Patriarchy

The Vulnerability of Women to Climate Change in Coastal Regions of Nigeria: A Case of the Ilaje Community in Ondo State

Citation:

Akinsemolu, Adenike A., and Obafemi A. P. Olukoya. 2020. "The Vulnerability of Women to Climate Change in Coastal Regions of Nigeria: A Case of the Ilaje Community in Ondo State." Journal of Cleaner Production 246.

Authors: Adenike A. Akinsemolu, Obafemi A. P. Olukoya

Abstract:

Values, patriarchal norms, and traditions related to gender and gendering are diverse among societies, communities, and precincts. As such, although climate change is expected to exacerbate vulnerabilities and deepen existing gender inequities and inequalities, the impacts will be unequally felt across geographical strata. This implies that the specificity of the vulnerability of women to climate change may also vary from community to community and society to societies. However, mainstream literature on the vulnerability of women to climate changes in coastal zones trivializes the plurality and nuances of different geographical contexts by universalizing context-specific vulnerability to climate change. Mindful of the limitations associated with the generalizing conception of women’s vulnerability, this paper is therefore underpinned by the implicit assumption that a successful response to the vulnerability of women to climate change in coastal zone is forged in the nexus between contextual investigation of climate change parameters and a localized investigation of differentiation in gender roles, patriarchal norms and other unknown factors in a particular setting. Thus, this paper presents a case study of the contextual vulnerability of women to climate change in Ilaje coastal region in Nigeria. Examining the intersecting complex of contextual factors, the paper establishes that beyond patriarchal traditions and norms: economic, political, educational and environmental factors are at play in the vulnerability of women to climate change in Ilaje community. To this end, this paper posits that to alleviate the vulnerability of women to climate change in coastal zones, the understanding of contextual factors play a fundamental role.

Keywords: women, vulnerability, coastal region, climate change, Ilaje, Nigeria

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2020

The Role of the Microcredit Program in Women's Empowerment in a Natural Disaster-Prone Area of Bangladesh: A Critical Analysis

Citation:

Ara, Mst Jesmin. 2019. "The Role of the Microcredit Program in Women's Empowerment in a Natural Disaster-Prone Area of Bangladesh: A Critical Analysis." International Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Research 5 (3).

Author: Mst Jesmin Ara

Abstract:

Natural disasters such as cyclone and flood in the coastal areas of Bangladesh has become a common phenomenon, especially since the last two decades due to the impact of global climate change and global warming. The impacts of natural disasters among the residents of coastal areas are enormous. They face huge financial loss due to the unemployment, deaths of domestic animals, lower crop productions, broken or affected houses, and so on. In addition, they become vulnerable both physically and psychologically during and post-disaster period. However, the impacts of the natural disasters are not the same over men and women. Women become more vulnerable due to their double duties, lack of safety, and for the patriarchal nature of society. The microcredit organizations arguably try to reduce the vulnerabilities of these women by providing short-term loan and also claim to empower them. Therefore, the study emphasizes whether these women are, in reality, becoming empowered. The study was conducted among 384 women who were purposively selected from 6367 households in Southkhali Union, Sarankhola Upazila (sub-district), Bagherhat district, Bangladesh. Results show the overwhelming majority of the participants (90%) were somehow affected by the last natural disaster, either by a cyclone or flood. Regarding the usage of microcredit, the majority of the participants (57%) who are the receivers of microcredit could not use the money independently, as their husbands took the loan from them forcefully. And only 8% of them could invest the microcredit in productive activity such as starting a small business. It is worth noting that 82% of the participants mentioned that their engagement with the microcredit organizations could not change their role in the family, e.g., they could participate in the decision making procedure within the household.

Keywords: natural disaster, empowerment, microcredit, women, Bangladesh

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2019

Analysis of Gender Responsiveness of Climate Change Response Strategies in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Region

Citation:

Nyahunda, Louis, Jabulani Calvin Makhubele, Vincent Mabvurira, and Frans Koketso Matlakala. 2019. "Analysis of Gender Responsiveness of Climate Change Response Strategies in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Region." E-Bangi Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 16 (9).

Authors: Louis Nyahunda, Jabulani Calvin Makhubele, Vincent Mabvurira, Frans Koketso Matlakala

Abstract:

This paper sought to explore the gender responsiveness of climate change response strategies in the Southern African Development Community region. There is undisputable acknowledgement that all SADC countries are vulnerable to climate change impacts despite their low contribution to carbon gas emissions that cause climate change. Women are more encumbered by climate change effects than men due to poverty, low literacy levels, lack of adaptive capacity, ascribed gender roles and cultural discrimination patterns that promote patriarchal dominance. Arguably, the gendered differential vulnerability between women and men to climate change impacts is absent in most climate policy frameworks in SADC. The objective of the study was to establish the responsiveness of climate change policies to gender dimensions in the SADC region. The study followed a literature review as research methodology. Secondary data sources were purposively reviewed through the selection of relevant sources by the researchers which led to the identification of other sources guided by common themes and keywords. Data was analysed through the discourse analysis. The study established that most climate change response strategies in SADC demonstrated apt consideration of the roles of women in climate change mitigation and adaptation. It was concluded that women are recognised as vulnerable populations and their contribution in devising sustainable climate change solutions is overlooked at policy levels. The study recommended that climate change interventions can only be effective when they mainstream gender and acknowledge the contribution of women as agents of social change and most SADC countries are still lagging behind.

Keywords: gender responsiveness, climate change, climate change response strategies, SADC, ecofeminism theory

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Education, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Gender Roles, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy Regions: Africa, Southern Africa

Year: 2019

How Do Gender Relations Shape a Community's Ability to Adapt to Climate Change? Insights from Nepal's Community Forestry

Citation:

Bhattarai, Basundhara. 2020. "How Do Gender Relations Shape a Community's Ability to Adapt to Climate Change? Insights from Nepal's Community Forestry." Climate and Development. doi:10.1080/17565529.2019.1701971.

Author: Basundhara Bhattarai

Abstract:

Despite notable policy reforms and development actions, gender inequality persists in environmental management in Nepal. In this paper, I present an in-depth case study to demonstrate how the persistence of gender-based inequality in community forestry has, or is likely to have, impacted the possibility to adapt to climate change, and then also reshape gender relations in adaptation interventions. Based on this, I argue that adaptation initiatives which rest on existing gender inequitable forest management institutions are likely to exacerbate gender-based inequality, further hampering the longer-term socio-ecological resilience. Although gender inequality is not created solely either by forestry institutions or in the institutions designed for climate adaptation, community forestry institutions are increasingly reinforcing the larger patriarchal societal structure that is deeply rooted and manifested in everyday practices. I highlight the need for both forest management and adaptation policies and practices to better recognize, appreciate and address gender inequality. In order to enhance gender-equitable adaptation to climate change, I suggest re-examining and constantly monitoring the changing gender in/equality in the existing forest management institutions and service delivery mechanisms and also adjusting adaptation planning to fully harness the potential of gender equitable forest management and climate change adaptation.

Keywords: gender equity, climate change, climate adaptation, Nepal, community forestry

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2020

Gender Inclusiveness in Disaster Risk Governance for Sustainable Recovery of 2015 Gorkha Earthquake, Nepal

Citation:

Thapa, Vineeta, and Pairote Pathranarakul. 2019. "Gender Inclusiveness in Disaster Risk Governance for Sustainable Recovery of 2015 Gorkha Earthquake, Nepal." International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 34: 209-19.

Authors: Vineeta Thapa, Pairote Pathranarakul

Abstract:

Disaster impacts vary in two distinct stages including immediate and long-term impacts. The current disaster management practices focus mainly on immediate search and rescue overlooking long-term disaster impacts. This study explores the neglected gender sensitive aspect particularly women's roles and participation during disaster recovery, gaps in gender inclusive disaster risk governance framework, and attempts to highlight the current needs for sustainable recovery of the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake. The study uses a mixed-methods approach and examines the historical Kathmandu city and Sankhu town which were severely affected by the 2015 earthquake. By employing household surveys, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, field observation, and literature review, the study found that understanding of the gender sensitivity in post-disaster recovery was oblivious among the Nepalese community due to lack of knowledge, traditional patriarchal culture, awareness and exposure. Further, the unfavorable political situation, limited capacity and policy implementation failures to gender inclusiveness have been the biggest challenge for post-disaster recovery. The findings have implications for the ongoing recovery process in Nepal and other least developed countries engaged in disaster risk reduction.

Keywords: gender inclusiveness, disaster risk governance, disaster recovery, Gorkha Earthquake, Nepal

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2019

Gender, Climate Change and Sustainable Development Goals

Citation:

Spring, Úrsula Oswald. 2019. "Gender, Climate Change and Sustainable Development Goals." In Úrsula Oswald Spring: Pioneer on Gender, Peace, Development, Environment, Food and Water, 225-41. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Author: Úrsula Oswald Spring

Keywords: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), women, gender equality, gender perspective, land

Annotation:

Summary:
"Climate change is severely affecting Mexico and Central America (IPCC) and has caused different impacts on men and women, regions and social classes. Several studies have shown that during disasters more women die than men. Why do the Red Cross, the World Bank and insurance companies only report the global number of deaths and damage, while other international agencies address the vulnerability of women and ignore the vulnerability of men? This approach has reinforced a woman-victim vision to justify their exclusion from decision-making processes and sharpen their post-disaster trauma. These behaviours also deprive society of efficient female support in the post-disaster period, when women have the capacity to organise refugee camps and collaborate in reconstruction processes. This lack of equity not only occurs in disaster management, but is imbued in all social processes of the present global patriarchal system" (Spring 2019, 225).

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equity, International Organizations

Year: 2019

Girlhood, Violence, and Humanitarian Assistance

Citation:

Namuggala, Victoria Flavia. 2018. "Girlhood, Violence, and Humanitarian Assistance." In Childhood, Youth Identity, and Violence in Formerly Displaced Communities in Uganda, 107-37. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

Author: Victoria Flavia Namuggala

Abstract:

This chapter concentrates on humanitarian assistance as a major component of survival during situations of displacement. Despite its contribution in saving lives, humanitarian assistance has its own controversies especially from the perspective of the beneficiaries. My discussion centers on such complexities concentrating on young women in northern Uganda. To bring this out clearly, I examine the nature of aid provided and how recipients conceptualize it, the gendered experiences involved and the sociocultural dynamics that inform the implementation of humanitarian assistance. I conclude that humanitarian assistance at times facilitates violence against young women characterized by starvation, sexual violence, survival sex, early and forced marriages, and increased spread of HIV/AIDS. This is due to operation through cultural patriarchal structures that sustain power hierarchies in favor of men.

Topics: Age, Youth, Displacement & Migration, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Health, HIV/AIDS, Humanitarian Assistance, Sexual Violence, Violence Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2018

Impacts of Climate Change Induced Migration on Gender: A Qualitative Study from the Southwest Coastal Region of Bangladesh

Citation:

Sams, Ishita Shahid. 2019. "Impacts of Climate Change Induced Migration on Gender: A Qualitative Study from the Southwest Coastal Region of Bangladesh." International Journal of Social Science Studies 7 (4): 57-68.

Author: Ishita Shahid Sams

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to explore the gender variation of the impact of climate change induced migration. This paper highlights the gender dimensions of climate change induced migration where gender is a vital element for determining vulnerability to climate change which influences the subsequent migration. Actually, the impacts of climate change induced natural disasters are not gender neutral because the experiences, needs and priorities of the climate migrants are varied by gender roles and position. In this research, we explore the socioeconomic impacts of the climate migrants on gender from the evidence of the southwest coastal women and men of Bangladesh. The qualitative data were collected from the cyclone-affected migrants who were migrated internally from the disaster-prone southwest coastal region and lived in the city slums of Khulna in Bangladesh. This study is described the gender differentiation between women and men in case of climate change induced migration according to social, economical, ecological, organizational, occupational, educational, and physical aspects which tend to be highly gendered. The study results show that among climate migrants, women are more vulnerable than men due to theri socioeconomic condition and gender discrimination in the patriarchal society of Bangladesh who are likely to be poorer, less educated, have a lower social status and have limited access to and control over natural resources.

Keywords: climate change, natural disaster, migration, Gender, vulnerability, coastal region, Bangladesh

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Economies, Poverty, Education, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2019

Climate Hazards, Disasters, and Gender Ramifications

Citation:

Kinnvall, Catarina, and Helle Rydstrom, eds. 2019. Climate Hazards, Disasters, and Gender Ramifications. Abingdon: Routledge.

Authors: Catarina Kinnvall, Helle Rydstrom

Annotation:

Summary:
This book focuses on the challenges of living with climate disasters, in addition to the existing gender inequalities that prevail and define social, economic and political conditions.

Social inequalities have consequences for the everyday lives of women and girls where power relations, institutional and socio-cultural practices make them disadvantaged in terms of disaster preparedness and experience. Chapters in this book unravel how gender and masculinity intersect with age, ethnicity, sexuality and class in specific contexts around the globe. It looks at the various kinds of difficulties for particular groups before, during and after disastrous events such as typhoons, flooding, landslides and earthquakes. It explores how issues of gender hierarchies, patriarchal structures and masculinity are closely related to gender segregation, institutional codes of behaviour and to a denial of environmental crisis. This book stresses the need for a gender-responsive framework that can provide a more holistic understanding of disasters and climate change. A critical feminist perspective uncovers the gendered politics of disaster and climate change.

This book will be useful for practitioners and researchers working within the areas of Climate Change response, Gender Studies, Disaster Studies and International Relations. (Summary from Routledge)

Table of Contents:
1. Introduction: Climate Hazards, Disasters and Gender Ramifications
Helle Rydstrom and Catarina Kinnvall

2. Gender Responsive Alternatives on Climate Change from a Feminist Standpoint
Maria Tanyag and Jacqui True

3. Why Gender Does Not Stick: Exploring Conceptual Logics in Global Disaster Risk Reduction Policy
Sara Bondesson

4. Women as Agents of Change? Reflections on Women in Climate Adaptation and Mitigation in the Global North and Global South
Misse Wester and Phu Doma Lama

5. Industrial/Breadwinner Masculinities and Climate Change: Understanding the 'White Male Effect' of Climate Change Denial
Paul Pulé and Martin Hultman

6. Climate Change and 'Architectures of Entitlement': Beyond Gendered Virtue and Vulnerability in the Pacific Islands?
Nicole George

7. Gender as Fundamental to Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction: Experiences from South Asia
Emmanual Raju

8. #leavenoonebehind: Women, Gender Planning and Disaster Risk Reduction in Nepal
Katie Oven, Jonathan Rigg, Shubheksha Rana, Arya Gautam, and Toran Singh

9. Gendered and Ungendered Bodies in the Tsunami: Experiences and Ontological Vulnerability in Southern Thailand
Claudia Merli

10. Disasters and Gendered Violence in Pakistan: Religion, Nationalism and Masculinity
Sidsel Hansson and Catarina Kinnvall

11. Crises, Ruination and Slow Harm: Masculinized Livelihoods and Gendered Ramifications of Storms in Vietnam
Helle Rydstrom

12. In the Wake of Haiyan: An Ethnographic Study on Gendered Vulnerability and Resilience as a Result of Climatic Catastrophes in the Philippines
Huong Nguyen

13. Accountability for State Failures to Prevent Sexual Assault in Evacuation Centres and Temporary Shelters: A Human Rights Based Approach
Matthew Scott

14. Conclusions
Catarina Kinnvall and Helle Rydstrom

 

Topics: Age, Class, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Sexuality

Year: 2019

Patriarchy and Women Vulnerability to Adverse Climate Change in Nigeria

Citation:

Onwutuebe, Chidiebere J. 2019. "Patriarchy and Women Vulnerability to Adverse Climate Change in Nigeria." SAGE Open. doi:10.1177/2158244019825914.

Author: Chidiebere J. Onwutuebe

Abstract:

The article explored the linkages between patriarchy and the high rate of women’s vulnerability to climate change. It examined how traditional beliefs, which underpin cultural division of roles between men and women, also increase the vulnerability of women to the adverse impacts of climate change. The article argued that the centralization of activities of women to occupations such as small-scale and rain-fed agriculture makes them more vulnerable to climate-related problems than the men. The article relied on desk review of secondary data. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Using Nigeria as a case study, the article showed how patriarchy paves way for high rate of exposure of women to adverse impacts of climate change. Patriarchy equips men with stronger adaptive capability, especially in the area of vocational flexibility and mobility. The study concludes that efforts made to avert undue exposure of women to climate change disasters must seek to address patriarchy and the structural issues arising from the confinement of women to livelihoods, which are vulnerable to climate change disasters.

Keywords: climate change, patriarchy, rain-fed agriculture, women vulnerability and Nigeria

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2019

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