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Peace Processes

Gender-Sensitive Conflict Analysis: A New Training Method for Practitioners

Citation:

Close, Sophia, and Hesta Groenewald. 2019. "Gender-Sensitive Conflict Analysis: A New Training Method for Practitioners." Journal of Peacebuilding & Development 14 (3): 304-17.

Authors: Sophia Close, Hesta Groenewald

Abstract:

The authors have co-designed and co-facilitated an innovative training method and approach to gender-sensitive conflict analysis. International organisations rarely undertake gendered conflict analysis as it is perceived to be difficult, with unclear or inconvenient actions identified. Yet the authors’ practice-based research shows it is essential to understanding and transforming the gendered root causes, discriminatory gender norms, and differentiated effects of violence and conflict. In this article, the authors share the lessons from workshops they conducted across multiple conflict-affected contexts. They detail the participatory process undertaken involving diverse gender groups from civil society and policymakers working in conflict-affected contexts and provide data on the effectiveness and sustainability of this innovative training approach.

Keywords: gender sensitive, gender, peace, peacebuilding, participatory, systems, conflict, analysis

Topics: Civil Society, Conflict, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, International Organizations, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Peace Processes

Year: 2019

Women, Gender and Peacebuilding

Citation:

Pankhurst, Donna T. 2000. "Women, Gender and Peacebuilding." Centre for Conflict Resolution Department of Peace Studies Working Paper 5, University of Bradford, Bradford. 

Author: Donna T. Pankhurst

Annotation:

Summary:
"Any policy paper on peacebuilding comes up against the problem that we understand far more about how to promote conflict than even how to conceive of peace, let alone build it. To many people, peace is an inverse, or even a mere corollary, of conflict, but such a vague notion does not lead to clear understandings or definitions of what it is that people are trying to promote or achieve in peace building. This paper therefore begins by setting out a framework for concepts and understandings of conflict and peace, which can assist in formulating peacebuilding policies.

Most approaches to peacebuilding have either ignored or marginalised issues of gender and women.Women consistently remain a minority of participants in peacebuilding projects; receive less attention than men in peacebuilding policies; and gender analysis rarely informs peacebuilding strategies. This is in spite of the fact that there have been many United Nations and European Commission resolutions which, for more than a decade, have criticised such marginalisation and neglect, and which have called for gender issues and women's needs to be given much more serious attention in all policies relating to conflict and peace.  Such resolutions were not drawn out of thin air, but built on at least two decades of practical experience in, and evaluation of, gender and women-focused policies in the area of development.

This paper charts a path for concrete, peacebuilding policies which take their key from these international resolutions and recommendations, and which would begin to redress this persistent gender inequality and widespread failure to tackle issues relating to women. It is founded on the view that groups of women often have a stronger commitment to the ending of violence and the maintenance of long term peace than groups of men, and thus often constitute a highly motivated and able group of stakeholders for peacebuilding, who nonetheless are often ignored.

By way of background, the paper also reviews the range of women's experiences during conflict; the usefulness of a gender analysis of conflict; and a gender analysis of peacebuilding, before drawing out the recommendations for future peacebuilding policies" (Pankhurst 2000, 1).

Topics: Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Organizations, Post-Conflict, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes

Year: 2000

Participation and Protection: Security Council Dyanmics, Bureaucratic Politics, and the Evolution of the Women, Peace, and Security Agenda

Citation:

Goetz, Anne Marie, and Rob Jenkins. 2018. "Participation and Protection: Security Council Dynamics, Bureaucratic Politics, and the Evolution of the Women, Peace, and Security Agenda." In The Oxford Handbook of Gender and Conflict, edited by Fionnuala Ní Aoláin, Naomi Cahn, Dina Francesca Haynes, and Nahla Valji, 119-131. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Authors: Anne Marie Goetz, Rob Jenkins

Abstract:

This chapter focuses on the political and institutional factors behind the implementation of UN Security Council resolution 1325. It illuminates two elements of the Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) Agenda: participation and protection. It argues that despite the WPS Agenda’s efforts, women continue to remain underrepresented in peace negotiations and post-conflict political settlements. Further, by concentrating solely on protecting women from sexual violence, and neglecting an analysis of gender inequality and its contribution to conflict-propensity, the WPS Agenda perpetuates a protectionist narrative. This is due to opposition to the participation agenda from developing country member-states, a lack of accountability systems, and a lack of a powerful advocate within the UN bureaucratic system. The chapter concludes with suggestions for a recently formed working group under resolution 2242 to utilize, in order to better enable women’s participation in peace and security processes.

Keywords: Security Council Resolution 1325, protectionism, Security Council Resolution 2242, United Nation bureaucracy, women, Women Peace and Security agenda, gender

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Organizations, Post-Conflict, Peace Processes, Sexual Violence, SV against women, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 2242

Year: 2018

Gender and Governance in Post-Conflict and Democratizing Settings

Citation:

Kindervater, Lisa, and Sheila Meintjes. 2018. "Gender and Governance in Post-Conflict and Democratizing Settings." In The Oxford Handbook of Gender and Conflict, edited by Fionnuala Ní Aoláin, Naomi Cahn, Dina Francesca Haynes, and Nahla Valji, 468-484. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

Authors: Lisa Kindervater, Sheila Meintjes

Abstract:

Women have the opportunity to make significant economic, political, and sociocultural gains during transitions to peace and democracy; however, these gains are frequently lost when competitive electoral politics resumes. This chapter identifies the key mechanisms responsible for this loss, providing examples from several countries in sub-Saharan Africa. These mechanisms include institutional constraints, historical political conditions, donor-driven agendas, prevailing cultural norms, and the nature of the women’s movement. The chapter suggests that while the enactment of laws and policies related to women’s rights are an important first step, a feminist and transformational agenda in post-conflict societies requires focus on patriarchal cultures and practices. The chapter argues that such transformation is aided by the fostering of strong relationships between grassroots women activists and politically elite women.

Keywords: post-conflict, electoral politics, patriarchal cultures, feminism, women's movement, donor agenda, Sub-Saharan Africa

Topics: Class, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Governance, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Political Participation, Peace Processes Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa

Year: 2018

Women's Organizations and Peace Initiatives

Citation:

Tripp, Aili Mari. 2018. "Women’s Organizations and Peace Initiatives." In The Oxford Handbook of Gender and Conflict, edited by Fionnuala Ní Aoláin, Naomi R. Cahn, Dina Francesca Haynes, and Nahla Valji, 430-441. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Author: Aili Mari Tripp

Abstract:

Women’s peace movements in the post–Cold War era frequently share three common characteristics: a grassroots and local focus due to exclusion from formal peace negotiations; an early and sustained commitment to bridging differences between factions; and the use of international and regional pressures to create success on the local level. This chapter reviews each of these characteristics through case studies. Examples from Sri Lanka, Somalia, and Nepal illustrate the successes and challenges of grassroots or local peace movements led by women. Peace processes in Burundi, led by women activists, exemplify a commitment to unity across ethnic lines. The chapter concludes with examples from Liberia and Sierra Leone, demonstrating the efficacy of international and regional organizations supporting local peace movements.

Keywords: women's peace movement, peace process, women activists, grassroots peace movement, Sri Lanka, Somalia, Nepal, Burundi

Topics: Civil Society, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, International Organizations, Post-Conflict, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes Regions: Africa, East Africa, Asia, South Asia Countries: Burundi, Nepal, Somalia, Sri Lanka

Year: 2018

Introduction: Land Rights, Restitution, Politics, and War in Colombia

Citation:

Cramer, Christopher, and Elisabeth Jean Wood. 2017. "Introduction: Land Rights, Restitution, Politics, and War in Colombia." Journal of Agrarian Change 17 (4): 733-8.

Authors: Christopher Cramer, Elisabeth Jean Wood

Abstract:

This paper introduces contributions to a symposium that report some of the findings and arguments to emerge from a collaborative research project involving five Colombian universities forming the Observatorio de Restitución y Regulación de Derechos de Propiedad Agraria (Observatory of Restitution and Regulation of Agrarian Property Rights). In a number of ways, the research presented in the symposium advances understanding of the political economy of rural Colombia, and of war in Colombia, and the papers, drawing on the original evidence collected by Observatorio researchers, develop arguments that have a wider relevance too for agrarian political economy and the understanding of violent conflict. In particular, the papers highlight the direct participation of elites in violent conflict; the varieties and nuances of wartime primitive accumulation; the complexities of the state's role in wartime agrarian political economy; the gender dimensions of agrarian conflict; the interaction of war and law; and the significance for service provision of farm size. As Colombia—hopefully—passes from long war to peace, these arguments and this evidence may be valuable in debates about what kind of peace can develop.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Agriculture, Economies, Gender, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Rights, Land Rights, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2017

Women, Peace, and Security in Pakistan

Citation:

Faraz, Zeenia. 2017. Women, Peace, and Security in Pakistan. United States Institute of Peace. 

Author: Zeenia Faraz

Annotation:

Summary:
Conflict and crisis have adversely affected the social and economic circumstances of women and girls in Pakistan. A gender lens is needed in responses to crises. 

Ensuring women’s participation at all levels in decisions related to peace and security in the country is essential.

The women, peace, and security (WPS) framework is useful for enhancing women’s participation in peace processes and applying a gender lens to postconflict reconstruction.

Implementation of the WPS agenda in Pakistan requires concrete measures at social and political levels that would challenge existing gender stereotypes and pave the way for greater participation among women in peacebuilding and peace processes.

Topics: Conflict, Gender, Women, Girls, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Peace Processes, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2017

The Colombian Transitional Process: Comparative Perspectives on Violence against Indigenous Women

Citation:

Acosta, Monica, Angela Castaneda, Daniela Garcia, Fallon Hernandez, Dunen Muelas, and Angela Santamaria. 2018. "The Colombian Transitional Process: Comparative Perspectives on Violence against Indigenous Women." International Journal of Transitional Justice 12 (1): 108-25.

Authors: Monica Acosta, Angela Castaneda, Daniela Garcia, Fallon Hernandez, Dunen Muelas, Angela Santamaria

Abstract:

Colombia has a comprehensive system of truth, justice and reparation stemming from its history with the justice and peace process and its most recent peace agreement. Although indigenous women are the most affected before, during and after conflict, their participation is marginalized within this political context. This article discusses how Colombian transitional justice can be reconfigured when indigenous women's practices and knowledge travel 'from the margins' to the center. We seek to demonstrate how these practices legitimize gender and other types of violence in the name of tradition and also how indigenous women's experiences go beyond the gendered perspective of violence as a 'weapon of war.' Working within the context of the peace process, we gathered data through learning and teaching techniques with indigenous women in three indigenous contexts (Sierra, Pan-Amazon region and Chocó). Our focus is on the interaction between local transitional justice practices and the violence against indigenous women, their resistance practices and the peacebuilding agendas used to implement transitional justice in Colombia.

Keywords: Colombia, indigenous women, intersectionality, transitional justice 'from below'

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Intersectionality, Justice, Reparations, Transitional Justice, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2018

Sustaining Peace in the “New Gambia”

Citation:

Connolly, Lesley. 2018. "Sustaining Peace in the 'New Gambia.'" In Sustaining Peace in Practice: Building on What Works, edited by Youssef Mahmoud, Lesley Connolly, and Delphine Mechoulan, 59-64. International Peace Institute.

Author: Lesley Connolly

Annotation:

Summary:
“This chapter highlights three main areas that should be prioritized for the purpose of sustaining peace in the Gambia: women’s empowerment, youth empowerment and entrepreneurship, and transitional justice and good governance. It explains how investment in these areas has helped prevent the escalation of conflict and how it can contribute to the maintenance of long-term national peace and stability” (Connolly 2018, 59-60).

Topics: Age, Youth, Conflict Prevention, Conflict, Gender, Women, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Justice, Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict, Peace Processes Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Gambia

Year: 2018

Gender, Nationalism and Conflict Transformation: New Themes and Old Problems In Northern Ireland Politics

Citation:

Ashe, Fidelma. 2019. Gender, Nationalism and Conflict Transformation: New Themes and Old Problems In Northern Ireland Politics. London: Routledge.

Author: Fidelma Ashe

Annotation:

Table of Contents:

1. Gender, Sexuality and Conflict Transformation

2. Gendering the Accord

3. Gender, Sexuality and the New Institutions

4. Masculinities, Power and Transition

5. Gender and Renegotiating the Peace 

6. Bodies and Conflict Transformation

7. Conclusions

Topics: Conflict, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Peace Processes, Sexuality Regions: Europe, Western Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2019

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