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Peace and Security

Everyone Wants (a) Peace: The Dynamics of Rhetoric and Practice on ‘Women, Peace and Security.’

Citation:

True, Jacqui, and Antje Wiener. 2019. “Everyone Wants (a) Peace: The Dynamics of Rhetoric and Practice on ‘Women, Peace and Security.’” International Affairs 95 (3): 553–74.

Authors: Jacqui True, Antje Wiener

Abstract:

‘Women, Peace and Security’ (WPS) is not just any normative agenda: everyone wants a piece of it. WPS is characterized by unprecedented recognition by states at the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) and the presence of multiple stakeholders, including its own transnational NGO network focused on the first Resolution, 1325. The high degree of participation from civil society in framing the norm from the outset—driving their own access to contestation—makes WPS relatively unique among global normative agendas. It is therefore a good case in which to examine the ‘dynamics of dissent’ and test the effects of discursive and behavioural contestation on normative change. The article seeks to advance the thriving literature on the UN WPS agenda and to further develop the exploratory approach to contestation, which evaluates normative progress based on increased access of all those affected by the norm to practices of norm validation. It maps norm contestation at distinct sites, reflecting a sequence of WPS events referenced at the 2015 UNSC open debate on WPS. It evaluates practices of contestation with regard to affected WPS stakeholders' access to political agency and assesses ‘whose practices’ affect norm change and transformative change in the WPS agenda. The authors conclude that the relative access of the wide range of stakeholders to the different repertoires and constellations of contestation affects the outcomes of WPS. They suggest that scholars should evaluate diverse practices of contestation and identify expanding spaces and choices for a variety of local, national and regional perceptions of gender-equal peace and security.

Topics: Civil Society, Gender, Women, Peace and Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325

Year: 2019

Lebanon, UNSCR 1325, and the Women, Peace and Security Agenda

Citation:

Zaiter, Manar. 2018. "Lebanon, UNSCR 1325, and the Women, Peace and Security Agenda." Al-Raida Journal 42 (1): 39-50.

Author: Manar Zaiter

Abstract:

The Security Council’s adoption of Resolution 1325 (31 October 2000) constitutes an advancement in the international protection of women and girls in times of conflict. It is the first public, legal instrument issued by the Security Council, calling warring parties to respect women’s rights and support their participation in all stages and contexts of conflict prevention, conflict resolution, peace talks, peacebuilding, peacekeeping, humanitarian response, and post-conflict reconstruction. In view of the situation in the Arab region and of the political, security, economic, cultural, and social context that affects women, the Women, Peace and Security Agenda is of great importance to the entire Arab region.

Topics: Conflict, Gender, Women, Girls, Humanitarian Assistance, Peace and Security, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, Rights, Women's Rights, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Lebanon

Year: 2018

Global Pathways or Local Spins? National Action Plans in South America

Citation:

Drumond, Paula, and Tamya Rebelo. 2020. “Global Pathways or Local Spins? National Action Plans in South America.” International Feminist Journal of Politics, August, 1–23.

Authors: Paula Drumond, Tamya Rebelo

Abstract:

With the upsurge in the adoption of National Action Plans (NAPs) to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 (2000), scholars have made attempts to better understand the global, regional, and national formulations of the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) agenda. Commitments to the agenda have emerged in South America in recent years, and this article critically examines what governments understand and indicate as appropriate ideas and practices for engaging with the global WPS architecture. By considering the specific security challenges experienced in the region, the article interrogates the extent to which South American countries have been emulating or innovating in terms of the content of NAPs. We argue that, despite some innovative elements that are bubbling up from these documents, the appropriation of the agenda by governments has mostly emulated traditional “peace” and “security” frames that are notably at odds with the insecurities and realities facing South American women. As feminist research gains new impetus with the twentieth anniversary celebrations of UNSCR 1325, our findings provide new insights into the workings of this agenda in a region that has been under-explored within WPS scholarship.

Keywords: UNSCR 1325, South America, National Action Plans, policy diffusion, WPS

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Peace and Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Americas, South America

Year: 2020

Marking Failure, Making Space: Feminist Interventions in Security Council Policy

Citation:

Cook, Sam. 2019. “Marking Failure, Making Space: Feminist Interventions in Security Council Policy.” International Affairs 95 (6): 1289-306.

Author: Sam Cook

Abstract:

Feminist interventions in international politics are, more often than not, understood (and visible) as interventions in relation to policy documents. These policies—in this case the United Nations Security Council's resolutions on Women, Peace and Security—often feature as the end point of feminist advocacy efforts or as the starting point for feminist analysis and critique. In this article the author responds to the provocations throughout Marysia Zalewski's work to think (and tell) the spaces of international politics differently, in this case by working with the concept of feminist failure as it is produced in feminist policy critique. Inspired by Zalewski's Feminist International Relations: exquisite corpse, the article explores the material and imaginary spaces in which both policies and critique are produced. It picks up and reflects upon a narrative refrain recognizable in feminist critiques on Women, Peace and Security policy—that we must not make war safe for women—as a way to reflect on the inevitability of failure and the ostensible boundaries between theory and practice. The author takes permission from Zalewski's creative interventions and her recognition of the value of the ‘detritus of the everyday’—here a walk from New York's Grand Central Station to the UN Headquarters, musings on the flash of a particular shade of blue, and the contents of a footnoted acknowledgement, begin to trace an international political space that is produced through embodied and quotidian practice.

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Gender Analysis, Peace and Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS

Year: 2019

The Australian Foreign Policy White Paper, Gender and Conflict Prevention: Ties that Don’t Bind

Citation:

Agius, Christine, and Anu Mundkur. 2020. “The Australian Foreign Policy White Paper, Gender and Conflict Prevention: Ties that Don’t Bind.” Australian Journal of International Affairs 74 (3): 282-300.

Authors: Christine Agius, Anu Mundkur

Abstract:

After a 14-year gap, Australia’s 2017 Foreign Policy White Paper advanced a ‘comprehensive framework to advance Australia’s security and prosperity in a contested and competitive world’ (Australian Government 2017a, “2017 Foreign Policy White Paper.” https://www.fpwhitepaper.gov.au/., v). Focused on regional stability, partnerships and global cooperation, it identifies ‘risks and opportunities’ in an altered external environment. In this article, we argue that the neglect of gender and conflict prevention in the White Paper has implications for its stated aspirations with regard to peace and security. This is striking considering the attention that gender—particularly in the context of the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) agenda—has received in other policy areas and documents. Building on feminist security scholarship, conflict prevention approaches, and bringing in civil society voices, we argue that the White Paper contains a gendered, masculinist logic, separating domestic and international issues and paying insufficient attention to the structural and systemic causes of conflict. This article pursues a gender analysis in order to illuminate the gaps present in the White Paper and its limited vision of security and makes the case that conflict prevention from a gender perspective is key to sustainable peace, security and national interests.

Keywords: conflict prevention, Foreign Policy White Paper, Australia, gender, foreign policy, women, peace and security (WPS)

Topics: Civil Society, Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, Peace and Security, Security Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2020

The Gender and Security Agenda: Strategies for the 21st Century

Citation:

Oudraat, Chantal de Jonge, and Michael E. Brown, eds. 2020. The Gender and Security Agenda: Strategies for the 21st Century. London: Routledge.

Authors: Chantal de Jonge Oudraat, Michael E. Brown

Annotation:

Summary:
This book examines the gender dimensions of a wide array of national and international security challenges.
 
The volume examines gender dynamics in ten issue areas in both the traditional and human security sub-fields: armed conflict, post-conflict, terrorism, military organizations, movement of people, development, environment, humanitarian emergencies, human rights, governance. The contributions show how gender affects security and how security problems affect gender issues.
 
Each chapter also examines a common set of key factors across the issue areas: obstacles to progress, drivers of progress and long-term strategies for progress in the 21st century. The volume develops key scholarship on the gender dimensions of security challenges and thereby provides a foundation for improved strategies and policy directions going forward. The lesson to be drawn from this study is clear: if scholars, policymakers and citizens care about these issues, then they need to think about both security and gender.
 
This will be of much interest to students of gender studies, security studies, human security and International Relations in general. (Summary from Routledge)
 
Table of Contents:
 
1. Gender and Security: Framing the Agenda 
Chantal de Jonge Oudraat and Michael E. Brown
 
2. Gender and Armed Conflict 
Kathleen Kuehnast
 
3. Gender and Peacebuilding 
Anne Marie Goetz and Rob Jenkins
 
4. Gender and Terrorism 
Jeannette Gaudry Haynie
 
5. Gender and Military Organizations 
Ellen Haring 
 
6. Gender and Population Movements 
Jane Freedman
 
7. Gender, Development and Security 
Jeni Klugman
 
8. Gender and Environmental Security 
Edward R. Carr
 
9. Gender, Humanitarian Emergencies and Security 
Tamara Nair
 
10. Gender, Human Rights and Security 
Corey Levine and Sari Kouvo
 
11. Gender, Governance and Security 
Jacqui True and Sara E. Davies
 
12. Promoting Gender and Security: Obstacles, Drivers and Strategies 
Chantal de Jonge Oudraat and Michael E. Brown

 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Environment, Gender, Governance, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Peace and Security, Post-Conflict, Peacebuilding, Rights, Human Rights, Terrorism

Year: 2020

Informe Especial del Instituto Kroc y el acompañamiento internacional, ONU Mujeres, FDIM y Suecia, al seguimiento del enfoque de género en la implementación del Acuerdo Final

Citation:

KROC Institute for International Peace Studies. 2018. Informe Especial del Instituto Kroc y el acompañamiento internacional, ONU Mujeres, FDIM y Suecia, al seguimiento del enfoque de género en la implementación del Acuerdo Final. Bogotá: KROC Institute.

Author: KROC Institute for International Peace Studies

Annotation:

Summary:
Este informe presenta un análisis del proceso de implementación del enfoque de género transversal al Acuerdo Final para la Terminación del Conflicto y la Construcción de una Paz Estable y Duradera entre diciembre 2016 y junio de 2018. La Embajada de Suecia, la Federación Democrática Internacional de Mujeres (FDIM) y la Entidad de las Naciones Unidas para la Igualdad de Género y el Empoderamiento de las Mujeres (ONU Mujeres), junto a la Iniciativa Barómetro del Instituto Kroc de Estudios Internacionales de Paz de la Universidad de Notre Dame presentan este informe de avances y desafíos en la implementación del enfoque de género, con base en la información recopilada en el proceso de seguimiento que cada una de estas organizaciones lleva a cabo.
 
Como apoyo técnico al Componente Internacional de Verificación (CIV), el Instituto Kroc desarrolló una matriz con la cual hace seguimiento a la implementación del Acuerdo Final. El Instituto identificó en el texto de Acuerdo, 578 disposiciones (acciones concretas, observables y medibles), de las cuales 130 tienen un enfoque de género. Estas acciones comprometen a las partes involucradas (Gobierno y FARC) a poner en marcha acciones afirmativas específicas para asegurar el liderazgo y participación de las mujeres y la población LGBTI, en programas e instituciones relacionadas con la implementación del Acuerdo Final. Por su parte, ONU Mujeres identificó 100 medidas con enfoque de género en el Acuerdo que incluyen medidas para el desarrollo normativo. Así mismo, ONU Mujeres hace seguimiento al desarrollo de política pública en materia de implementación con el propósito de identificar alertas, brechas y recomendaciones. La FDIM, ha concentrado sus esfuerzos en los territorios, trabajando con organizaciones de mujeres y en los Espacios Territoriales de Capacitación y Reincorporación (ETCR). En este proceso, FDIM ha recogido las demandas, necesidades básicas e intereses estratégicos de las mujeres en proceso de reincorporación social, política y económica, verificando el nivel de avance en el cumplimiento del Acuerdo Final en esta materia. Por último, la Embajada de Suecia ha venido apoyando la implementación del Acuerdo de Paz a través de apoyo económico y político a proyectos relacionados con la reincorporación, justicia transicional, derechos de las víctimas y desarrollo rural, siempre con un enfoque especial en la realización de los derechos de las mujeres y en una mayor igualdad de género.
 
El análisis de las 130 disposiciones con enfoque de género identificadas por el Instituto Kroc revela que, a 30 de junio de 2018, el 51%, de los compromisos con enfoque de género no se habían iniciado; el 38% estaban mínimamente implementados; el 7% habían alcanzado un nivel intermedio de implementación; y el 4% de los compromisos (cinco disposiciones) se habían implementado completamente. El contraste con el ritmo de implementación de la totalidad de las disposiciones (578), evidencia diferencias importantes en los niveles de implementación del enfoque de género frente a los niveles implementación general del
Acuerdo. Se observa una brecha significativa entre los compromisos con un enfoque de género que no han iniciado implementación (51%) y la proporción del total de compromisos en el Acuerdo que no han iniciado implementación (37%). Esto representa una brecha de implementación de 14 puntos porcentuales.
 
El presente informe se centra en identificar avances y desafíos en el proceso de implementación de estos compromisos en general, y en particular, en temas específicos identificados en las mesas técnicas con
diversos actores, que consideramos son de suma importancia para la
calidad de la paz y para evitar eventuales cascadas negativas en el proceso
de implementación. Dichos temas son:
 
1. Implementación Reforma Rural Integral y Solución al Problema de las Drogas Ilícitas.
2. Implementación de las medidas de participación de las mujeres en la implementación del Acuerdo y en la construcción de paz.
3. Implementación de garantías de seguridad y protección con enfoque de género
4. Implementación de las medidas para la reincorporación de excombatientes.
 
El informe presenta recomendaciones en torno a temas específicos como la inclusión y definición de medidas diferenciales en los proyectos de ley que aún falta por presentar, tramitar e implementar, y el fortalecimiento institucional que permita obtener información desagregada por sexo, etnia y orientación sexual que informen la creación e implementación de políticas públicas con enfoque de género.

Topics: Combatants, DDR, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Peace and Security, Peace Processes, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2018

New Directions in Women, Peace and Security

Citation:

Basu, Soumita, Paul Kirby, and Laura Shepherd, eds. 2020. New Directions in Women, Peace and Security. Bristol: Bristol University Press.

Authors: Soumita Basu, Paul Kirby, Laura Shepherd

Annotation:

Summary:
What does gender equality mean for peace, justice, and security? At the turn of the 21st century, feminist advocates persuaded the United Nations Security Council to adopt a resolution that drew attention to this question at the highest levels of international policy deliberations.
Today the Women, Peace and Security agenda is a complex field, relevant to every conceivable dimension of war and peace. This groundbreaking book engages vexed and vexing questions about the future of the agenda, from the legacies of coloniality to the prospects of international law, and from the implications of the global arms trade to the impact of climate change. It balances analysis of emerging trends with specially commissioned reflections from those at the forefront of policy and practice. (Summary from Bristol University Press)
 
Table of Contents:
United Nations Security Council Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security
Foreword: Toward Strategic Instrumentalism
Anne Marie Goetz
 
1. Women, Peace and Security: A Critical Cartography
Soumita Basu, Paul Kirby and Laura J. Shepherd
 
Part I: Encounters
2. South Sudanese Women on the Move: An Account of the Women, Peace and Security Agenda
Rita M. Lopidia and Lucy Hall
 
3. The Price of Peace? Frictional Encounters on Gender, Security and the ‘Economic Peace Paradigm’
Nicole George
 
4. Difficult Encounters with the WPS Agenda in South Asia: Re- scripting Globalized Norms and Policy Frameworks for a Feminist Peace
Rita Manchanda
 
5. Best Practice Diplomacy and Feminist Killjoys in the Strategic State: Exploring the Affective Politics of Women, Peace and Security
Minna Lyytikäinen and Marjaana Jauhola
 
6. Between Protection and Participation: Affect, Countering Violent Extremism and the Possibility for Agency
Elizabeth Pearson
 
7. Lessons Lived in Gender and International Criminal Law
Patricia Viseur Sellers and Louise Chappell
 
8. Holding Feminist Space
Sam Cook and Louise Allen
 
Part II: Horizons
9. Global Racial Hierarchies and the Limits of Localization via National Action Plans
Toni Haastrup and Jamie J. Hagen
 
10. Towards a Postcolonial, Anti- Racist, Anti- Militarist Feminist Mode of Weapons Control
Anna Stavrianakis
 
11. The Privatization of War: A New Challenge for the Women, Peace and Security Agenda
Marta Bautista Forcada and Cristina Hernández Lázaro
 
12. Human Trafficking, Human Rights and Women, Peace and Security: The Sound of Silence
Gema Fernández Rodríguez de Liévana and Christine Chinkin
 
13. Addressing Future Fragility: Women, Climate Change and Migration
Briana Mawby and Anna Applebaum
 
14. Feminist Challenges to the Co-optation of WPS: A Conversation with Joy Onyesoh and Madeleine Rees
Joy Onyesoh, Madeleine Rees and Catia Cecilia Confortini

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Environment, Climate Change, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Law, International Organizations, Peace and Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, Weapons /Arms

Year: 2020

Collective Discussion: Piecing-Up Feminist Peace Research

Citation:

Wibben, Annick T. R., Catia Cecilia Confortini, Sanam Roohi, Sarai B. Aharoni, Leena Vastapuu, and Tiina Vaittinen. 2019. "Collective Discussion: Piecing-Up Feminist Peace Research." International Political Sociology 13 (1): 86-107.

Authors: Annick T. R. Wibben, Catia Cecilia Confortini, Sanam Roohi, Sarai B. Aharoni, Leena Vastapuu, Tiina Vaittinen

Abstract:

Feminist peace research is an emerging field of social sciences that is transdisciplinary, intersectional, and normative—as well as transnational. Although it draws from disciplines such as peace and conflict research (in and outside of international relations [IR]) as well as feminist security studies, it also differs from them in terms of research scope and research design. Consequently, it not only provides insights on what can be termed “spectacular” instances of violence or peace but also sharpens our analysis of the everydayness of reconciliatory measures and the mundaneness of both violence and peace. As a feminist endeavor, feminist peace research necessarily asks questions about unequal gender relations and power structures within any given conflict environment. In this collective discussion piece, a diverse group of scholars, who formed part of the recently convened Feminist Peace Research Network, explores and further develops the parameters of this emergent field through a set of short conversation pieces.

Topics: Feminisms, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Peace and Security, Peace Processes, Violence

Year: 2019

Continuums of Violence and Peace: A Feminist Perspective

Citation:

True, Jacqui. 2020. "Continuums of Violence and Peace: A Feminist Perspective." Ethics & International Affairs 34 (1): 85-95.

Author: Jacqui True

Abstract:

What does world peace mean? Peace is more than the absence and prevention of war, whether international or civil, yet most of our ways of conceptualizing and measuring peace amount to just that definition. In this essay, as part of the roundtable “World Peace (And How We Can Achieve It),” I argue that any vision of world peace must grapple not only with war but with the continuums of violence and peace emphasized by feminists: running from the home and community to the public spaces of international relations. Breaking free of the constraints of the last century's intellectual boundaries, I suggest that war and peace are not a dichotomy but rather are intimately related. Yet the dearth of feminist perspectives in global debates prevents us from seeing how violence and harm are exacerbated in households and through the global economy under conditions of both “war” and “peace.” To understand the possibilities for world peace, we must understand these varieties of violence and harm that threaten peace. And to sustain peace we must address the harmful gendered identities, ideologies, and social dynamics that support violence in every society. A narrow understanding of peace as merely the absence of organized violence does not engender the kind of nuanced and rich understanding of human history and human relations needed to bring an end to the structural and physical violence that remains pervasive worldwide.
 

Topics: Economies, Feminisms, Gender, Peace and Security, Violence

Year: 2020

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