Peacekeeping

Sylabus Topic

Peacekeeping in the African Union: Gender, Abuse, and the Battle Against Sexual Exploitation and Abuse

Citation:

White, Sabrina. 2018. "Peacekeeping in the African Union: Gender, Women and the Battle Against Sexual Exploitation and Abuse." In Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Regional and Global Security, edited by Pawel Frankowski and Artur Gruszczak, 165-189. London: Palgrave MacMillan.

Author: Sabrina White

Abstract:

Sexual exploitation and abuse committed by UN personnel in United Nations Peace Operations undermines the very peace the intervention aims to facilitate. By default, this also undermines the legitimacy of the United Nations as a key driver of liberal interventionism. International institutions have developed a series of policies, strategies and initiatives which focus on human security and securitisation of women; namely, the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) Agenda serves as the overarching strategic framework for addressing gender inequality in conflict and post-conflict situations. Regional organizations, including the African Union, have also implemented their own women and gender-related protocol with a goal of improving security and stability on the continent. This chapter broadly looks at the interests and interactions of the UN, African Union and other actors in pursuing the WPS agenda, especially where it relates to adoption and implementation of instruments designed to securitise women, promote gender equality and address sexual exploitation and abuse in Peace Operations. The chapter identifies the key barriers to progress and concludes that regardless of the various issues surrounding motivation of various actors and human-security oriented instruments, there is a need to meaningfully engage with feminist scholarship and civil society organizations in order to find sustainable solutions to the problem.

Keywords: United nations peace operations, SCR 1325, African Union, sexual exploitation and abuse

Topics: Civil Society, Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Organizations, Post-Conflict, Peacekeeping, Security, Human Security, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Africa

Year: 2018

Gender, Peacekeeping, and Child Soldiers: Training and Research in Implementation of the Vancouver Principles

Citation:

Johnson, Dustin, and Allyssa Walsh. 2020. "Gender, Peacekeeping, and Child Soldiers: Training and Research in Implementation of the Vancouver Principles." Allons-yJournal of Children, Peace and Security 4: 51-60.

Authors: Dustin Johnson, Alyssa Walsh

Abstract:

Since the passage of UN Security Council resolution 1325, there has been a growing focus on the involvement of women in peacekeeping operations. Ambitious UN targets, the Vancouver Principles, and the Canadian government’s Elsie Initiative all aim to support the increased inclusion of uniformed women in peacekeeping missions. This article discusses three areas in which the Roméo Dallaire Child Soldiers Initiative (Dallaire Initiative) is working to support Vancouver Principle (VP) 11 through the training of women security sector actors, training on gendered dimensions of the recruitment and use of child soldiers and SGBV against child soldiers, and through research on how gender matters in peacekeeping operations. Based on these experiences and an engagement with the academic literature, it makes a number of policy recommendations in support of VP 11.

Keywords: gender, peacekeeping, training, child soldiers, SGBV

Topics: Age, Combatants, Child Soldiers, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, International Organizations, Peacekeeping, Sexual Violence, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2020

Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by UN Peacekeepers: Towards a Hybrid Solution

Citation:

Mudgway, Cassandra. 2019. Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by UN Peacekeepers: Towards a Hybrid Solution. New York: Routledge.

Author: Cassandra Mudgway

Annotation:

Summary:
Sexual exploitation and abuse by United Nations (UN) peacekeepers is not an isolated or recent problem, but it has been present in almost every peacekeeping operation. A culture of sexual exploitation and abuse is contrary to the UN’s zero-tolerance policy and has been the target of institutional reforms since 2005. Despite this, allegations of sexual abuse continue to emerge, and the reforms have not solved the problem. This book is a response to the continued lack of accountability of UN peacekeepers for sexual exploitation and abuse. Focusing on military contingent members, this book aims to analyse ways in which the UN can fill the accountability gap while taking a feminist perspective and emphasising the needs of victims, their communities, and the host state.
 
This book directly challenges the status quo of relying on troop-contributing countries (TCCs) to hold their peacekeepers to account. It proposes first, the establishment of a series of hybrid courts, and second, a mechanism for dealing with victim rehabilitation and reparation. It addresses these topics by considering international and human rights law and will be of interest to researchers, academics, policymakers, and students with an interest in international criminal law, United Nations peacekeeping, and peace studies.

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, International Law, International Criminal Law, International Human Rights, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), International Organizations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Peacekeeping, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse

Year: 2019

Women's Organizations and Peace Initiatives

Citation:

Tripp, Aili Mari. 2018. "Women’s Organizations and Peace Initiatives." In The Oxford Handbook of Gender and Conflict, edited by Fionnuala Ní Aoláin, Naomi R. Cahn, Dina Francesca Haynes, and Nahla Valji, 430-441. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Author: Aili Mari Tripp

Abstract:

Women’s peace movements in the post–Cold War era frequently share three common characteristics: a grassroots and local focus due to exclusion from formal peace negotiations; an early and sustained commitment to bridging differences between factions; and the use of international and regional pressures to create success on the local level. This chapter reviews each of these characteristics through case studies. Examples from Sri Lanka, Somalia, and Nepal illustrate the successes and challenges of grassroots or local peace movements led by women. Peace processes in Burundi, led by women activists, exemplify a commitment to unity across ethnic lines. The chapter concludes with examples from Liberia and Sierra Leone, demonstrating the efficacy of international and regional organizations supporting local peace movements.

Keywords: women's peace movement, peace process, women activists, grassroots peace movement, Sri Lanka, Somalia, Nepal, Burundi

Topics: Civil Society, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, International Organizations, Post-Conflict, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes Regions: Africa, East Africa, Asia, South Asia Countries: Burundi, Nepal, Somalia, Sri Lanka

Year: 2018

Gender and Peacekeeping

Citation:

Karim, Sabrina M, and Marsha Henry. 2018. "Gender and Peacekeeping." In The Oxford Handbook of Gender and Conflict, edited by Fionnuala Ní Aoláin, Naomi R. Cahn, Dina Francesca Haynes, and Nahla Valji, 390-402. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Authors: Sabrina M. Karim, Marsha Henry

Abstract:

This chapter examines three manifestations of gender in peacekeeping: the gender of those serving as peacekeepers; gendered hierarchies within peacekeeping missions; and the gendered discourse used by the United Nations when discussing women peacekeepers. The chapter provides statistics on the numbers of female peacekeepers historically and by assignment. Using the concept of hegemonic masculinity, the chapter explores how protection masculinity and militarized masculinity complicate the work of female peacekeepers in various ways. Finally, the chapter critiques the problematic rhetoric used by the UN to promote female peacekeepers, which largely relies on an essentialized view of women and downplays the impact of other identities such as culture, language, and class. The chapter argues that rather than seeking to simply increase the numbers of women in peacekeeping roles, a focus on gender equality at a structural level is critical to improving the efficacy of peacekeeping missions.

Keywords: peacekeeping, female peacekeepers, hegemonic masculinity, gender hierarchies, United Nations, female stereotypes

Topics: Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Organizations, Peacekeeping

Year: 2018

Gender Equality and Postconflict Reconstruction: What Do We Need to Know in Order to Make Gender Mainstreaming Work?

Citation:

Gizelis, Theodore-Ismene, and Nana Afua Pierre. 2013. “Gender Equality and Postconflict Reconstruction: What Do We Need to Know in Order to Make Gender Mainstreaming Work?” International Interactions 39 (4): 601-11.

Authors: Theodore-Ismene Gizelis, Nana Afua Pierre

Annotation:

Summary:
“Gender equality is relevant to post conflict reconstruction for a number of reasons. First, the impact of gender equality on long-term development clearly demonstrates its relevance for understanding the prospects for successful post conflict reconstruction (Duflo 2011; Sen 1999). Post Conflict reconstruction seeks to modify the structural conditions that contribute to conflict, and research strongly suggest that low postconflict growth contributes to a higher risk of recurring violence and the so-called “conflict trap,” where poverty and conflict become mutually reinforcing (Collier, Elliott, Hegre, Hoeffler, Reynol-Querol, and Sambanis 2003; Sen 1999). Second, research also shows that gender equality can have an effect independent of development that may help lower the risk of recurrent conflict (Gizelis 2009; Melander 2005a, 2005b; Sambanis 2006). Finally, postconflict reconstruction provides an important opportunity for studying the effects of institutional change. Civil wars destroy the previous social, economic, and political structures, and lead to tremendous changes in individual social identities and cultural practices. This turn provides a window of opportunity for new and more effective policies and institutions, conducive to long-term economic and social growth (Fuest 2008). These new policies and institutions may also incorporate active gender mainstreaming approaches to a lesser or greater degree.
 
Policymakers tend to agree with social scientists that gender equality is likely to be related to the success of postconflict reconstruction and hence should be included in reconstruction policies. This has been formalized in the UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 in 2000, which calls for a gender perspective in postconflict reconstruction, that is, reinforcing the process of gender mainstreaming adopted by the Economic and Social Council in 1997 (Hafner-Burton and Pollack 2002). UNSCR 1325 and developments initiated during the UN Decade for Women increase the pressure on UN Peacekeeping (UNPKOs) missions as well as other organizations and national governments to include a gender perspective and to incorporate the rhetoric and practices of gender mainstreaming in all policies, including those that target poverty reduction and development in agreement with the UN millennium declaration of 2000.
Still, neither researchers nor policymakers have sufficiently explored how gender equality interacts with the underlying economic and social conditions in post conflict environments, and under what conditions gender mainstreaming policies can be successfully implemented in a postconflict reconstruction process (Duflo 2011). This commentary makes two contributions. First, it connects some of the key findings in the development literature with the literature on gender equality to promote further research on gender equality and post conflict reconstruction. Second, it identifies possible theoretical extensions to current research to advance our understanding on the effectiveness of existing gender mainstreaming approaches in societies undergoing post conflict reconstruction. Systematic research is almost nonexistent in this area. This gap is central for policy as we at the present lack substantiated knowledge that can help us understand the usefulness of different gender mainstreaming approaches.
The commentary proceeds as follows: we first summarize the literature on gender equality and development. In the subsequent section we suggest some ways to evaluating under what conditions gender mainstreaming policies actually can be effective. We conclude with some central questions for future research” (Gizelis and Pierre 2013, 601-602).

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Peacekeeping, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, Violence

Year: 2013

Gender Mainstreaming in a Post-Conflict State

Citation:

D’Costa, Bina and Katrina Lee-Koo, ed. 2009. Gender Mainstreaming in a Post-Conflict State. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Authors: Bina D'Costa, Katrina Lee-Koo

Abstract:

Gender equality is widely believed by international organizations and mainstream commentators to contribute to the consolidation of democratic norms and domestic and international peace.1 The United Nations (UN) has promoted strategies for achieving gender equality as a central part of its peacebuilding and reconstruction programs. In Bosnia, Kosovo, and East Timor, UN missions have incorporated gender mainstreaming and gender-balanced decision-making policies and programs to foster civil society as means to ensure long-term peace and development. To what extent, though, are these institutional initiatives able to transform the deep-seated gendered social hierarchies in these new states? Feminist scholars argue that such hierarchies are at the root of violence against women, women’s lack of voice, and political representation. They hold that any meaningful democratic strategy must eliminate these hierarchies to bring about political freedom and equality. In Timor these feminist perspectives on gender justice and equality are an emerging part of the public debate about the processes of democratization in state and civil society. They can be seen in speeches, communications, and reports of local women’s organizations, donor agencies, NGOs, and the UN, however, this political activity has yet to be theoretically analyzed by feminist or nonfeminist scholars. Here we seek to highlight some of the gendered practices of democratization and assess the struggles within East Timorese civil society to forge a gender-equal democracy.

Keywords: civil society, domestic violence, United Nations, gender equality, gender perspective

Topics: Civil Society, Democracy / Democratization, Development, Domestic Violence, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gendered Discourses, Gender-Based Violence, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Organizations, Post-Conflict, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Peacekeeping Regions: Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe, Oceania Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Kosovo, Timor-Leste

Year: 2009

Reparation for Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in the (Post) Conflict Context: the Need to Address Abuses by Peacekeepers and Humanitarian Aid Workers

Citation:

Ferstman, Carla. 2020. "Reparation for Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in the (Post) Conflict Context: the Need to Address Abuses by Peacekeepers and Humanitarian Aid Workers." In Reparations for Victims of Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity, edited by Carla Ferstman and Mariana Goetz, 271-97. Leiden: Brill Nijhoff.

Author: Carla Ferstman

Annotation:

Summary:
"This chapter focuses on remedies and reparation for sexual exploitation and abuse perpetrated in conflict and post-conflict settings by those with a specific mandate to help: peacekeepers and associated personnel and the staff of humanitarian aid agencies." (Ferstman 2020, 271)

Topics: Conflict, Humanitarian Assistance, Justice, Reparations, Peacekeeping, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse

Year: 2020

The History and Nature of Sexual Misconduct in Peace Operations

Citation:

Westendorf, Jasmine Kim. 2020. "The History and Nature of Sexual Misconduct in Peace Operations." In Violating Peace: Sex, Aid, and Peacekeeping, 20-54. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Author: Jasmine-Kim Westendorf

Annotation:

Summary:
"I begin by briefly tracing the history of sexual exploitation and abuse in peace operations before delineating a typology of sorts that distinguishes between four main types of behavior that fall under the category of sexual exploitation and abuse. This is crucial to the study of how such behaviors affect the international community's capacity to achieve its peacebuilding goals and why policy responses have largely failed to date. I then discuss the causal and contextual factors that underpin the perpetration of sexual exploitation and abuse and consider the interconnections between the abuses by interveners, conflict-related sexual violence, and sexual harassment and abuse perpetrated within the international intervener community. Finally, I will look in greater detail at the issue of sexual misconduct by civilian interveners. To date, the majority of data and analysis has focused on uniformed peacekeepers, despite the fact that civilian peacekeepers are more responsible per capita for allegations of sexual exploitation and abuse in peace operations and despite growing awareness of the pervasiveness of sexual harassment and abuse within intervener communities. Understanding this particular element of the puzzle is critical to developing a comprehensive understanding of the nature, causes, and consequences of sexual exploitation and abuse in peace operations." (Westendorf 2020, 22)

Topics: Conflict, International Organizations, Peacekeeping, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse

Year: 2020

WPS and Peacekeeping Economies

Citation:

Jennings, Kathleen M. 2019. "WPS and Peacekeeping Economies." In The Oxford Handbook of Women, Peace, and Security, edited by Sara E. Davies and Jacqui True, 237-47. New York: Oxford University Press. 

Author: Kathleen M. Jennings

Abstract:

In recent years, scholars have sought to understand the relationship between international interveners and locals within peacekeeping communities. To do so, these scholars explore the everyday encounters between these actors through their interactions in the “peacekeeping economy.” Peacekeeping economy refers to the formal and informal economic activity that would or would not occur at a lower scale and pay-rate, without the presence of international peacekeepers and peace-builders. They are highly gendered in ways that accord to common understandings of “women’s work” and “men’s work.” However, the venues and services of the peacekeeping economy offer the rare opportunity for peacekeepers and “ordinary” locals to meet, transact, and interact in peacekeeping environments. This chapter examines the peacekeeping economies in Liberia and the DR Congo gaining unique insight into how the goals of “protection” and “prevention” are understood and embodied in the largely informal, “everyday” spaces that populate peacekeeping environments. Drawing on these case studies, this chapter argues that the everyday political-economic contexts in which peacekeeping missions unfold challenge the WPS aims of gender equality.

Keywords: DR Congo, Liberia, peacekeeping economy, everyday spaces, women's work, men's work

Topics: Economies, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Organizations, Livelihoods, Peacekeeping Regions: Africa, Central Africa, West Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia

Year: 2019

Pages

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