Peacekeeping

Sylabus Topic

Private Military Contractors, Peacekeepers, and the Sexual Exploitation of Women in Conflict Zones

Citation:

Sperling, Valerie. 2011. “Private Military Contractors, Peacekeepers, and the Sexual Exploitation of Women in Conflict Zones.” Paper presented at the International Studies Association Annual Conference: "Global Governance: Political Authority in Transition," Montreal, Quebec, Canada, March 16-19.

Author: Valerie Sperling

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Peacekeeping, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, SV against Women

Year: 2011

Maternal Thinking and the Politics of War

Citation:

Scheper‐Hughes, Nancy. 1996. “Maternal Thinking and the Politics of War.” Peace Review 8 (3): 353–58. 

Author: Nancy Scheper‐Hughes

Abstract:

Conventional ways of thinking about the gender of war and peace center on the too‐comfortable view of women—and especially mothers—as embedded in particular ways of being‐in‐the‐world that presumably make them resistant to wars and receptive to peacekeeping. Yet in many cases, this theory doesn't hold true. Instead, aspects of the experience of mothering—especially under conditions of scarcity, famine, oppression, and political disruption—can both instruct and allow women to readily surrender their sons (and their husbands) to war, violence, and death. There's a maternal ethos of “acceptable death” without which political violence and wars of all kinds would not be possible.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Peacekeeping, Political Economies

Year: 1996

Making Gender, Making War: Violence, Military and Peacekeeping Practices

Citation:

Kronsell, Annica, and Erika Svedberg, eds. 2012. Making Gender, Making War: Violence, Military and Peacekeeping Practices. New York: Routledge.

Authors: Annica Kronsell, Erika Svedberg

Abstract:

Making Gender, Making War is a unique interdisciplinary edited collection which explores the social construction of gender, war-making and peacekeeping. It highlights the institutions and processes involved in the making of gender in terms of both men and women, masculinity and femininity. The "war question for feminism" marks a thematic red thread throughout; it is a call to students and scholars of feminism to take seriously and engage with the task of analyzing war. Contributors analyze how war-making is intertwined with the making of gender in a diversity of empirical case studies, organized around four themes: gender, violence and militarism; how the making of gender is connected to a (re)making of the nation through military practices; UN SCR 1325 and gender mainstreaming in institutional practices; and gender subjectivities in the organization of violence, exploring the notion of violent women and non-violent men. (WorldCat)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gender Mainstreaming, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Peacekeeping, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, Violence

Year: 2012

Service, Sex, and Security: Gendered Peacekeeping Economies in Liberia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Citation:

Jennings, Kathleen M. 2014. “Service, Sex, and Security: Gendered Peacekeeping Economies in Liberia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.” Security Dialogue 45 (4): 313-30. doi:10.1177/0967010614537330.

Author: Kathleen M. Jennings

Abstract:

This article uses the concept of the peacekeeping economy to examine how peacekeepers – as individuals – and peacekeeping – as a complex of institutions, policy and practice – interact with, and inevitably shape, the societies in which they operate. It focuses on how peacekeeping economies are gendered, and the implications of this gendering. The article first examines three types of work characteristic of the peacekeeping economies in Liberia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo – namely domestic service, sex work, and private security. The United Nation’s (UN’s) institutional responses to these sectors demonstrates the persistence of ‘traditional’ gendered ideologies in peacekeeping, in which the ‘private’, feminized sphere of the home – encompassing peacekeepers’ domestic and sexual arrangements – is marginalized, while the masculinized realm of security is prioritized and closely regulated. Furthermore, factoring in peacekeepers’ individual responses to service, sex, and security reveals a counter-narrative of the peacekeeper-as-vulnerable. This counter-narrative helps obscure the potential for exploitation of locals by peacekeepers. Yet it also upsets the subject position of both the peacekeeper and ‘the local’ in an unexpected manner, ultimately undermining the notion of the (masculine) UN protector. Such an understanding complicates popular notions of how gender ‘works’ in peacekeeping sites, and enables insights into the ramifications of peacekeeping’s (often) self-imposed limitations.

Topics: Economies, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, International Organizations, Peacekeeping, Security, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Regions: Africa, Central Africa, West Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia

Year: 2014

Keeping the Peace is not Enough: Human Security and Gender-based Violence during the Transitional Period of Timor-Leste

Citation:

Groves, Gabrielle Eva Carol, Bernadette P. Resurrección, and Philippe Doneys. 2009. “Keeping the Peace is not Enough: Human Security and Gender-based Violence during the Transitional Period of Timor-Leste.” Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia 24 (2): 186-210.

Authors: Gabrielle Eva Carol Groves, Bernadette P. Resurrección, Philippe Doneys

Abstract:

Human security has been defined as people-centred and inextricably linked to development. This concept challenges the traditional security paradigm with its exclusive focus on the protection of the state and its sovereignty from conflict and immanent threats. By focusing on incidences of gender-based violence, this paper attempts to demonstrate the shortcomings of the UN peace-keeping mission and interim government in Timor-Leste in recognizing and redressing forms of violence and conflict other than those that threatened the new nation-state during the transitional period. Through the prism of gender-based violence, the paper argues that indigenous normatives and adjudication on gendered violence co-exist with the liberal principles of state-centric and are mutually reinforcing. As a result, this has generated new forms of insecurity, stoking the uneasy peace that continues to haunt the new nation-in-the-making.

Topics: Development, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Indigenous, Peacekeeping, Security, Human Security Regions: Oceania Countries: Timor-Leste

Year: 2009

Human Trafficking & Peacekeepers

Citation:

Allred, Keith J.. 2009. “Human Trafficking & Peacekeepers.” In Strategies Against Human Trafficking: The Role of the Security Sector, edited by Cornelius Friesendorf, 299-328. Vienna: National Defense Academy and Austrian Ministry of Defense and Sports in co-operation with Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces.

Author: Keith J. Allred

Abstract:

This chapter will identify the group of actors referred to here as “peacekeepers”, and examine the variety of ways in which peacekeepers support human trafficking. It will consider and evaluate corrective actions being implemented by various states and international organisations; identify corrective measures that still require evaluation and implementation; and conclude with a list of recommendations for further reducing the correlation between peacekeepers and trafficking. While there have been some recent positive movements in addressing the problem, there are also many obstacles yet to be overcome. The chapter concludes with cautious optimism that the international community is moving in the right direction. (Allred, 300)

Topics: Corruption, Gender, Peacekeeping, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Trafficking, Human Trafficking

Year: 2009

Can Women Make a Difference? Female Peacekeepers in Bosnia and Kosovo

Citation:

Sion, Liora. 2009. “Can Women Make a Difference? Female Peacekeepers in Bosnia and Kosovo.” Commonwealth & Comparative Politics 47 (4): 476-93.

Author: Liora Sion

Abstract:

By using participant observation, this article analyses the participation of women in peacekeeping missions through the experience of Dutch female peacekeepers in Bosnia and Kosovo in 1999–2000. Its argument is threefold. First, it argues that although peacekeeping is a relatively new military model it reproduces the same traditional combat-oriented mindset of gender roles. Therefore, women are limited in their ability to contribute to peace missions. Second, because peacekeeping missions are perceived by peacekeepers as rather feminine, they are seen as a challenge to male combat and masculine identity. As a result, soldiers reject the participation of women and perceive them as endangering even further the missions’ prestige. Third, despite the shared difficulties, women do not support each other and tend to view the other women in a stereotypical way. This contributes to their isolation and self-disapproval.

Topics: Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Peacekeeping Regions: Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Kosovo

Year: 2009

Implementing the Women, Peace and Security Agenda in Peace Operations: Overview of Recent Efforts and Lessons Learned

Citation:

St-Pierre, Kristine. 2010. “Implementing the Women, Peace and Security Agenda in Peace Operations: Overview of Recent Efforts and Lessons Learned.” Paper presented at Peacebuild workshop “The Women, Peace and Security Resolutions: From Rhetoric to Reality,” Ottawa, June 15.

Author: Kristine St-Pierre

Abstract:

The purpose of gender mainstreaming in peace operations is to ensure that the needs of men and women in host societies are met adequately, and documents such as Resolution 1325 are important tools for international organizations and peacekeeping troops in this work. The success of mainstreaming, however, depends on how seriously international actors incorporate gender sensitivity into their policies and practices.

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, International Organizations, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325

Year: 2010

Introduction: Security Council Resolution 1325: Assessing the Impact on Women, Peace and Security

Citation:

Willett, Susan. 2010. “Introduction: Security Council Resolution 1325: Assessing the Impact on Women, Peace and Security.” International Peacekeeping 17 (2): 142–58. doi:10.1080/13533311003625043.

Author: Susan Willett

Abstract:

October 2010 marks the tenth anniversary of UN Security Council resolution 1325, on ‘Women, Peace and Security’. Hailed as a major milestone in the struggle for gender equality in all aspects of peacemaking, peacekeeping and post-conflict recovery, the implementation of 1325 has floundered over the intervening years. Gender discourse has been submerged by the dominant UN epistemology of hegemonic masculinity, militarism and war. This essay contextualizes the struggle for resolution 1325, and provides an overview of the major challenges that still need to be addressed if UN attempts to establish a durable peace in conflict zones are to conform to the 1325 mandate.

Topics: Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Organizations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325

Year: 2010

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