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Peace Processes

When “Bright Futures” Fade: Paradoxes of Women’s Empowerment in Rwanda

Citation:

Berry, Marie E. 2015. "When 'Bright Futures' Fade: Paradoxes of Women’s Empowerment in Rwanda." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 41 (1): 1-27.

Author: Marie E. Berry

Annotation:

Summary:
"Recent qualitative work has challenged many of the impressive development indicators that the Government of Rwanda has presented to the international donor community. This article continues in this mold, employing qualitative methods and a bottom-up perspective to illustrate three paradoxes of development efforts that have emerged within different social institutions—including the family, the education system, and the labor market. Each of these paradoxes serves as an example of how efforts to promote women have failed to fundamentally transform ordinary women’s lives. In the first, patriarchal processes conflate adulthood with marriage, denying unwed women the same rights as their married counterparts and thus reinforcing women’s dependence on men. In the second, well-intentioned education policies promoting girls have unintended effects, which ultimately create new forms of oppression for women. Finally, the ambitious development enterprise led by the government is only made possible through the repression of some of its citizens, which essentially entrenches their poverty even more deeply. Combined, these three paradoxes suggest that the very efforts intended to remedy women’s subordination have indirectly reinforced it in particular ways. This article joins a tradition of feminist scholarship that cautions against an easy reading of efforts to promote social change" (Berry 2015, 3). 
 

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Development, Education, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Households, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2015

Gendered Companies, Gendered Security

Citation:

Bongiovi, Joseph R., and Lisa Leitz. 2019. “Gendered Companies, Gendered Security.” In The Sociology of Privatized Security, edited by Ori Swed and Thomas Crosbie, 173-216. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

Authors: Joseph R. Bongiovi, Lisa Leitz

Abstract:

Using archival, interview, and industry observation data, this chapter examines how the private military and security company (PMSC) industry uses gender as a claim to legitimacy. However, our findings suggest that this growing industry still has areas for improvement before being a positive force for gender mainstreaming. As this industry grew, so did concerns about its handling of gender issues. A series of high-profile scandals has contrasted with international efforts to both protect and involve women in peacekeeping operations. The industry developed its own regulatory organizations and put a number of checks in place to bring PMSC firms into compliance with international norms. These include involving women in peace processes and ensuring gender equality in military and security work. However, the lack of attention to gender in industry guidelines and organizations demonstrates the ongoing gap between aspirations and achievement. As international norms move toward gender mainstreaming, so does the pressure to demonstrate that they can effectively reflect those expectations. While high-level changes have occurred, it is less clear how much substantive and measurable change has occurred within the industry. (Abstract from SpringerLink)

Topics: Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes

Year: 2019

Integrating Gender into Post-Conflict Natural Resource Management

Citation:

Karuru, Njeri, and Louise H. Yeung. 2016. "Integrating Gender into Post-Conflict Natural Resource Management." In Governance, Natural Resources and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding, edited by Carl Bruch, Carroll Muffett, and Sandra S. Nichols. London: Routledge.

Authors: Njeri Karuru, Louise H. Yeung

Abstract:

This chapter explores the ways in which women, and their relationship to natural resources, can be integrated into peacebuilding, with particular attention to two issues: women's participation in peace negotiations and peace agreements, and the value of gender analysis in efforts to redress inequities. It explains an overview of the relationships among natural resources, gender analysis, and peacebuilding; and a discussion of the role of natural resources and gender in the context of peace negotiations and agreements. The chapter explores an analysis of opportunities for gender mainstreaming in particular peacebuilding contexts. It demonstrates legal frameworks that recognize women's rights are not enough: to ensure equitable opportunities in livelihoods, property ownership, justice, and governance, women must be given opportunities for meaningful participation in governance in general, and natural resource management. A gender-sensitive approach to natural resource management is one of the building blocks of sustainable peacebuilding. The chapter concludes that considerations for integrating gender and natural resources moving forward. (Abstract from Taylor & Francis)

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gender Mainstreaming, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Political Participation, Rights

Year: 2016

How Women's Silence Secures the Peace: Analysing Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in a Low-Intensity Conflict

Citation:

Davies, Sara E., Jacqui True, and Maria Tanyag. 2016. “How Women’s Silence Secures the Peace: Analysing Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in a Low-Intensity Conflict.” Gender & Development 24 (3): 459–73.

Authors: Sarah E. Davies, Jacqui True, Maria Tanyag

Abstract:

Most studies of the gendered impact of conflict focus on sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) atrocities committed in high-intensity conflict environments. In contrast, this article focuses on the patterns of SGBV in Mindanao, Philippines – an environment of protracted low-intensity conflict within a fragile state. We examine the current Mindanao peace process to highlight the disempowerment of survivors of SGBV, due in large part to the reporting constraints that affect those most likely to be targeted for sexual violence by rival groups, some of whom are closely associated with the peace process. By making visible the significant social, political-economic, and institutional barriers affecting the recognition and reporting of SGBV, we discuss how and why conflict-related SGBV continues in fragile and low-intensity conflict environments.

Keywords: peace process, Mindanao, clan violence, sexual violence, gender

Topics: Clan, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, conflict, Peace Processes, Sexual Violence, SV against women Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2016

Gender Justice: "Gender" in the Bangsamoro Development Plan

Citation:

Jopson, Teresa Lorena. 2017. “Gender Justice: ‘Gender’ in the Bangsamoro Development Plan.” In Enlarging the Scope of Peace Psychology: African and World-Regional Contributions, edited by Mohamed Seedat, Shahnaaz Suffla, and Daniel J. Christie, 221–38. Cham: Springer.

Author: Teresa Lorena Jopson

Abstract:

This chapter is a preliminary inquiry into gender, conflict, and peace in Mindanao, Southern Philippines. I look into the role of gender in the conflict, women’s participation in peace negotiations, and gender equality as a component of peace and development. I suggest that gender inequality, in the form of a gender order, has historically shaped conflict in Mindanao. I review women’s participation in peace negotiations in Southeast Asia through the cases of Aceh, Myanmar, and the Philippines. Finally, using critical frame analysis, I look at how gender has been framed in the Bangsamoro Development Plan, a roadmap for sustainable peace of the proposed Bangsamoro government. I find that the gender order has shaped the roles men and women have taken in Bangsamoro history and that women’s participation does not necessarily translate to having gender on the agenda of peace negotiations. I underscore the relevance of increased women’s participation in peace and development processes and critically framing gender on peace agendas. I maintain that attending to the quality of gender discourse by (re)politicising “gender” to bring back its emancipatory aim is an aspect of a sustainable peace. 

Keywords: Peace Negotiations, gender, development, bangsamoro, Philippines

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Men, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, conflict, Gendered Discourses, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2017

Reimagining Peacemaking: Women’s Roles in Peace Processes

Citation:

O’Reilly, Marie, Andrea Ó Súilleabháin, and Thania Paffenholz. 2015. Reimagining Peacemaking: Women’s Roles in Peace Processes. New York: International Peace Institute.

Authors: Marie O'Reilly, Andrea Ó Súilleabháin, Thania Paffenholz

Annotation:

Summary: 
"Peace processes increasingly go beyond outlining cease-fires and dividing territory to incorporate elements that lay the foundations for peace and shape the structures of society. Yet by and large the participants who decide the former continue to decide the latter; the inclusion of others—those who did not take up arms, those who were working for peace, or significant portions of the population whose priorities for a peaceful society may differ— has not kept pace. 
 
"This report focuses on one such group: women. Between 1992 and 2011, just 2 percent of chief mediators and 9 percent of negotiators in peace processes were women” (O’Reilly et al. 2015, 1).

Topics: Gender, Women, peace and security, Post-conflict Governance, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction

Year: 2015

Women and Peace Processes

Citation:

de Alwis, Malathi, Julie Mertus, and Tazreena Sajjad. 2013. “Women and Peace Processes.” In Women and Wars, edited by Carol Cohn, 169–93. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Authors: Malathi de Alwis, Julie Mertis, Tazreena Sajjad

Abstract:

Because delegates to the 1998 peace talks in Northern Ireland were chosen through public elections, Monica McWilliams, a Catholic feminist academic from South Belfast, and Pearl Sagar, a Protestant social worker from East Belfast, formed the Northern Ireland Women’s Coalition (NIWC) to lobby political parties to include women in their candidate lists. When ignored, they decided to form their own political party and contest the elections. The NIWC only received 1.03 percent of the popular vote but it managed to secure two seats (out of 110) under the quota set aside for minority parties. McWilliams and Sagar were thus able to participate in multi-party negotiations resulting in the intergovernmental Good Friday Agreement which devolved legislative powers to the Northern Ireland National Assembly and brought about a significant de-escalation of violence.
 
During the peace talks in Somalia in 2000, participation was restricted to Somalia’s five clans. As clans were traditionally represented only by men, Somali women found themselves closed out of the negotiations. A cross-clan group of women peace activists, led by Asha Haji Elmi, declared themselves to be representatives of a “sixth clan,” the clan of women, and camped outside the location of the talks, demanding that they be allowed to participate in the formal peace process. They were eventually accepted as participants, and negotiated, among other measures, a gender quota for Transitional Federal Parliament seats and the establishment of a Women’s Ministry. The National Charter they helped draft is considered the best in the region.

Topics: Gender, conflict, Governance, Quotas, Peace Processes, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction

Year: 2013

A Seat at the Table Is Not Enough: Understanding Women’s Substantive Representation in Peace Processes

Citation:

Ellerby, Kara. 2016. “A Seat at the Table Is Not Enough: Understanding Women’s Substantive Representation in Peace Processes.” Peacebuilding 4 (2): 136–50.

Author: Kara Ellerby

Abstract:

While the international community stresses the importance of including women at the peace table so peace processes will better represent their needs and interests, it is unclear what specifically this inclusion entails. Do women need to be negotiators, mediators? Do peace agreements adequately represent women’s interests when women are included? This article engages UNSC Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security as a framework through which to assess peace processes and agreements. A woman-focused examination of all civil war peace processes reveals that less than 10% meet women’s inclusion as envisioned in UNSCR 1325. This article focuses on the three conditions accounting for women’s substantive representation in peacebuilding. What emerges are three joint necessities: an explicit women’s agenda; access to the peace process; and advocacy within the process. The final sections problematise how even in all of these positive cases women had to fight to participate.

Keywords: women, gender, representation, UNSCR 1325, peacebuilding, stakeholders

Topics: Gender, Women, peace and security, International Organizations, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325

Year: 2016

Inclusive Security and Peaceful Societies: Exploring the Evidence

Citation:

O’Reilly, Marie. 2016. “Inclusive Security and Peaceful Societies: Exploring the Evidence.” Prism : A Journal of the Center for Complex Operatioton 6 (1): 20–33.

Author: Marie O'Reilly

Annotation:

Summary: 
"The full impact of women's participation on peace and security outcomes remains poorly understood. But a recent increase in quantitative and qualitative research has the potential to transform the status quo. In outlining the existing data, this article shows how women's inclusion helps prevent conflict, create peace, and sustain security after war ends" (O'Reilly 2016, 21-2). 

Topics: Conflict Prevention, Development, Gender, Women, conflict, peace and security, Post-conflict Governance, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Security

Year: 2016

Text and Context: Evaluating Peace Agreements for Their 'Gender Perspective'

Citation:

Bell, Christine. 2015. Text and Context: Evaluating Peace Agreements for Their ‘Gender Perspective'. New York: UN Women.

Author: Christine Bell

Annotation:

Summary:
Since approximately 1990, peace processes involving the negotiation of formal peace agreements between the protagonists to conflict have become a predominant way of ending violent conflicts, both within and between States. Between 1990 and 2015 1,168 peace agreements have been negotiated in around 102 conflicts, on a wide definition of peace agreements to include agreements at all stages of the negotiations.
 
Peace agreements are therefore important documents with significant capacity to affect women’s lives. However, a range of obstacles for women seeking to influence their design and implementation persists. These include difficulties with accessing talks, achieving equal influence at talks, raising issues of concern for women, and achieving material gains for women as an outcome of the peace process.
 
This report examines what ‘a gender perspective’ in peace agreements might mean, assesses numerous peace agreements from between 1 January 1990 and 1 January 2015 for their ‘gender perspective, and produces data on when women have been specifically mentioned in those peace agreements. (Summary from UN Women)

Topics: Gender, peace and security, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Security

Year: 2015

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