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Patriarchy

Patriarchy and Women Vulnerability to Adverse Climate Change in Nigeria

Citation:

Onwutuebe, Chidiebere J. 2019. "Patriarchy and Women Vulnerability to Adverse Climate Change in Nigeria." SAGE Open. doi:10.1177/2158244019825914.

Author: Chidiebere J. Onwutuebe

Abstract:

The article explored the linkages between patriarchy and the high rate of women’s vulnerability to climate change. It examined how traditional beliefs, which underpin cultural division of roles between men and women, also increase the vulnerability of women to the adverse impacts of climate change. The article argued that the centralization of activities of women to occupations such as small-scale and rain-fed agriculture makes them more vulnerable to climate-related problems than the men. The article relied on desk review of secondary data. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Using Nigeria as a case study, the article showed how patriarchy paves way for high rate of exposure of women to adverse impacts of climate change. Patriarchy equips men with stronger adaptive capability, especially in the area of vocational flexibility and mobility. The study concludes that efforts made to avert undue exposure of women to climate change disasters must seek to address patriarchy and the structural issues arising from the confinement of women to livelihoods, which are vulnerable to climate change disasters.

Keywords: climate change, patriarchy, rain-fed agriculture, women vulnerability and Nigeria

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2019

“Provide Care for Everyone Please”: Engaging Community Leaders as Sexual and Reproductive Health Advocates in North and South Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Citation:

Steven, Victoria J., Julianne Deitch, Erin Files Dumas, Meghan C. Gallagher, Jimmy Nzau, Augustin Paluku, and Sara E. Casey. 2019. ““Provide Care for Everyone Please”: Engaging Community Leaders as Sexual and Reproductive Health Advocates in North and South Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo.” Reproductive Health 16. doi: 10.1186/s12978-019-0764-z.

Authors: Victoria J. Steven, Julianne Deitch, Erin Files Dumas, Meghan C. Gallagher, Jimmy Nzau, Augustin Paluku, Sara E. Casey

Abstract:

Background: Inadequate infrastructure, security threats from ongoing armed conflict, and conservative socio-cultural and gender norms that favour large families and patriarchal power structures contribute to poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes in North and South Kivu provinces, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). In order to expand contraceptive and post-abortion care (PAC) access in North and South Kivu, CARE, the International Rescue Committee and Save the Children provided technical support to the Ministry of Health and health facilities in these regions. Partners acknowledged that community leaders, given their power to influence local customs, could play a critical role as agents of change in addressing inequitable gender norms, stigma surrounding SRH service utilization, and topics traditionally considered taboo within Congolese society. As such, partners actively engaged with community leaders through a variety of activities such as community mapping exercises, values clarification and transformation (VCAT) activities, situational analyses, and education.
 
Methods: This manuscript presents findings from 12 key informant interviews (KIIs) with male political and non-political community leaders conducted in six rural health zones of North and South Kivu, DRC. Transcripts were analysed thematically to explore community leaders’ perceptions of their role in addressing the issue of unintended pregnancy in their communities.
 
Results: While community leaders in this study expressed overall positive impressions of contraception and strong support for ensuring access to PAC services following spontaneous and induced abortions, the vast majority held negative beliefs concerning women who had induced abortion. Contrasting with their professed opposition to induced abortion, leaders’ commitment to mediating interpersonal conflict arising between community members and women who had abortions was overwhelming.
 
Conclusion: Results from this study suggest that when thoughtfully engaged by health interventions, community leaders can be empowered to become advocates for SRH. While study participants were strong supporters of contraception and PAC, they expressed negative perceptions of induced abortion. Given the hypothesized link between the presence of induced abortion stigma and care-avoidance behavior, further engagement and values clarification exercises with leaders must be integrated into community mobilization and engagement activities in order to increase PAC utilization.

Keywords: abortion, contraception, community leader, post-abortion care, DRC, Qualitative, community mobilization

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Health, Reproductive Health, Infrastructure, International Organizations Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo

Year: 2019

Thinking Eco-Feminism

Citation:

Jahanbegloo, Ramin, and Vandana Shiva. 2013. “Thinking Eco-Feminism.” In Talking Environment: Vandana Shiva in Conversation with Ramin Jahanbegloo. Oxford University Press.

Authors: Ramin Jahanbegloo, Vandana Shiva

Abstract:

In this section, Vandana Shiva talks about her book Ecofeminism, which offers a critique of patriarchal violence, capitalism, and colonialism. She comments on the reductive nature of scientific reasoning and argues that reductionism influences the way people think about the world around them. Discussing the connection between reduction and science, Vandana views eco-feminism as recognition of the conquest of nature and the conquest of human beings. She explains how reductionist science results in ignorance; how science is related to techno-science; and techno-science as a form of knowledge. Moreover, she emphasizes the role of mutual care and love in a global civil society; biodiversity and the plurality of knowledge in a community; how corporations and scientists are harming nature and biodiversity; eco-feminism and the feminism of ordinary women; poverty in India; how Indians can fight corruption; and the negative impact of globalization on spirituality and the ‘sacredness of life’.

Keywords: Vandana Shiva, ecofeminism, India, poverty, corruption, reductionism, eco-feminism, techno-science, feminism, spirituality

Topics: Civil Society, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Globalization, Livelihoods, Violence Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2013

Gender Violence in Ecofeminist Perspective: Intersections of Animal Oppression, Patriarchy and Domination of the Earth

Citation:

Hunnicutt, Gwen. 2019. Gender Violence in Ecofeminist Perspective: Intersections of Animal Oppression, Patriarchy and Domination of the Earth. New York: Routledge.

Author: Gwen Hunnicutt

Annotation:

Summary:
This book aims to begin an eco-centered, eco-feminist informed discussion about the ways in which our relationship to “nature” is bound up with gender, patriarchy, and violence.

Ecofeminist scholars study the interconnections between gendered relationships of domination among humans, between humans, and between humans, nonhumans, and the earth. It is in this ideological and structural tangle between humans and the environment that a deeper understanding of gender violence is possible. Ecofeminism offers analytical possibilities for understanding a “logic of domination” which sustain a whole host of problems, including the interrelated oppressions of gender violence and exploitation of the more-than-human-life world. In this book, Gwen Hunnicutt brings into dialog ecofeminism and gender violence. Ideological components, such as speciesism and the belief that the earth and its nonhuman inhabitants are ours to exploit, inform a host of other social practices, including interpersonal violence.

A portion of this book is devoted to exploring the ways in which patriarchy is foregrounded by another hierarchy—human domination over “nature”. Thus, gender violence stems from a logic of domination that is built on the domination of nature and the domination of the Other “as nature”. As this blueprint of oppression repeats itself where there are vectors of difference, the chapters ultimately connect these oppressions by showing the inextricable bind of violence against humans and the more-than-human-life world. This book will serve as a resource for scholars, activists, and students in sociology, gender violence and interdisciplinary violence studies, critical animal studies, environmental studies, and feminist and ecofeminist studies. 

Topics: Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Violence

Year: 2019

A Materialist Ecofeminist Reading of the Green Economy: Or, Yes Karl, the Ecological Footprint is Sex-Gendered

Citation:

Salleh, Ariel. 2020. "A Materialist Ecofeminist Reading of the Green Economy: Or, Yes Karl, the Ecological Footprint is Sex-Gendered." In The Routledge Handbook of Transformative Global Studies, edited by Hamed Hosseini, James Goodman, Sara Motta, and Barry Gills. New York: Routledge.

Author: Ariel Salleh

Abstract:

This chapter tells how the Green Economy ideology came to dominate international politics, but remains capitalist patriarchal, colonising, and environmentally ineffective. If policy makers, scholars, and activists, look more closely at differences of class, ethnicity, and especially sex-gender, they will see that responsibility for the global ‘ecological footprint’ is not equally shared. Comparison of consumer lifestyles versus ecosufficient provisioning reveals that workers from the non-monetised domestic and geographic peripheries of capital already practice a logic of sustainability. The hands-on multi-tasking labours of this ‘meta-industrial class’ lead to a skill-set that meets everyday needs while keeping the humanity– nature metabolism intact. Advocates of the Green Economy and more recent Sustainable Development Goals respond to global crises with business as usual, tech fixes, and ecological modernist policy. This externalises material costs on to less powerful communities and the ecosystem at large. Refusing this destructive cycle of entitlement and denial, people’s philosophies from ecofeminism to buen vivir are now joining together to create alternative futures.

Topics: Class, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Environment, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Year: 2020

Climate Chaos: Ecofeminisms and the Land Question

Citation:

Isla, Ana, ed. 2019. Climate Chaos: Ecofeminisms and the Land Question. Toronto: Inanna Publications & Education Inc. 

Author: Ana Isla

Annotation:

Summary:
Today's social and ecological crises, which threaten the preservation of life on our planet, require our attention to understand the dynamics of patriarchy and capitalism, as well as to unmask "answers" or false solutions that obscure, perpetuate, and even worsen the current situation. Ecofeminists have critically examined several of the underlying assumptions of the capitalist-patriarchal conceptual framework, such as the promotion of the destructive transformation of nature, hierarchical thinking, the encouragement of dualism, the enforcement of the logic of domination over life, even the hatred for life itself, and speciecism. Yet ecofeminism's attempts to call attention to and stop the destruction of the planet have not yet been able to tackle the growing problem of climate change, which is threatening not only life on earth, but the earth and all her "living systems." Climate change and extreme weather are exacerbating existing social inequalities and political conflicts globally. Climate justice is the starting point from which we can begin to build the kind of local and international solidarity that is needed to address climate change and transform the socio-economic hierarchies that caused it. This volume re-examines existing analyses from this new and much broader point of view in theory and practise, and points to the need for a new concept of nature and the earth as a living being, a cosmic being, so that it is the life of the earth herself that today must be protected. (Summary from Amazon)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Climate Chaos: Mother Earth Under Threat
Ana Isla
 
2. Money or Life? What Makes Us Really Rich?
Veronica Bennholdt-Thomsen
 
3. Deconstructing Necrophilia: Eco/feminist Perspectives on the Perversion of Death and Love
Irene Friesen
 
4. The Guardians of Conga Lagoons – Defending Land, Water and Freedom in Peru
Ana Isla
 
5. Ecofeminisms, Commons and Climate Justice
Patricia E. (Ellie) Perkins
 
6. Finite Disappointments or Infinite Hope: Working through Tensions within Transnational Feminist Movements
Dorothy Attakora-Gyan
 
7. Sasipihkeyihtamowin: Niso Nehiyaw iskwewak
Margaret Kress
 
8. Climate Change and Environmental Racism: What Payments for Ecosystem Services Means for Peasants and Indigenous Peoples
Ana Isla
 
9. Biotechnology and Biopiracy: Plant-Based Contraceptives in the Americas and the (Mis)management of Nature 
Rachel O’Donnell
 
10. Building Food Sovereignty through Ecofeminism in Kenta: From Capitalist to Commoners’ Agricultural Value Chains 
Leigh Brownhill, Wahu M. Kaara and Terisa E. Turner
 
11. Monsanto and the Patenting of Life: Primitive Accumulation in the Twenty-First Century
Jennifer Bonato
 
12. “I Know My Own Body…They Lied”: Race, Knowledge, and Environmental Sexism in Institute, wv and Old Bhopal, India
Reena Shadaan
 
13. Water is Worth More than Gold: Ecofeminism and Gold Mining in the Dominican Republic
Klaire Gain
 
14. Indigenous Andoas Uprising: Defending Territorial Integrity and Autonomy in Peru
Ana Isla
 
15. The “Greening” of Costa Rica: A War Against Subsistence
Ana Isla
 
16. Earth Love: Finding our Way Back Home
Ronnie Joy Leah

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Indigenous, Land Grabbing, Land Tenure, Rights, Indigenous Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, South America, Asia, South Asia Countries: Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, India, Peru

Year: 2019

The Transformative Potential of Gender Justice in the Land Restitution Programme in Colombia

Citation:

von Au, Anne Kathrin. 2013. "The Transformative Potential of Gender Justice in the Land Restitution Programme in Colombia." Revista Deusto de Derechos Humanos 11: 207-39.

Author: Anne Kathrin von Au

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This paper studies the existence of elements of gender justice in the ongoing land restitution process in Colombia, in order to analyse the potential of the Land Restitution Programme to contribute to the elimination of structural violence against women and the resulting gender inequalities. In this context, the sources of the analysis comprises the Victims’ and Land Restitution Law of 2011, the implementation programmes by the Land Restitution Unit, and the sentences by the specialized judges for land restitution. The paper argues that the land restitution programme could contribute to the elimination of structural forms of discrimination and exclusion of women in the Colombian society, if the elements of gender justice are applied in a coherent and systematic way and if it is accompa- nied by additional measures aimed at reducing the high security risks for internally displaced women in the land restitution process and changing the patriarchal system deeply rooted in the Colombian society.
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Este artículo estudia la existencia de elementos de justicia de género en el actual proceso de restitución de tierra en Colombia para analizar el potencial del Programa de Restitución de Tierras en la contribución a la eliminación de violencia estructural contra mujeres internamente desplazadas y las inequidades resultantes. En este contexto, las principales fuentes de datos para el análisis son la Ley de Víctimas y Restitución de Tierras de 2011, las programas de acción de la Unidad de Restitución de Tierras y las sentencias de los jueces especializados en la restitución de tierras. Este trabajo sostiene que el programa de restitución de tierras podría contribuir a la eliminación de formas estructurales de discriminación y exclusión de mujeres en la sociedad colombiana si los elementos de la justicia de género son aplicados de una manera coherente y sistemática, y si van acompañadas por medidas adicionales enfocadas a reducir el alto riesgo para mujeres internamente desplazadas en dicho proceso y a cambiar el sistema patriarcal, firmemente arraigada en la sociedad colombiana.

 

Keywords: transitional justice, displacement, land restitution, gender justice, structural violence, transformative justice, differential approach, justicia transicional, desplazamiento, restitución de tierra, justicia de género, violencia estructural, justicia transformativa, enfoque diferencial

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Justice, Transitional Justice, Rights, Land Rights, Security Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2013

Revealing the Patriarchal Sides of Climate Change Adaptation through Intersectionality: a Case Study from Nicaragua

Citation:

Gonda, Noémi. 2017. “Revealing the Patriarchal Sides of Climate Change Adaptation through Intersectionality: a Case Study from Nicaragua.” In Understanding Climate Change through Gender Relations, edited by Susan Buckingham and Virginie Le Masson, 173-190. London: Routledge.

 

Author: Noémi Gonda

Abstract:

Nicaragua is the third most climate change-affected country in the world and its government identifies climate change adaptation as one of its key priorities. Since the early 2010s, this national priority is translated into measures that support rural populations to adapt to climate change impacts. This chapter explains how a discursive construction of nature as 'our own Mother' in post-neoliberal Nicaragua has contributed to giving women a primary place in climate change discourses and projects while the mainstream masculinist and science-oriented discourse is underlying the way climate change adaptation interventions are conceived. It also presents an argument that feminist scholars and practitioners need to engage more systematically with gendered climate change politics, in particular by mobilizing the intersectional perspective that simultaneously addresses the multifaceted oppressions climate change politics may reproduce, even though they include 'gender concerns'.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Masculinism Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Nicaragua

Year: 2017

Conclusion: Emphasized Femininity/Hegemonic Masculinity and Constructivism/Essentialism

Citation:

Maleta, Yulia. 2019. “Conclusion: Emphasized Femininity/Hegemonic Masculinity and Constructivism/Essentialism.” In Feminism, Republicanism, Egalitarianism, Environmentalism: Bill of Rights and Gendered Sustainable Initiatives. New York: Routledge.

Author: Yulia Maleta

Annotation:

Summary:
This book has addressed a gap on the interplay of emphasized femininity/hegemonic masculinity and constructivism/essentialism within the eNSM and its eSMOs. Utilising my interviews with Australian women members of renewables organisational governance (IeNGOs, grassroots organisations, academic institutions and the Greens party), I applied a constructivist approach to emphasized femininity, arguing that women-led sustainable-social change strategies, strengthened through participants’ agentic technical-scientific performative competencies (and multiple skills set: intellectual, social, empathetic and physical), challenges the patriarchal control of global politics and rigid structures of hierarchy and bureaucracy. More women in sustainable technological leadership, should contribute to global peace as well as desired gender justice outcomes.

Topics: Civil Society, Environment, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, NGOs Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2019

The Gendered Nature of the Elite: ‘The Boys Club’ and Ruling Class Masculinity within Renewables Organisational Governance

Citation:

Maleta, Yulia. 2019. “The Gendered Nature of the Elite: ‘The Boys Club’ and Ruling Class Masculinity within Renewables Organisational Governance.” In Feminism, Republicanism, Egalitarianism, Environmentalism: Bill of Rights and Gendered Sustainable Initiatives. New York: Routledge.

Author: Yulia Maleta

Annotation:

Summary:
Chapter 5 critiques the gendered nature of the elite, pertaining to ruling class masculinity, and middle class men’s dominance of bureaucratical governance. As a sociocultural constructivist feminist, utilising my interviews and theory, I assess the unequal leadership representation of women within politics, IeNGOs and academia (ABS 2016a; Canty 2017; WIE 2018). Arguably, renewables Board positions are dominated by Anglo middle class men (ABS 2016a; AHRC 2017b; Bombora Wave Power 2018; Carnegie Clean Energy 2018). Patriarchy underpins women’s struggle with glass ceilings, tokenism on panels and labels of incompetency (Greer 1999, 2010a; Donaldson and Poynting 2013; Pollack 2015; Cohen 2016; Cadaret et al. 2017). Arguably, ‘the boys club’ is critiqued as: ‘androcentric’ and ‘aggressive’. Greens participants identify chauvinism and misogyny within Parliament and Local Government Authorities (LGAs), whilst eNGO participants’ struggle with men’s resistance in the ‘executive arm’ of the eNSM.

Topics: Class, Environment, Ethnicity, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Governance, NGOs

Year: 2019

Pages

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