Peacekeeping

Sylabus Topic

Global South to the Rescue: Emerging Humanitarian Superpowers and Globalizing Rescue Industries

Citation:

Amar, Paul. 2012. "Global South to the Rescue: Emerging Humanitarian Superpowers and Globalizing Rescue Industries." Globalizations 9 (1): 1-13.

Author: Paul Amar

Abstract:

The introductory essay offers a brief overview of current trends in critical globalization studies and international relations scholarship that shed light on three intersections: between imperialism and humanitarianism, between neoliberal globalization and "rescue industry", transnationalism, and between patterns of geopolitical hegemony and trajectories of peacekeeping internationalism. These research agendas have been generative and politically useful, but have tended to neglect the forms of humanitarian and peacekeeping agency emanating from the global south. In order to address this gap, this introduction lays out a new research agenda that combines interdisciplinary methods from global studies, gender and race studies, critical security studies, police and military sociology, Third World diplomatic history, and international relations. This introduction also theoretically situates the other contributions and case studies gathered here, providing a framework of analysis that groups them into three clusters: (I) Globalizing Peacekeeper Identities, (II) Assertive "Regional Internationalisms", and (III) Emergent Alternative Paradigms.

Keywords: globalization, humanitarianism, global south, peacekeeping, humanitarian aid, transnationalism, security

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Globalization, Humanitarian Assistance, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Peacekeeping, Security

Year: 2012

South Africa at the Crossroads of Human Trafficking: War-Pushed and Hope-Driven

Citation:

Cucumanova, Vanya. 2010. "South Africa at the Crossroads of Human Trafficking: War-Pushed and Hope-Driven." South African Catholic Bishop's Conference, Parliamentary Liaison Office: 1-38. 

Author: Vanya Cucumanova

Keywords: human trafficking, refugees, internally displaced people, peacekeeping, border patrol, accountability, conflict, local government, sex trafficking

Annotation:

Quotes:

"This article discusses human trafficking in Africa. Armed conflict is recognized as a heavily contributing factor, as the individuals (women and children in particular) who are internally displaced in situations of conflict are most vulnerable to traffickers. The author explores this connection between human trafficking and conflict in Africa through research on refugees and internally-displaced persons, the effect of peacekeeping personnel, and the effects and implications of border patrol. South Africa is used as a case study that “highlights the counter-trafficking provisions in South African law, strives to assess the vulnerabilities of conflict-pushed migrants (refugees), and discusses the implications of border patrol (or the lack of it) on human trafficking in this context.” (29)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Gender, Women, Peacekeeping, Trafficking, Human Trafficking Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 2010

Women Speak out Against Violence in the Middle East

Citation:

Marshall, Lucina. 2006. "Women Speak Out Against Violence in the Middle East." Off Our Backs 36 (3): 79-81.

Author: Lucina Marshall

Abstract:

The article examines how armed conflict and militarism affect women. It focuses on violence in the Middle East. The Women Against War Movement holds vigils in Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and Haifa every day. Various women's organizations from around the world have also weighed in on the violence in the Middle East. The article discusses the role of women in creating and sustaining peace in communities worldwide.

Annotation:

In her article, Marshall argues that the voices of female scholars should be more prevalent in literature surrounding the politics of the Middle East. While various women’s organizations have engaged with the subject of armed conflict in the Middle East, their participation has not been given sufficient attention by the greater public. Though her article does not center around UNSCR 1325, she emphasizes its importance, as “women are central to creating and sustaining peace in communities all around the globe” 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Peacekeeping, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East

Year: 2006

Human Trafficking: The Unintended Effects of United Nations Intervention

Citation:

Smith, Heather, and Charles Anthony Smith.  2011. "Human Trafficking: The Unintended Effects of United Nations Intervention." International Political Science Review 32 (2): 125-45.

Authors: Heather Smith, Charles Anthony Smith

Abstract:

International relations literature is replete with work on the effects of United Nations intervention on global crises, generally concluding that UN intervention either intensifies or ameliorates the crisis. Yet, the global human rights community has attempted to expose the more subtle and unintended effects of UN intervention, namely, substantial increases in the human sex trafficking trade into crisis areas. In this paper we attempt to bridge these two literatures. We evaluate increases in human trafficking in light of UN involvement in Kosovo, Haiti, and Sierra Leone. We argue that UN involvement has the unfortunate and unintended effect of increasing the rates of human trafficking in these crisis areas. We consider Nepal, where the UN did not intervene, as a control case. Our work concludes that the UN should proceed with caution into crisis areas and have plans in place to avoid the potentially devastating externalities of otherwise well-intentioned efforts.

Keywords: United Nations, military sexual assault, intervention, human rights, human trafficking

Topics: Economies, Humanitarian Assistance, International Organizations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Peacekeeping, Rights, Human Rights, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Asia, South Asia, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Haiti, Kosovo, Nepal, Sierra Leone

Year: 2011

Human Trafficking in Conflict Zones: The Role of Peacekeepers in the Formation of Networks

Citation:

Smith, Charles A., and Brandon Miller-de la Cuesta. 2011. "Human Trafficking in Conflict Zones: The Role of Peacekeepers in the Formation of Networks." Human Rights Review 12 (3): 287-99.

Authors: Charles A. Smith, Brandon Miller-de la Cuesta

Abstract:

While the effect of humanitarian intervention on the recurrence and intensity of armed conflict in a crisis zone has received significant scholarly attention, there has been comparatively less work on the negative externalities of introducing peacekeeping forces into conflict regions. This article demonstrates that large foreign forces create one such externality, namely a previously non-existent demand for human trafficking. Using Kosovo, Haiti, and Sierra Leone as case studies, we suggest that the injection of comparatively wealthy soldiers incentivizes the creation of criminal networks by illicit actors. We theorize further that the magnitude of increase in trafficking should be directly proportional to the size of the foreign force, with larger forces producing larger increases. We find that both hypotheses hold with varying levels of confidence across our three case studies. Despite the benevolent intent of peacekeeping missions, the possibility that they may contribute to human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation runs counter to the spirit of such interventions. This is especially problematic given that trafficking rings, once established, may be adapted to provide weapons and narcotics, thereby planting the seed of further destabilization.

Keywords: military sexual assault, human trafficking, peacekeeping

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Economies, Humanitarian Assistance, Livelihoods, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Peacekeeping, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Trafficking, Arms Trafficking, Drug Trafficking, Human Trafficking Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Europe, Balkans Countries: Haiti, Kosovo, Sierra Leone

Year: 2011

Barracks and Brothels: Peacekeepers and Human Trafficking in the Balkans

Citation:

Mendelson, Sarah E. 2005. Barracks and Brothels: Peacekeepers and Human Trafficking in the Balkans. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies Press.

Author: Sarah E. Mendelson

Abstract:

The majority of uniformed service members and civilians who support peacekeeping operations do so honorably. They risk their lives to help repair the damage and destruction of war. Tragically, however, international organizations and activists have documented a disturbing correlation with these deployments. Since U.S., NATO, and UN forces have been engaged in peacekeeping operations in Bosnia and Kosovo, human rights groups have reported that in and around these same regions one also sees a dramatic rise in the number of trafficked women and girls. Trafficking--especially the enslavement of women and girls for forced prostitution--follows market demand, and in post-conflict situations, that often means international peacekeepers. This phenomenon is especially striking in the Balkans, the primary focus of this report, where thousands of women and girls have been trafficked in the last several years. Those who serve with honor are being tainted by a minority who commit human rights violations and support criminal networks. This report examines the links between international peacekeeping operations in Bosnia and Kosovo and the trafficking of women and girls following the deployments of those peacekeepers. The report details and provides evidence that although trafficking in persons negatively shapes the security environment of post-conflict regions, both directly and indirectly, the way in which peacekeepers and those supporting them have perceived trafficking has inhibited their ability to respond to the problem. (World Cat)

Keywords: military sexual assault

Topics: Gender, Women, Girls, Peacekeeping, Trafficking, Human Trafficking Regions: Europe, Balkans Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Kosovo

Year: 2005

Peacekeepers, the Military and Human Trafficking: Protecting Whom?

Citation:

Kirby, Kristi M., and Claude D’Estree. 2008. "Peacekeepers, the Military and Human Trafficking: Protecting Whom?" University of St.Thomas Law Journal 6 (1): 221-45.

Authors: Kristi M. Kirby, Claude D'Estree

Keywords: military sexual assault, militarism, peacekeeping, sex trafficking, commercial sex industry, human rights

Annotation:

This essay discusses the contradiction that is caused by soldiers in the military being given the task of peacekeeping, as “the very idea of nonuse of force and providing conditions for peace goes against the intrinsic values of the warrior ethos” (243). The authors draw attention to the resulting participation of peacekeepers in the commercial sex industry and the subsequent violation of human rights. A recommendation for better training initiatives is made, as well as changes in global participation that stress state responsibility for the training and sending of peacekeeping troops in such ways that reflect the current realities of global involvement. 

Topics: Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Peacekeeping, Rights, Human Rights, Trafficking, Sex Trafficking

Year: 2008

Trafficking in Human Beings and International Peacekeeping Missions: The 2004 NATO THB Policy

Citation:

Ballesteros, Alvaro. 2007. "Trafficking in Human Beings and International Peacekeeping Missions: The 2004 NATO THB Policy." Connections: The Quarterly Journal 6 (3): 121-39.

Author: Alvaro Ballesteros

Abstract:

This essay aims at analyzing the efforts of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to fight human trafficking, to prevent NATO personnel from becoming clients fueling the THB operations run by organized crime groups, and to implement the 2004 NATO Policy of “Zero Tolerance” regarding THB. In order to do so, this paper will try to present a clear definition of what the problem is, and to explain the repercussions and links between THB and international peacekeeping operations; the allegations and cases affecting the UN and NATO, with the consequent damage to both institutions’ reputations; the development and content of the 2004 NATO Policy against THB; and the efforts to implement this policy. Finally, the essay will offer some recommendations for future steps.

In offering this analysis, I hope to support the North Atlantic Alliance’s efforts to fight THB in a comprehensive and successful way, making NATO the example for institutionalized programmatic efforts against THB proliferation and troop-involvement prevention. This research also tries to provide an in-depth review of the 2004 NATO Policy against THB, including an evaluation of the policy implementation process from the approval of the policy in the summer of 2004 to the summer of 2007. 

Keywords: military sexual assault, human trafficking, NATO, United Nations, THB operations, peacekeeping operations

Topics: International Law, International Organizations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Peacekeeping, Trafficking, Human Trafficking

Year: 2007

Peacekeepers and Prostitutes: How Deployed Forces Fuel the Demand for Trafficked Women and New Hope for Stopping It

Citation:

Allred, Keith J. 2006. "Peacekeepers and Prostitutes: How Deployed Forces Fuel the Demand for Trafficked Women and New Hope for Stopping It." Armed Forces & Society: An Interdisciplinary Journal 33 (5): 5-23.

Author: Keith J. Allred

Abstract:

On numerous occasions in the past fifteen years, U.N. peacekeepers have been accused of sexually assaulting or abusing the populations they serve. A Comprehensive Review of peacekeeper misconduct completed in 2005 identified significant problems and recommended numerous changes to address them. The U.S. Army and NATO, in a response to the possibility that their deployed troops will be engaged in or facilitate human trafficking, have enacted new policies intended to remove their troops from the demand for women trafficked for sexual services. The Department of Defense and NATO initiatives are similar to those being considered by the United Nations for preventing sexual misconduct by its peacekeepers. Because the United States, NATO, and the United Nations are all addressing the problems of sexual misconduct by deployed troops, their efforts should be mutually reinforcing. The examples of American and NATO armed forces offer hope that the United Nations will also enact strong measures to prevent future misconduct by its peacekeepers.

Keywords: United Nations, human trafficking, military sexual assault, US Army, NATO, peacekeeper misconduct

Topics: Gender, Women, International Organizations, Livelihoods, Sexual Livelihoods, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Peacekeeping, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking

Year: 2006

Desire Industries: Sex Trafficking, UN Peacekeeping, and the Neo-Liberal World Order

Citation:

Agathangelou, Anna M., and L. H. M. Ling. 2003. "Desire Industries: Sex Trafficking, UN Peacekeeping, and the Neo-Liberal World Order." The Brown Journal of World Affairs 10 (1): 133-48.

Authors: Anna M. Agathangelou, L.H.M. Ling

Keywords: sex trafficking, United Nations, peacekeeping, prostitution, identity formations, institutional learning

Annotation:

Aganthangelou and Ling address the connection between peacekeeping, prostitution, and sex trafficking. They raise questions of how the processes of local-regional-global interactions, identity-formations, and institutional learning interrelate in terms of sex trafficking overseas and the role played by peacekeepers in maintaining such desire industries.

Topics: Gender, Peacekeeping, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking

Year: 2003

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