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Peace Processes

Queering Colombia's Peace Process: A Case Study of LGBTI Inclusion

Citation:

Maier, Nicole. 2020. "Queering Colombia's Peace Process: A Case Study of LGBTI Inclusion." The International Journal of Human Rights 24 (4): 377-92.

Author: Nicole Maier

Abstract:

In August 2016, Colombia's government announced that they had reached an agreement with the country's largest guerrilla group, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). This peace deal was historic in Colombia's more than half-century long armed conflict; however, Colombian voters rejected it. A revised version was ultimately passed through a congressional vote. Despite the intense domestic criticism of the peace talks, they have been praised internationally and revered as a model for the world, particularly with regard to their efforts surrounding victims of the armed conflict. This article focuses on one particular group of victims, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) individuals. The experience of LGBTI people in armed conflicts has historically been one of exclusion from peace processes. This article explores how Colombia's peace process has approached the LGBTI experience through interviews with LGBTI activists and analyses of collaborative civil society efforts. The actions taken by LGBTI organisations reveal the critical role of truth and memory initiatives and capacity building. While much work has been done, Colombia is left with many unanswered questions about what a post-conflict society will look like for LGBTI victims of the armed conflict.

Keywords: LGBT, victim, Colombia, armed conflict, transitional justice, peacebuilding

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Gender, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Justice, Transitional Justice, LGBTQ, Post-Conflict, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Sexuality Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2020

Unruly Wives in the Household: Toward Feminist Genealogies for Peace Research

Citation:

Lyytikäinen, Minna, Punam Yadav, Annick T. R. Wibben, Marjaana Jauhola, and Catia Cecilia Confortini. 2020. "Unruly Wives in the Household: Toward Feminist Genealogies for Peace Research." Cooperation and Conflict. doi:10.1177/0010836720938397.

Authors: Minna Lyyktikäinen, Punam Yadav, Annick T. R. Wibben, Marjaana Jauhola, Catia Cecilia Confortini

Abstract:

Feminist scholars and activists have historically been written out of peace research, despite their strong presence in the early stages of the field. In this article, we develop the concept of “wifesization” to illustrate the process through which feminist and feminized interventions have been reduced to appendages of the field, their contributions appropriated for its development but unworthy of mention as independent producers of knowledge. Wifesization has trickle-down effects, not just for knowledge production, but also for peacebuilding practice. We propose new feminist genealogies for peace research that challenge and redefine the narrow boundaries of the field, in the form of a patchwork quilt including early theorists, utopian writing, oral history, and indigenous knowledge production. Reflections draw on the authors’ engagements with several archives rich in cultures and languages of peace, not reducible to a “single story.” Recovering wifesized feminist contributions to peace research, our article offers a new way of constructing peace research canons that gives weight to long-standing, powerful, and plural feminist voices, in order to make peace scholarship more inclusive and ultimately richer.

Keywords: feminist peace research, India, Nepal, Sámiland, wifesization, women

Topics: Feminisms, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes

Year: 2020

Feminist Continua in Peace and Conflict Studies

Citation:

Donahoe, Amanda E. 2019. "Feminist Continua in Peace and Conflict Studies." In The Palgrave Handbook of Global Approaches to Peace, edited by Aigul Kulnazarova and Vesselin Popovski, 87-107. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Author: Amanda E. Donahoe

Abstract:

This chapter defines and then engages a feminist lens to explore gender within peace and conflict studies. The heuristic of a continuum, a series of elements that share a basic character, is used to critique the use of dichotomies such as male/female, peace/war, strong/weak, active/passive, and public/private. Looking at these concepts as continua rather than in binary form allows for more critical understanding of the complexities of peace and violence, power and participation, and challenges the hierarchy implicit in these dichotomies.

Topics: Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Peace Processes, Violence

Year: 2019

The Role of Women in Conflict Resolution: A Case Study of the Niger-Delta Crisis

Citation:

Osisioma, Ugochukwu Samuel. 2020. "The Role of Women in Conflict Resolution: A Case Study of the Niger-Delta Crisis." American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Research 4 (3): 317-24.

Author: Ugochukwu Samuel Osisioma

Abstract:

The peaceful and orderliness of any society cannot be divorced from the crucial role being played by women in their capacity as wives and mothers. In every society, women are not just being known as being peaceful, but in extension, they are also known as crusaders of peaceful means of settling any conflict. In this paper, efforts would be geared towards taking a critical examination of the role of women in pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial Africa. Special focus would be geared towards the role of women in the conflict resolution of the Niger Delta crisis. Taking into consideration the pervasive influence of menfolk in decision making processes in any society, the Niger Delta women have demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt through peaceful protests and other means to bring the Niger Delta crisis to a logical conclusion. The research paper seeks to bring to writing the impact of concerned female activists and environmentalist who helped in galvanizing support for the ending of armed hostility in the Niger Delta. This and many other issues relating to women‟s role in the peaceful resolution of the Niger Delta conflict would be the crux of discussion in this paper. In the main, adequate recommendation would be proffered to forestall future occurrence.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Conflict, Gender, Women, Peace Processes Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2020

Colombian People's Willingness to Forgive Offenses against Women Perpetrated during the Armed Conflict

Citation:

Pineda-Marín, Claudia, María Teresa Muñoz-Sastre, Diana Gutiérrez Villamarín, Carolina Espitia M., and Etienne Mullet. 2019. "Colombian People's Willingness to Forgive Offenses against Women Perpetrated during the Armed Conflict." Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología 51 (3): 226-35.

Authors: Claudia Pineda-Marín, María Teresa Munoz Sastre, Diana Gutiérrez Villamarín, Carolina Espitia M, Etienne Mullet

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
We examined the Colombian people’s positions on forgiving perpetrators of offenses against women during the armed conflict, and the relationship between willingness to forgive and attitudes towards the peace process. The majority of participants (61%) were quite unwilling to forgive. Among participants who were not completely hostile, three positions were found. For 18%, forgiving mainly depended on the type of crime, for 8%, it depended on the subsequent apologetic behaviour, and for 8%, forgiving was unconditional. Participants who did not reject the possibility of forgiveness expressed significantly more positive views regarding the current peace process than participants who expressed rejection.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Este estudio examinó la disposición a perdonar de personas comunes colombianas frente a los crímenes en contra de las mujeres, durante el contexto del conflicto armado colombiano. También estudió las relaciones entre la disposición a perdonar y las actitudes frente al proceso de paz. Se observó que la mayoría de los participantes (61%) tienen muy baja disposición a perdonar. Entre los participantes que no fueron completamente hostiles, se observaron tres posiciones: un 18% estaba dispuesto a perdonar en función del tipo de crimen, para el 8% su disposición a perdonar dependía de la conducta de disculpas por parte del ofensor, y para el 8% el perdón fue incondicional. Los participantes que no rechazaban la posibilidad de perdonar, expresaron de manera significativa perspectivas más positivas frente al actual proceso de paz que los aquellos quienes expresaron rechazo.

Keywords: Colombia, armed conflict, FARC, Violence against women, forgiveness, Conflicto Armado, perdón, violencia contra las mujeres

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Peace Processes Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2019

A Feminist Perspective and the Challenge of Post Conflict Development in Africa

Citation:

Omotosho, Mashood, and Mariam Adebola Ogunleye. 2018. "A Feminist Perspective and the Challenge of Post Conflict Development in Africa." International Journal for Empirical Education and Research. doi:10.35935/edr/22.3619.

Author: Mashood Omotosho

Abstract:

In the last two decades, Africa has witnessed series of wars and ethno-religious conflicts with devastating impact on women. Various atrocities against women have been recorded during these conflicts and these developments have created a dangerous dimension against non-combatant women in the continent. In an attempt to resolve the conflict and armed conflict on women in the areas of sexual and gender-based violence, series of peace missions and peace building mechanism were put in place. Despite the various peace negotiations, evidence has shown that women are largely absent from formal peace negotiations and their voices are not heard both at local and continental levels especially within the modern-day challenges and post conflict development. In fact, the transformation agenda of post-conflict peace negotiations routinely failed to consider the gendered causes and consequences of armed conflict and post-conflict reconstruction. It is against this backdrop that this paper attempts to reassess the ambivalent role of women in conflict management in Africa. More importantly, the paper argues that there is need to increase women’s participation in peace talks, planning of demilitarisation, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) and determining governance and security structures, especially in conflict prone areas. Ultimately, the paper seeks to also identify challenges hindering the role and the participation of women in post conflict development in Africa.

Keywords: feminist, post conflict, gender, violence, womanism, conflict escalation

Topics: Armed Conflict, DDR, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Peace Processes, Sexual Violence Regions: Africa

Year: 2018

Role of Women in Peacebuilding and Post-Conflict Transformation Africa: A Catholic Church Perspective

Citation:

Ochieng, Merab. 2019. "Role of Women in Peacebuilding and Post-Conflict Transformation Africa: A Catholic Church Perspective." International Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences 1 (2): 1-12

Author: Merab Ochieng

Abstract:

Women, world over play important role in preservation of culture and nurturing of peace. However it has been observed that in times of conflict women are not represented in peace negotiation and in planning and execution of post-conflict reconstruction efforts. This paper examines the place of women in the Catholic Church and the opportunities they have to engage in conflict resolution and peace building in the African context. The paper argues that in many areas of conflict women play a major role in keeping the communities from disintegrating even in the breakdown of the social fabric. It further argues that the Catholic Church as a leading advocate for empowerment of women has a major role to ensure that they are allowed to play a more significant role in conflict resolution and peace building.

Keywords: peace negotiation, conflict resolution, africa, women, gender issues

Topics: Conflict, Gender, Women, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Religion Regions: Africa

Year: 2019

Women’s Agency in Peacebuilding in Polarized Post-Conflict Communities in Plateau State, Nigeria

Citation:

Bulus, Kwopnan Ibrahim, Feyza Bhatti, and Cemaliye Beysoylu. 2020. "Women’s Agency in Peacebuilding in Polarized Post-Conflict Communities in Plateau State, Nigeria." Journal of Politics and Law 13 (2): 189-200.

Authors: Kwopnan Ibrahim Bulus, Feyza Bhatti, Cemaliye Beysoylu

Abstract:

Over the last two decades, while significant consideration is given to women’s participation and representation in formal peacebuilding processes, there is the dearth of research on the grassroots level involvement and contributions of women to peacebuilding processes in post-conflict communities. Utilizing 28 semi-structured interviews and two focus group discussions with women in Bukuru and Gyel communities, this article aims at improving the understandings on the agency of women in building and sustaining peace in polarized post-conflict communities in Plateau State, Nigeria. The article argues that in spite of the global marginalisation of women in formal peace processes, women are actively involved in peacebuilding and use various forms of individual and collective agency to restore harmonious relations, build peace and foster social cohesion in polarized post-conflict communities.

Keywords: peacebuilding, women's agency, bottom-up peacebuilding, social cohesion

Topics: Gender, Women, Post-Conflict, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2020

Pro-Gender Norms in Norwegian Peace Engagement: Balancing Experiences, Values, and Interests

Citation:

Skjelsbæk, Inger, and Torunn Lise Tryggestad. 2020. "Pro-Gender Norms in Norwegian Peace Engagement: Balancing Experiences, Values, and Interests." Foreign Policy Analysis 16 (2): 181-98.

Authors: Inger Skjelsbæk, Torunn Lise Tryggestad

Abstract:

The national self-image of Norway is as a gender-equal and peace-promoting nation. Norwegian gender equality policies grew out of a strong social and political civil society engagement from below combined with equal rights laws as well as quota systems implemented from above by the state. In this paper, we explore the intersection of pro-gender norms and peace engagement in Norwegian foreign policy. While gender mainstreaming has been on the agenda of Norwegian development cooperation for decades, the introduction of pro gender norms in peace engagement is a more recent phenomenon. How are gender equality norms and concerns understood and promoted by Norwegian peace facilitators in practice. And how are pro-gender experiences, values, and norms balanced in Norwegian peace engagement?

Topics: Gender, Feminist Foreign Policy, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Peace Processes Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Norway

Year: 2020

Women's Advocacy in Postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina: Implementation of UNSCR 1325 on Women, Peace, and Security

Citation:

Rosul-Gajic, Jagoda. 2016. "Women's Advocacy in Postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina: Implementation of UNSCR 1325 on Women, Peace, and Security." Journal of International Women's Studies 17 (4): 143-59.

Author: Jagoda Rosul-Gajic

Abstract:

In this paper, I address the question of how Bosnian women's NGOs have contributed to the implementation of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 (UNSCR 1325) on Women, Peace and Security in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). What instruments did they use to enforce gender, peace and security norms into state policy and the policy of international actors in the post-conflict internationalized society of BiH? Since national and international actors did not comply with international gender specific norms and standards, I argue that, as norm advocates, Bosnian women's NGOs have been working with a double strategy to influence gender, peace and security policy and enforce change, both by national and international actors. In order to act gender-sensitively, this paper claims--unlike most of the literature on global norm diffusion--it is not only the national actors who need to be socialized to comply with international norms and standards, but also the international political elite. Hence, it not only looks at the process of norm implementation into domestic policies, but also in the policies of international actors in post conflict countries. The methodology followed is a descriptive one wherein the analyses is conducted on information resulting from interviews and published secondary data.

Keywords: UNSCR 1325, gender norms, post-conflict settings, women's NGOs, postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, International Organizations, NGOs, Peace and Security, Peace Processes, Security Regions: Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina

Year: 2016

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