Peacekeeping

Sylabus Topic

Child Safeguarding in a Peacekeeping Context: Lessons from Liberia

Citation:

Blakemore, Sarah, Rosa Freedman, and Nicolas Lemay-Hébert. 2019. "Child Safeguarding in a Peacekeeping Context: Lessons from Liberia." Development in Practice 29 (6): 735-47.

Authors: Sarah Blakemore, Rosa Freedman, Nicolas Lemay-Hébert

Abstract:

This article reviews how peacekeeping officials safeguard children from sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) in Liberia, more than 15 years after the landmark reports published on this issue. Based on original fieldwork conducted in Liberia and in New York, the article introduces an innovative framework to assess whether or not organisations effectively safeguard children from SEA. It reviews three interrelated issues: reinforcing the institutional environment in the country, strengthening prevention of and accountability for child SEA by UN actors. The article concludes with specific policy recommendations for actors involved in peacekeeping activities.

Keywords: aid, accountability, aid effectiveness, civil society, NGOs, gender and diversity, youth, Rights, Sub-Saharan Africa

Topics: Age, Youth, Civil Society, Gender, Girls, Boys, NGOs, Peacekeeping, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Americas, North America Countries: Liberia, United States of America

Year: 2019

A Global South State's Challenge to Gendered Global Cultures of Peacekeeping

Citation:

Pruitt, Lesley J. 2018. "A Global South State’s Challenge to Gendered Global Cultures of Peacekeeping." In Revisiting Gendered States: Feminist Imaginings of the State in International Relations, edited by Swati Parashar, J. Ann Tickner, and Jacqui True, 122-137. New York: Oxford University Press.

Author: Lesley J. Pruitt

Abstract:

This chapter explores the first all-female formed police unit (FFPU) in UN peacekeeping, deployed from India to Liberia. The FFPU has fostered important outcomes supporting the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) agenda. However, global norms that presume efforts can only be “legitimate” when conducted in ways that align with particular, Global North approaches can hinder implementation of the WPS agenda. Such norms marginalize differences that intersect with gender and influence participation. Effective implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 and the WPS agenda will not occur under assumptions that only some states, or only certain kinds of states, can credibly contribute; instead, a plurality of approaches is needed.

Keywords: peacekeeping, United Nations, policing, women, India, Liberia, WPS

Topics: Gender, Women, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Africa, West Africa, Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Liberia

Year: 2018

Peacekeeping, Human Trafficking, and Sexual Abuse and Exploitation

Citation:

Vandenberg, Martina. 2018.  "Peacekeeping, Human Trafficking, and Sexual Abuse and Exploitation." In The Oxford Handbook of Gender and Conflict, edited by Fionnuala Ní Aoláin, Naomi Cahn, Dina Francesca Haynes, and Nahla Valji. Oxford University Press. 

Author: Martina Vandenberg

Abstract:

This chapter provides an overview of human trafficking and other forms of sexual abuse committed by peacekeepers and civilians employed in peacekeeping missions. It opens with a historical review of violations committed by peacekeepers and the current international response to the issue. The chapter introduces relevant international legal instruments, including the UN Protocol to Suppress, Prevent and Punish Trafficking in Persons, and examines the United Nations’ response to various instances of misconduct. Focusing on Bosnia and Herzegovina and the MINUSCA mission in the Central African Republic, the chapter details the consistent failure of national courts to prosecute offenders and the inability of the UN to take action beyond repatriating the offenders. The chapter closes with recommendations for the UN to move beyond prevention work to improve enforcement of peacekeeper conduct policies.

Keywords: human trafficking, sexual abuse, peacekeepers, peacekeeping mission, UN Protocol to Suppress, Prevent and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Central African Republic, MINUSCA

Topics: International Law, International Organizations, Peacekeeping, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Africa, Central Africa, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Central African Republic

Year: 2018

The Importance of Gender Parity in the UN's Efforts on International Peace and Security

Citation:

Valji, Nahla, and Pablo Castillo. 2019. "The Importance of Gender Parity in the UN's Efforts on International Peace and Security." Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations 20 (2): 4-19.

Authors: Nahla Valji, Pablo Castillo

Keywords: equality, gender, gender parity, peacebuilding, peacekeeping, United Nations, women, Africa

Annotation:

Summary: 
“In January 2017, Antonio Guterres began his tenure as the ninth Secretary-General of the UN. In taking the oath of office, he pledged to achieve gender parity in the world body for the first time in seven decades. In just over a year, gender parity was reached in 2018 in both the Secretary-General's senior management group--his 'cabinet' made of many the heads of various UN departments and agencies in headquarters--and among Resident Coordinators, effectively the heads of the UN at the country level. The road to the ultimate goal of parity at all levels across the Organization will be a longer process, as laid out in the Secretary-General's System-Wide Strategy on Gender Parity. Here, Valji and Castillo highlight the continued stark absence of women from key policy spaces and sites of power and restates the case for the importance of gender parity as a fundamental building block of both gender equality and the overall effectiveness of institutions and outcomes.” (Valji and Castillo 2019, 4)

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Balance, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Organizations, Peace and Security, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes

Year: 2019

Education and the Humanitarian Space: is there a Dissonance between Military Education and Military Practice?

Citation:

Connors, Niall. 2019. "Education and the Humanitarian Space: Is There a Dissonance between Military Education and Military Practice?" Irish Studies in International Affairs 30: 171-93.

Author: Niall Connors

Abstract:

Crossing the domains of foreign policy, defence policy and gender theory, this paper focuses on education and the humanitarian space, specifically, an analysis of whether there is a dissonance between military education and military practice in an Irish context. The paper argues that Irish Defence Forces' activity as peacekeepers can be framed within the human security paradigm, aligned with a national perception of self as good global citizens, and can reasonably be characterised as humanitarian. In this context, the paper argues that the human security paradigm offers a cosmopolitan, agency-oriented, feminist perspective on the humanitarian space and should prompt a re-examination of the gendered nature of the concepts of peace, peacekeeping and ‘citizenship in practice’. The paper concludes positing that a theory-practice gap exists between military education and military practice in an Irish context, and suggests a re-orientation of military education programmes to include a more feminist, cosmopolitan perspective.

Keywords: human security, peacekeeping forces, masculinity, feminism, environmental security, defense policy, military operations, men, military alliances

Topics: Citizenship, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Peacekeeping, Security, Human Security Regions: Europe, Western Europe Countries: Ireland

Year: 2019

Sexual Abuse and Exploitation by UN Peacekeepers as Conflict-Related Gender Violence

Citation:

Vojdik, Valorie K. 2019. "Sexual Abuse and Exploitation by UN Peacekeepers as Conflict-Related Gender Violence." In International Human Rights of Women, edited by Niamh Reilly, 405-21. Singapore: Springer Singapore.

Author: Valorie K. Vojdik

Abstract:

For nearly 30 years, military and civilian peacekeepers across the globe have engaged in rape, sexual assault, forced prostitution, trafficking, and sexual exploitation of women and children. The mechanisms for policing and punishing peacekeeper SEA have been inadequate, creating a culture of impunity. Rather than treat sexual exploitation and abuse as a crime committed by individual peacekeepers, as the UN has done, the international community must situate peacekeeper SEA within the gendered structures of power that help perpetuate conflict-related violence against women and girls. Peacekeeper SEA is rooted in unequal gender relations and poverty, exacerbated by the social and economic dislocations of war. Peacekeeping troops often engage in masculinized social practices that encourage sexual exploitation and gender violence against women and children. With the rise of new peacekeeping economies, peacekeepers often fuel the growth of prostitution and survival sex, harming the individual victims while reinforcing the inequality of women in post-conflict societies. To address peacekeeper SEA requires dismantling the structures of gender inequality and empowering women. It also requires transforming the institutional norms and practices that encourage and enforce masculinized violence by peacekeeping troops.

Keywords: sexual exploitation and abuse, peacekeeping, militarized masculinities, gender inequality, post-conflict

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Organizations, Justice, Impunity, Peacekeeping, Sexual Violence, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, SV against Women, Trafficking

Year: 2019

The Palgrave International Handbook of Gender and the Military

Citation:

Woodward, Rachel, and Claire Duncanson, eds. 2017. The Palgrave International Handbook of Gender and the Military. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Authors: Rachel Woodward, Claire Duncanson

Annotation:

Summary:
The Palgrave International Handbook of Gender and the Military provides a comprehensive overview of the multiple ways in which gender and militaries connect.  International and multi-disciplinary in scope, this edited volume provides authoritative accounts of the many intersections through which militaries issues and military forces are shaped by gender.  The chapters provide detailed accounts of key issues, informed by examples from original research in a wealth of different national contexts.  This Handbook includes coverage of conceptual approaches to the study of gender and militaries, gender and the organisation of state military forces, gender as it pertains to military forces in action, transitions and transgressions within militaries, gender and non-state military forces, and gender in representations of military personnel and practices.  With contributions from a range of both established and early career scholars, The Palgrave International Handbook of Gender and the Military is an essential guide to current debates on gender and contemporary military issues. (Summary from Springer)
 
Table of Contents 
1. An Introduction to Gender and the Military
Rachel Woodward and Claire Duncanson
 
2. Liberal Feminists, Militaries and War 
Caroline Kennedy-Pipe
 
3. Anti-Militarist Feminist Approaches to Researching Gender and the Military 
Claire Duncanson
 
4. Critical Military Studies as Method: An Approach to Studying Gender and the Military 
Victoria M. Basham and Sarah Bulmer
 
5. Quantitative Approaches to Researching Gender and Militaries 
Lana Obradovic
 
6. Qualitative Approaches to Researching Gender and the Military 
Lauren Greenwood
 
7. Gendered Organizational Dynamics in Military Contexts 
Helena Carreiras
 
8. Ethnicity and Gender in Militaries: An Intersectional Analysis 
Orna Sasson-Levy
 
9. Theorizing Military Masculinities and National Identities: The Norwegian Experience 
Nina Rones and Kari Fasting
 
10. Sexualities in State Militaries 
Sarah Bulmer
 
11. Transgender Military Service: A Snapshot in Time 
M. Sheridan Embser-Herbert
 
12. The Civilian Wives of Military Personnel: Mobile Subjects or Agents of Militarisation? 
Alexandra Hyde
 
13. Military Families: Life, Social Organization and Remote Basing Experiences for Brazilian Military Families 
Cristina Rodrigues da Silva
 
14. Domestic Abuse and the Reproduction of the Idealised ‘Military Wife’ 
Harriet Gray
 
15. Violence in the Military and Relations Among Men: Military Masculinities and ‘Rape Prone Cultures’ 
Ben Wadham
 
16. Female Military Veterans with Disabilities 
Rachel Dekel and Miriam Goldberg
 
17. Gender, Mental Health and the Military 
Hilary Cornish
 
18. Gendered Military Identities: Army Deserters in Exile 
Godfrey Maringira
 
19. Gender and Close Combat Roles 
Anthony King
 
20. Gender and Counterinsurgency 
Synne L. Dyvik
 
21. Gender, Humanitarianism and the Military 
Ryerson Christie
 
22. Transitions and Transformation in Gender Relations in the South African Military: From Support in Warfare to Valued Peacekeepers 
Lindy Heinecken
 
23. Military Markets, Masculinities and the Global Political Economy of the Everyday: Understanding Military Outsourcing as Gendered and Racialised 
Amanda Chisholm and Saskia Stachowitsch
 
24. Gender, Militaries and Security Sector Reform 
Megan Bastick
 
25. Gender Mainstreaming and Integration in the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation 
Matthew Hurley
 
26. Gender and Terrorist Movements 
Katherine E. Brown
 
27. Gender Dynamics in Rebel Groups 
Zoe Marks
 
28. Women in Non-State Armed Groups after War: The (Non)Evolution of Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration 
Christopher Hills and Megan MacKenzie
 
29. Gender and Visual Representations of Women Combatants 
Chava Brownfield-Stein
 
30. Military Women in Cinema: War Stories and Future Worlds 
Yvonne Tasker
 
31. (Re)Producing an (Anti)Military Masculinity: Popular Culture Representations of Gender and Military Dissent in the Figure of Ron Kovic 
Joanna Tidy
 
32. Gender and Military Memoirs 
Rachel Woodward, Claire Duncanson and K. Neil Jenkings
 
33. Gendered Representations of Soldier Deaths 
Katharine M. Millar

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, DDR, Domestic Violence, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Mainstreaming, Health, Mental Health, International Organizations, Intersectionality, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarism, Militarization, Non-State Armed Groups, Political Economies, Race, Peacekeeping, Security Sector Reform, Sexuality, Sexual Violence, Rape

Year: 2017

Gendering Peace in Northern Ireland: The Role of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security

Citation:

Pierson, Claire. 2019. "Gendering Peace in Northern Ireland: The Role of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security." Capital & Class 43 (1): 57-71.

Author: Claire Pierson

Abstract:

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on ‘women, peace and security’ was passed in 2000 to recognise and enhance women’s participation in peace-building. The Resolution has growing global significance in conflicted societies yet there is limited analysis of its implementation in specific social contexts. Utilising feminist theory on gender in conflicted societies and original empirical evidence from key grassroots community activists in Northern Ireland, I will consider the potential of the 1325 framework as a tool for conceptualising and achieving gender security and equality. This article contributes to an understanding of the importance of deep contextual interpretation for implementation of the women, peace and security agenda and argues for a feminist intersectional interpretation of the Resolution to enable its transformative potential for both peace-building and gender equality.

Keywords: equality, gender, Northern Ireland, peace, security, women

Topics: Civil Society, Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Peace and Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Europe, Western Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2019

The Internationalization of Security Sector Gender Reforms in Post-Conflict Countries

Citation:

Huber, Laura, and Sabrina Karim. 2018. “The Internationalization of Security Sector Gender Reforms in Post-Conflict Countries.” Conflict Management and Peace Science 35 (3): 263–79.

Authors: Laura Huber, Sabrina Karim

Abstract:

With the passing of several UN Security Council Resolutions related to Women, Peace and Security (WPS), gender balancing security sector reforms (SSR)—or policies that ensure the equal participation of women in the security sector—have received increased global attention over the past two decades. However, to date, there is no explanation for variation in their adoption. This paper examines the internationalization of SSR gender reform, arguing that the presence of a peacekeeping mission within a post-conflic country affects the state’s resources and political will to adopt gender balancing reforms. We explore the effect of multidimensional peacekeeping using an original dataset on SSR in post-conflict countries, the Security Sector Reform Dataset (SSRD), from 1989 to 2012. We find that peacekeeping missions increase the probability that a state adopts gender balancing reforms in SSR. As the first cross-national quantitative examination of gender balancing reforms, these findings also shed light on the conditions under which states adopt security sector reforms more generally.

Keywords: security sector reform, gender, conflict, post conflict

Topics: Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender Balance, Peacekeeping, Post-Conflict, Security Sector Reform, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS

Year: 2018

Gender, Conflict, Peace, and UNSC Resolution 1325

Citation:

Shekhawat, Seema, ed. 2018. Gender, Conflict, Peace, and UNSC Resolution 1325. Lanham: Lexington Books.

Author: Seema Shekhawat

Annotation:

Summary:
"There is an increasing amount of literature on various aspects of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325. While appreciating this scholarship, this volume highlights some of the omissions and concerns to make a quality addition to the ongoing discourse on the intersection of gender with peace and security with a focus on 1325. It aims at a reality-check of the impressive to-dos list as the seventeen years since the Resolution passed provide an occasion to pause and ponder over the gap between the aspirations and the reality, the ideal and the practice, the promises and the action, the euphoria and the despair. The volume compiles carefully selected essays woven around Resolution 1325 to tease out the intricacies within both the Resolution and its implementation. Through a cocktail of well-known and some lesser-known case studies, the volume addresses complicated realities with the intention of impacting policy-making and the academic fields of gender, peace, and security. The volume emphasizes the significance of transforming formal peace making processes, and making them gender inclusive and gender sensitive by critically examining some omissions in the challenges that the Resolution implementation confronts. The major question the volume seeks to address is this: where are women positioned in the formal peace-making seventeen years after the adoption of Resolution 1325?" (Shekhawat 2018)
 
Table of Contents:
Introduction: Gender, Peace, and UNSC Resolution 1325
Seema Shekhawat
 
1. Redefining Women’s Roles in Internationl and Regional Law: The Case of Pre- and Post-War Peacebuilding in Liberia
Veronica Fynn Bruey
 
2. The Contribution of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women to the Implementation of Security Council Resolution 1325
Antal Berkes
 
3. Faith Matters in Women, Peace, and Security Practices
Elisabeth Porter
 
4. Creating or Improving a National Action Plan Based on UN Security Council Resolution 1325
Jan Marie Fritz
 
5. Widowhood Issues for Implementation of UNSCR 1325 and Subsequent Resolutions on Women, Peace, and Security
Margaret Owen
 
6. The Commodification of Intervention: The Example of the Women, Peace, and Security Agenda
Corey Barr
 
7. Beyond Borders and Binaries: A Feminist Look at Preventing Violence and Achieving Peace in an Era of Mass Migration
Aurora E. Bewicke
 
8. The Disconnection between Theory and Practice: Achieving Item 8b of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325
Onyinyechukwu Onyido
 
9. Gender and Feminism in the Israeli Peace Movement: Beyond UNSCR 1325
Amanda Bennett
 
10. Conflict Ghosts: The Significance of UN Resolution 1325 for the Syrian Women in Years of Conflict
Emanuela C. Del Re
 
11. The UNSC Resolution 1325 and Cypriot Women’s Activism: Achievements and Challenges
Maria Hadjipavlou and Olga Demetriou
 
12. Victims, Nationalists, and Supporters: UNSCR 1325 and the Roles of Ethnic Women’s Organizations in Peacebuilding in Burma/Myanmar
Mollie Pepper
 
13. Gender and the Building Up of Many “Peaces”: A Decolonial Perspective from Colombia
Priscyll Anctil Avoine, Yuly Andrea Mejia Jerez, and Rachel Tillman
 
14. “It’s All About Patriarchy”: UNSCR 1325, Cultural Constrains, and Women in Kashmir
Seema Shekhawat

Topics: Armed Conflict, Conflict Prevention, Displacement & Migration, Feminisms, Gender, Peace and Security, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, Religion, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Africa, MENA, West Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Colombia, Cyprus, India, Israel, Liberia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Syria

Year: 2018

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