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Peace Processes

Towards an Indigenous Model of Conflict Resolution: Reinventing Women's Roles as Traditional Peacebuilders in Neo-Colonial Africa

Citation:

Isike, Christopher, and Ufo Okeke Uzodike. 2011. “Towards an Indigenous Model of Conflict Resolution: Reinventing Women’s Roles as Traditional Peacebuilders in Neo-Colonial Africa.” African Journal on Conflict Resolution 11 (2): 32–59.

Authors: Christopher Isike, Ufo Okeke Uzodike

Abstract:

Women have always been at the centre of peace processes across different pre-colonial African societies. Their peace agency in these societies can be located in their cultural and socio-political roles as well as their contributions to the overall well-being of these societies. It is noteworthy that women’s peacebuilding roles then were reinforced by perceptions which stereotyped women as natural peacemakers, and as being more pacific than men. However, women in neo-colonial African states appear to have lost this myth/sacredness that surrounded their being and social existence in pre-colonial Africa. This is because apart from being marginalised socially, economically and politically, they have increasingly become victims of male violence. How and why did women transform from being active participants in precolonial politics and peace processes to being passive observers of politics and peacebuilding in neo-colonial Africa? And second, given their pre-colonial peacebuilding antecedents, do women have the potential to transform politics and conflict in neo-colonial Africa?In building towards an indigenous model of conflict resolution and peacebuilding, this paper contends that the feminist ethic of care (defined by ubuntu) that was appropriated by pre-colonial African women to wage peace and maintain societal harmony, is still very much a part of the core of contemporary African women, and can be appropriated in resolving subnational conflicts in neo-colonial Africa. Indeed, it is possible to develop it into a model of African feminist peacebuilding which can be utilised as an ideological rallying point to transform politics and create a suitable environment for development in the continent.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Indigenous, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Peace Processes, Peacebuilding Regions: Africa

Year: 2011

Lebanon, UNSCR 1325, and the Women, Peace and Security Agenda

Citation:

Zaiter, Manar. 2018. "Lebanon, UNSCR 1325, and the Women, Peace and Security Agenda." Al-Raida Journal 42 (1): 39-50.

Author: Manar Zaiter

Abstract:

The Security Council’s adoption of Resolution 1325 (31 October 2000) constitutes an advancement in the international protection of women and girls in times of conflict. It is the first public, legal instrument issued by the Security Council, calling warring parties to respect women’s rights and support their participation in all stages and contexts of conflict prevention, conflict resolution, peace talks, peacebuilding, peacekeeping, humanitarian response, and post-conflict reconstruction. In view of the situation in the Arab region and of the political, security, economic, cultural, and social context that affects women, the Women, Peace and Security Agenda is of great importance to the entire Arab region.

Topics: Conflict, Gender, Women, Girls, Humanitarian Assistance, Peace and Security, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, Rights, Women's Rights, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Lebanon

Year: 2018

Women and Liberal Peacebuilding in Post-Conflict Northern Uganda: Community Social Work Agenda Revisited?

Citation:

Ochen, Eric Awich. 2017. "Women and Liberal Peacebuilding in Post-Conflict Northern Uganda: Community Social Work Agenda Revisited?" African Sociological Review 21 (2): 15-35.

Author: Eric Awich Ochen

Abstract:

This paper examines women’s participation in post-conflict peacebuilding activities within the neo-liberal peace theory and framework. Using qualitative approach, the study gathered information from 40 women and several key informants working and living in post-conflict northern Uganda. The paper utilizes this information in reflecting on how women live in and engage with their communities in post-conflict settings, and also assess the actual actions and initiatives that women develop in post-conflict situation, the space available to them and the emergent context. The paper also analyses the extent to which these factors shape community post-conflict adjustments. Key challenges affecting women’s participation in the peacebuilding processes, mainly at grassroots and community levels are examined. The major conclusion of the paper is that liberal peacebuilding approach does not fully espouse, embrace or explain issues of critical consciousness, social and strategic agency nor does it prepare the women to effectively engage their society. I argue that this limitation and omission do not adequately prepare women to confront social issues and oppressive practices as well as challenge certain traditions and power structures, issues that are hall marks of community based social work.

Topics: Gender, Women, Post-Conflict, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2017

Informe Especial del Instituto Kroc y el acompañamiento internacional, ONU Mujeres, FDIM y Suecia, al seguimiento del enfoque de género en la implementación del Acuerdo Final

Citation:

KROC Institute for International Peace Studies. 2018. Informe Especial del Instituto Kroc y el acompañamiento internacional, ONU Mujeres, FDIM y Suecia, al seguimiento del enfoque de género en la implementación del Acuerdo Final. Bogotá: KROC Institute.

Author: KROC Institute for International Peace Studies

Annotation:

Summary:
Este informe presenta un análisis del proceso de implementación del enfoque de género transversal al Acuerdo Final para la Terminación del Conflicto y la Construcción de una Paz Estable y Duradera entre diciembre 2016 y junio de 2018. La Embajada de Suecia, la Federación Democrática Internacional de Mujeres (FDIM) y la Entidad de las Naciones Unidas para la Igualdad de Género y el Empoderamiento de las Mujeres (ONU Mujeres), junto a la Iniciativa Barómetro del Instituto Kroc de Estudios Internacionales de Paz de la Universidad de Notre Dame presentan este informe de avances y desafíos en la implementación del enfoque de género, con base en la información recopilada en el proceso de seguimiento que cada una de estas organizaciones lleva a cabo.
 
Como apoyo técnico al Componente Internacional de Verificación (CIV), el Instituto Kroc desarrolló una matriz con la cual hace seguimiento a la implementación del Acuerdo Final. El Instituto identificó en el texto de Acuerdo, 578 disposiciones (acciones concretas, observables y medibles), de las cuales 130 tienen un enfoque de género. Estas acciones comprometen a las partes involucradas (Gobierno y FARC) a poner en marcha acciones afirmativas específicas para asegurar el liderazgo y participación de las mujeres y la población LGBTI, en programas e instituciones relacionadas con la implementación del Acuerdo Final. Por su parte, ONU Mujeres identificó 100 medidas con enfoque de género en el Acuerdo que incluyen medidas para el desarrollo normativo. Así mismo, ONU Mujeres hace seguimiento al desarrollo de política pública en materia de implementación con el propósito de identificar alertas, brechas y recomendaciones. La FDIM, ha concentrado sus esfuerzos en los territorios, trabajando con organizaciones de mujeres y en los Espacios Territoriales de Capacitación y Reincorporación (ETCR). En este proceso, FDIM ha recogido las demandas, necesidades básicas e intereses estratégicos de las mujeres en proceso de reincorporación social, política y económica, verificando el nivel de avance en el cumplimiento del Acuerdo Final en esta materia. Por último, la Embajada de Suecia ha venido apoyando la implementación del Acuerdo de Paz a través de apoyo económico y político a proyectos relacionados con la reincorporación, justicia transicional, derechos de las víctimas y desarrollo rural, siempre con un enfoque especial en la realización de los derechos de las mujeres y en una mayor igualdad de género.
 
El análisis de las 130 disposiciones con enfoque de género identificadas por el Instituto Kroc revela que, a 30 de junio de 2018, el 51%, de los compromisos con enfoque de género no se habían iniciado; el 38% estaban mínimamente implementados; el 7% habían alcanzado un nivel intermedio de implementación; y el 4% de los compromisos (cinco disposiciones) se habían implementado completamente. El contraste con el ritmo de implementación de la totalidad de las disposiciones (578), evidencia diferencias importantes en los niveles de implementación del enfoque de género frente a los niveles implementación general del
Acuerdo. Se observa una brecha significativa entre los compromisos con un enfoque de género que no han iniciado implementación (51%) y la proporción del total de compromisos en el Acuerdo que no han iniciado implementación (37%). Esto representa una brecha de implementación de 14 puntos porcentuales.
 
El presente informe se centra en identificar avances y desafíos en el proceso de implementación de estos compromisos en general, y en particular, en temas específicos identificados en las mesas técnicas con
diversos actores, que consideramos son de suma importancia para la
calidad de la paz y para evitar eventuales cascadas negativas en el proceso
de implementación. Dichos temas son:
 
1. Implementación Reforma Rural Integral y Solución al Problema de las Drogas Ilícitas.
2. Implementación de las medidas de participación de las mujeres en la implementación del Acuerdo y en la construcción de paz.
3. Implementación de garantías de seguridad y protección con enfoque de género
4. Implementación de las medidas para la reincorporación de excombatientes.
 
El informe presenta recomendaciones en torno a temas específicos como la inclusión y definición de medidas diferenciales en los proyectos de ley que aún falta por presentar, tramitar e implementar, y el fortalecimiento institucional que permita obtener información desagregada por sexo, etnia y orientación sexual que informen la creación e implementación de políticas públicas con enfoque de género.

Topics: Combatants, DDR, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Peace and Security, Peace Processes, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2018

The Colombian Land Restitution Programme: Process, Results and Challenges, with Special Emphasis on Women

Citation:

García Godos, Jemima, and Henrik Wiig. 2014. The Colombian Land Restitution Programme: Process, Results and Challenges, with Special Emphasis on Women. Oslo: Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research.

Authors: Jemima García Godos, Henrik Wiig

Annotation:

Summary:
Since 2011, Colombia is embarked in an ambitious program of land and property restitution for the more than 5 million internally displaced people who fled their homes and lands due to the internal armed conflict. The restitution process involves the return of IDPs as well as the formalization of property rights. In spite of great initial optimism, by mid-2014 only 20.000 HA of land have been restituted. This report gives a detailed description of the process itself, discussing the many challenges that have risen, including the consideration to innocent third parties farming the land today and the hesitancy among IDPs to return to their land. Furthermore, the report discusses some alternatives that might ease the restitution process and the implications of restitution in a prospective scenario of land reform, given the ongoing peace negotiations between the government and the guerrilla.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Women, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Post-Conflict, Peace Processes, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2014

Queering Colombia's Peace Process: A Case Study of LGBTI Inclusion

Citation:

Maier, Nicole. 2020. "Queering Colombia's Peace Process: A Case Study of LGBTI Inclusion." The International Journal of Human Rights 24 (4): 377-92.

Author: Nicole Maier

Abstract:

In August 2016, Colombia's government announced that they had reached an agreement with the country's largest guerrilla group, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). This peace deal was historic in Colombia's more than half-century long armed conflict; however, Colombian voters rejected it. A revised version was ultimately passed through a congressional vote. Despite the intense domestic criticism of the peace talks, they have been praised internationally and revered as a model for the world, particularly with regard to their efforts surrounding victims of the armed conflict. This article focuses on one particular group of victims, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) individuals. The experience of LGBTI people in armed conflicts has historically been one of exclusion from peace processes. This article explores how Colombia's peace process has approached the LGBTI experience through interviews with LGBTI activists and analyses of collaborative civil society efforts. The actions taken by LGBTI organisations reveal the critical role of truth and memory initiatives and capacity building. While much work has been done, Colombia is left with many unanswered questions about what a post-conflict society will look like for LGBTI victims of the armed conflict.

Keywords: LGBT, victim, Colombia, armed conflict, transitional justice, peacebuilding

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Gender, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, Justice, Transitional Justice, LGBTQ, Post-Conflict, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Sexuality Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2020

Unruly Wives in the Household: Toward Feminist Genealogies for Peace Research

Citation:

Lyytikäinen, Minna, Punam Yadav, Annick T. R. Wibben, Marjaana Jauhola, and Catia Cecilia Confortini. 2020. "Unruly Wives in the Household: Toward Feminist Genealogies for Peace Research." Cooperation and Conflict. doi:10.1177/0010836720938397.

Authors: Minna Lyyktikäinen, Punam Yadav, Annick T. R. Wibben, Marjaana Jauhola, Catia Cecilia Confortini

Abstract:

Feminist scholars and activists have historically been written out of peace research, despite their strong presence in the early stages of the field. In this article, we develop the concept of “wifesization” to illustrate the process through which feminist and feminized interventions have been reduced to appendages of the field, their contributions appropriated for its development but unworthy of mention as independent producers of knowledge. Wifesization has trickle-down effects, not just for knowledge production, but also for peacebuilding practice. We propose new feminist genealogies for peace research that challenge and redefine the narrow boundaries of the field, in the form of a patchwork quilt including early theorists, utopian writing, oral history, and indigenous knowledge production. Reflections draw on the authors’ engagements with several archives rich in cultures and languages of peace, not reducible to a “single story.” Recovering wifesized feminist contributions to peace research, our article offers a new way of constructing peace research canons that gives weight to long-standing, powerful, and plural feminist voices, in order to make peace scholarship more inclusive and ultimately richer.

Keywords: feminist peace research, India, Nepal, Sámiland, wifesization, women

Topics: Feminisms, Indigenous, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Peace Processes, Peacebuilding

Year: 2020

Collective Discussion: Piecing-Up Feminist Peace Research

Citation:

Wibben, Annick T. R., Catia Cecilia Confortini, Sanam Roohi, Sarai B. Aharoni, Leena Vastapuu, and Tiina Vaittinen. 2019. "Collective Discussion: Piecing-Up Feminist Peace Research." International Political Sociology 13 (1): 86-107.

Authors: Annick T. R. Wibben, Catia Cecilia Confortini, Sanam Roohi, Sarai B. Aharoni, Leena Vastapuu, Tiina Vaittinen

Abstract:

Feminist peace research is an emerging field of social sciences that is transdisciplinary, intersectional, and normative—as well as transnational. Although it draws from disciplines such as peace and conflict research (in and outside of international relations [IR]) as well as feminist security studies, it also differs from them in terms of research scope and research design. Consequently, it not only provides insights on what can be termed “spectacular” instances of violence or peace but also sharpens our analysis of the everydayness of reconciliatory measures and the mundaneness of both violence and peace. As a feminist endeavor, feminist peace research necessarily asks questions about unequal gender relations and power structures within any given conflict environment. In this collective discussion piece, a diverse group of scholars, who formed part of the recently convened Feminist Peace Research Network, explores and further develops the parameters of this emergent field through a set of short conversation pieces.

Topics: Feminisms, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Peace and Security, Peace Processes, Violence

Year: 2019

Feminist Continua in Peace and Conflict Studies

Citation:

Donahoe, Amanda E. 2019. "Feminist Continua in Peace and Conflict Studies." In The Palgrave Handbook of Global Approaches to Peace, edited by Aigul Kulnazarova and Vesselin Popovski, 87-107. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Author: Amanda E. Donahoe

Abstract:

This chapter defines and then engages a feminist lens to explore gender within peace and conflict studies. The heuristic of a continuum, a series of elements that share a basic character, is used to critique the use of dichotomies such as male/female, peace/war, strong/weak, active/passive, and public/private. Looking at these concepts as continua rather than in binary form allows for more critical understanding of the complexities of peace and violence, power and participation, and challenges the hierarchy implicit in these dichotomies.

Topics: Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Peace Processes, Violence

Year: 2019

The Role of Women in Conflict Resolution: A Case Study of the Niger-Delta Crisis

Citation:

Osisioma, Ugochukwu Samuel. 2020. "The Role of Women in Conflict Resolution: A Case Study of the Niger-Delta Crisis." American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Research 4 (3): 317-24.

Author: Ugochukwu Samuel Osisioma

Abstract:

The peaceful and orderliness of any society cannot be divorced from the crucial role being played by women in their capacity as wives and mothers. In every society, women are not just being known as being peaceful, but in extension, they are also known as crusaders of peaceful means of settling any conflict. In this paper, efforts would be geared towards taking a critical examination of the role of women in pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial Africa. Special focus would be geared towards the role of women in the conflict resolution of the Niger Delta crisis. Taking into consideration the pervasive influence of menfolk in decision making processes in any society, the Niger Delta women have demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt through peaceful protests and other means to bring the Niger Delta crisis to a logical conclusion. The research paper seeks to bring to writing the impact of concerned female activists and environmentalist who helped in galvanizing support for the ending of armed hostility in the Niger Delta. This and many other issues relating to women‟s role in the peaceful resolution of the Niger Delta conflict would be the crux of discussion in this paper. In the main, adequate recommendation would be proffered to forestall future occurrence.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Conflict, Gender, Women, Peace Processes Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2020

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