis of the post-Rio+20 UN conference debates, and a nuanced study of the impact that the current ecological and economic crisis will have on a diverse range of women and their communities. By including such well-known contributors as Dianne Rocheleau, Catherine Walsh, and Christa Wichterich, along with an upcoming generation of new activist scholars, it fills the gap in the literature on the relationship between the environment and gender.
 
This timely and important book launches the Zed Books’ Gender, Development and Environment series and puts feminist political ecology securely on the map, making it an important new contribution to environmental studies. (Summary from The University of Chicago Press)
 
Table of Contents:
Introduction: Are We ‘Green’ Yet? and the Violence of Asking Such a Question
Wendy Harcourt and Ingrid L. Nelson
 
1. A Situated View of Feminist Political Ecology from my Networks, Roots and Territories
Dianne Rocheleau
 
2. Contesting Green Growth, Connecting Care, Commons and Enough
Christa Wichterich
 
3. Life, Nature and Gender Otherwise: Feminist Reflections and Provocations from the Andes
Catherine Walsh
 
4. Feminist Political Ecology and the (Un)making of ‘Heroes’: Encounters in Mozambique
Ingrid L. Nelson
 
5. Hegemonic Waters and Rethinking Natures Otherwise
Leila M. Harris
 
6. Challenging the Romance with Resilience: Communities, Scale and Climate Change
Andrea J. Nightingale
 
7. A New Spelling of Sustainability: Engaging Feminist-Environmental Justice Theory and Practice
Giovanna Di Chiro
 
8. The Slips and Slides of Trying to Live Feminist Political Ecology
Wendy Harcourt
 
9. Knowledge About, Knowledge With: Dilemmas of Researching Lives, Nature and Genders Otherwise
Larissa Barbosa da Costa, Rosalba Icaza and Angélica María Ocampo Talero
 
10. World-Wise Otherwise Stories for our Endtimes: Conversations on Queer Ecologies
Wendy Harcourt, Sacha Knox and Tara Tabassi

Topics: Development, Economies, Care Economies, Ecological Economics, Feminist Economics, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Women, Justice, Political Economies

Year: 2015

Measuring Care: Gender, Empowerment, and the Care Economy

Citation:

Folbre, Nancy. 2006. "Measuring Care: Gender, Empowerment, and the Care Economy." Journal of Human Development 7 (2): 183-99.

Author: Nancy Folbre

Abstract:

How should “care” be defined and measured in ways that enhance our understanding of the impact of economic development on women? This paper addresses this question, suggesting several possible approaches to the development of indices that would measure gender differences in responsibility for the financial and temporal care of dependents.

Keywords: gender, care, empowerment, dependents, unpaid work, Time use

Topics: Development, Economies, Care Economies, Gender, Livelihoods, Political Economies

Year: 2006

The Ethics of Care: Personal, Political, and Global

Citation:

Held, Virginia. 2005. The Ethics of Care: Personal, Political, and Global. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Author: Virginia Held

Annotation:

Summary:
Virginia Held assesses the ethics of care as a promising alternative to the familiar moral theories that serve so inadequately to guide our lives. The ethics of care is only a few decades old, yet it is by now a distinct moral theory or normative approach to the problems we face. It is relevant to global and political matters as well as to the personal relations that can most clearly exemplify care. This book clarifies just what the ethics of care is what its characteristics are, what it holds, and what it enables us to do. It discusses the feminist roots of this moral approach and why the ethics of care can be a morality with universal appeal. Held examines what we mean by "care," and what a caring person is like. Where other moral theories demand impartiality above all, the ethics of care understands the moral import of our ties to our families and groups. It evaluates such ties, focusing on caring relations rather than simply on the virtues of individuals. The book proposes how such values as justice, equality, and individual rights can "fit together" with such values as care, trust, mutual consideration, and solidarity. In the second part of the book, Held examines the potential of the ethics of care for dealing with social issues. She shows how the ethics of care is more promising than Kantian moral theory and utilitarianism for advice on how expansive, or not, markets should be, and on when other values than market ones should prevail. She connects the ethics of care with the rising interest in civil society and considers the limits appropriate for the language of rights. Finally, she shows the promise of the ethics of care for dealing with global problems and seeing anew the outlines of international civility. (Summary from Oxford University Press)
 
Table of Contents: 
1. The Ethics of Care as Moral Theory
 
2. Care as Practice and Value
 
3. The Caring Person
 
4. Justice, Utility, and Care
 
5. Liberalism and the Ethics of Care
 
6. Caring Relations and Principles of Justice
 
7. Care and the Extension of Markets
 
8. Civil Society, Rights, and the Presumption of Care
 
9. Power, Care, and the Reach of Law
 
10. Care and Justice in the Global Context

Topics: Economies, Care Economies, Feminisms, Justice, Political Economies

Year: 2005

Re-Conceptualising Gender and Urban Water Inequality: Applying a Critical Feminist Approach to Water Inequality in Dhaka

Citation:

Sulley, Rosa. 2018. "Re-Conceptualising Gender and Urban Water Inequality Applying a Critical Feminist Approach to Water Inequality in Dhaka." DPU Working Paper No. 195, Development Planning Unit, The Bartlett, University College London.

Author: Rosa Sulley

Abstract:

Commonly, urban water inequality has been conceptualised in scholarship and policy as a fixed issue; little attention has been given to dynamic changes over time, space, identity, and relations. Influenced by traditional feminist critiques of development and of who suffers the responsibilities of water management, the consequence has been a focus on women. However, gender mainstreaming approaches aiming to empower women are often critiqued for (re)producing static narratives, and overlooking the multiple experiences and processes of (re)production of inequality. This paper places itself within this debate, aiming to enhance analytical approaches to studying urban water inequality and challenge pervasive simplified, homogenised accounts of urban water inequality. Through critical application of recent conceptual shifts in feminist theorising, it brings together Feminist Political Ecology and Intersectionality literatures to formulate a framework for analysis of urban water inequality. This explores the role and importance of relational subjectivities, power dynamics, hydrosocial relations, and dynamic relations across and within micro and macro scales. The paper focuses on how these dynamics manifest in Dhaka's informal settlements. Bangladesh shows the complex and multi-layered nature of both how water inequality is (re)produced, and how people negotiate it in their everyday lives. The insights, particularly findings of informal and formal fluidity, are then reflected upon in relation to the framework and future research agendas.

Topics: Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Environment, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Political Economies Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2018

Women Navigating Globalization: Feminist Approaches to Development

Citation:

Everett, Jana, and Sue Ellen M. Charlton. 2014. Women Navigating Globalization: Feminist Approaches to Development. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

Authors: Jana Everett, Sue Ellen M. Charlton

Annotation:

Summary:
This up-to-date text offers a clear and cogent introduction to women in development. Exploring the global structures and processes that impede or support the empowerment of women, Jana Everett and Sue Ellen M. Charlton use a feminist lens to understand contemporary gender roles. Without such a lens, they argue, our understanding of globalization and development is incomplete, resulting in flawed policies that fail to improve the lives of millions of people around the globe. After a set of introductory chapters that conceptually frame the issues, the authors then investigate women’s struggles within and against globalization and development through powerful case studies of sex trafficking, water, work, and health. These chapters, by using specific examples, develop the concepts of structure and agency, levels of analysis, and feminist approaches as tools to help students understand the complexities of development and alternative strategies.
 
Through rich interdisciplinary analysis, Everett and Charlton explore the individual and collective strategies women have used to improve their lives under globalization and weigh how effective they have been. Their book will be an essential resource in women’s studies, political science, political economy, anthropology, sociology, and development studies. (Summary from Google Books)

Topics: Development, Economies, Environment, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Globalization, Infrastructure, International Organizations, Political Economies

Year: 2014

Masculinities and Hydropower in India: A Feminist Political Ecology Perspective

Citation:

Shrestha, Gitta, Deepa Joshi, and Floriane Clement. 2019. "Masculinities and Hydropower in India: A Feminist Political Ecology Perspective." International Journal of the Commons 13 (1): 130-52.

Authors: Gitta Shrestha, Deepa Joshi, Floriane Clement

Abstract:

Mainstreaming gender in water governance through “how to do gender” toolkits has long been a development focus. It has been widely argued that such toolkits simplify the complex, nuanced realities of inequalities by gender in relation to water and fail to pay attention to the fact that the proposed users of such gender-water toolkits, i.e. mostly male water sector professionals, lack the skills, motivation and/or incentives to apply these toolkits in their everyday work. We adopt a feminist political ecology lens to analyse some of the barriers to reduce social inequalities in the management of global commons such as international rivers. Our findings highlight the leap of faith made in the belief that gender toolkits, as they exist, will filter through layers of a predominantly masculine institutional culture to enable change in ground realities of complex inequalities by gender. Analysing the everyday workings of two hydropower development organisations in India, we show how organisational structures demonstrate a blatant culture of masculinity. These two organisations, like many others, are sites where hierarchies and inequalities based on gender are produced, performed and reproduced. This performance of masculinity promotes and rewards a culture of technical pride in re-shaping nature, abiding by and maintaining hierarchy and demonstrating physical strength and emotional hardiness. In such a setting, paying attention to vulnerabilities, inequalities and disparities are incompatible objectives.

Keywords: feminist political ecology, gender, global commons, hydropower, masculinities, India

Topics: Development, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Political Economies Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2019

Financial Inclusion for Women and Men in Artisanal Gold Mining Communities: A Case Study from the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Citation:

Reichel, Victoria. 2019. "Financial Inclusion for Women and Men in Artisanal Gold Mining Communities: A Case Study from the Democratic Republic of the Congo." The Extractive Industries and Society. In Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2019.05.003

Author: Victoria Reichel

Abstract:

This article presents results from a community-led savings and credit project implemented by the Canadian non-governmental organization IMPACT in six artisanal gold mining communities in Ituri Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Artisanal Mining Women's Empowerment Credit & Savings project (known in French as Autonomisation des femmes par l’épargne et le crédit communautaire responsible or AFECCOR) supports more than 1400 women and men in artisanal gold mining communities to access savings and credit by establishing Village Savings and Loans Associations (VSLAs).
 
While international development efforts increasingly focus on the formalization of the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector, how to improve the sector’s access to formal financial services, including through microfinance, has not yet been fully explored. The results from the AFECCOR project are among some of the first documented experiences of introducing VSLAs into artisanal mining communities where they can positively contribute to cover basic financial needs.

Keywords: financial inclusion, artisanal gold mining, ASM, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Village Savings and Loan Associations, VSLA, microfinance

Topics: Economies, Extractive Industries, Gender, Political Economies Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo

Year: 2019

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